CALP Research Findings Presentation


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Concern Worldwide's Gabrielle Smith presents on research findings surrounding new technology that can help enhance humanitarian cash and voucher programming.

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CALP Research Findings Presentation

  1. 1. New Technology Enhancing Humanitarian Cash and Voucher Programming Main Findings and Ways Forward 7th June. 1
  2. 2.     Electronic  Payments  in  Development     Where? Why? What? Programs that are There are many benefits There are many types of disbursing funds associated with using e- technology that can directly to beneficiaries payments facilitate e-payments •  Humanitarian •  Operational Cost Programs Savings •  Pre-Paid Cards •  Micro Finance •  Potential donor •  Smart Cards institutions preference •  Mobile Money •  Utility programs •  Improved collection •  Mobile Vouchers •  Agricultural Vouchers •  Better beneficiary identification •  Electronic Fund •  Training/Educational Transfers Vouchers •  Financial Inclusion/ Access. 2
  3. 3. Today’s  Presentor     Gabrielle  Smith  Social  Protec,on  and  Safety-­‐Nets  Advisor   Concern  Worldwide       Co-­‐Author  of  the  study,  New  Technologies  in  Cash  Transfer  Programming  and   Humanitarian  Assistance,  a  report  done  for  the  Cash  Learning  Partnership       Ø   Prior  to  Concern  she  was  Programme  Development  Coordinator  for  a   Madagascar-­‐based  NGO  and  consulted  on  design  of  the  DFID-­‐funded  Chars   Livelihoods  Programme  in  Bangladesh  and  Expanding  Social  Protec,on   Progamme  in  Uganda.     Ø   She  recently  developed  a  global  strategy  guiding  cash  transfer  programming   within  Concern  and  is  embarking  on  an  organisa,onal  social  protec,on   strategy  in  2011.      . 3
  4. 4.       Background  to  the  Research   Ø The  humanitarian  sector  engages  with  the  poorest  people  in  challenging   environments.  A  reliance  on  technology  un,l  recently  was  considered  an   addi,onal  burden,  rather  than  a  tool  for  improving  programme  effec,veness.       Ø Advances  in  technology  in  low  income  countries  has  led  to  interest  from   donors,  prac,,oners  and  governments  in  how  technology  can  serve   humanitarian  response.   Ø   One  area  of  humanitarian  programming  driving  this  change  is  the  rapidly   expanding  field  of  cash  and  voucher  programming.    . 4
  5. 5.      Research  ObjecEves   A  review  of  the  current  use  of  new  technology  in  humanitarian  aid  applied  to   CTP  encompassing  every  stage  of  the  programme  cycle.     •Targe,ng    •  Registra,on    •Delivery  of  payments  •Monitoring  and  evalua,on   Exploring  the  following  themes:   1.  Precondi,ons  for  use   2.  User-­‐friendliness   3.  Accountability     4.  Broader  consequences  of  using  new  technology   Within  this,  to  highlight:   •  evidence  of  cost  effec,veness  of  using  new  technology   •  bo@lenecks  and  barriers  to  upscale   •  possible  ‘next  steps’  in  adop,ng  technologies  to  enhance  aid  provision   5
  6. 6.      Research  Parameters  &  Methods   Context   Ø Low  income  and  disaster-­‐affected  countries  experiencing  humanitarian  crisis  in  last  5   years  (Kenya,  Niger,  Zimbabwe,  Somalia,  DR  Congo,  Pakistan,  Philippines,  HaiE)   Ø Slow  onset  and  rapid  onset  emergency;  conflict;  early  recovery   Ø Include  lessons  from  the  use  of  technology  in  other  contexts  where  appropriate       AcEviEes   Ø Literature  Review  &  Mapping   Ø Interviews  with  +100  key  stakeholders,  including  visits  to  Niger  and  Hai,:   •  Interna,onal  NGOs     •  Agencies    (WFP,  UNICEF,  UNHCR,  UNOPS,  FAO,  OCHA,  IFRC)   •  Service  providers  (Telecoms;  Financial  Services;  Open  source  and  commercial  co’s)   •  Consul,ng    (Accenture,  Financial  Sector  Deepening,  CGAP)   •  Bodies    (CALP;  GSM  AssociaIon;  NetHope)   •  Donor    (USAID,  DFID,  ECHO,  Gates  FoundaIon)   •  Research    (TuJs,  IDS,  ODI)     . 6  
  7. 7.       Electronic  Payment  SoluEons     Pre-paid card Smart card Mobile money Mobile voucher Description Debit card read Plastic card with chip, Cash transferred between Voucher code in any valid read in any valid Point ‘mobile wallets’ on mobile and unique ID ATM or POS of Sale machine phone via sms sent via sms Initiatives Philippines Kenya Kenya Syria included Chile Zimbabwe Niger Zambia Pakistan Malawi Philippines Zimbabwe Niger Cote d’Ivoire Kenya (under DR Congo (under Haiti development) development) Context Flood response Social Protection Displacement Food Food insecurity Early recovery insecurity Displacement Food insecurity Displacement Livelihoods Urban, Rural Urban, Rural Urban, Rural Urban Scale (HH) 300 <> 1.3m 1000 <>60,000 100<>8,000 1000<>20,000. 7
  8. 8.       Experiences   Benefits Accountability Reduces leakage, increases likelihood cash reaches recipient Increased transparency Security Reduces exposure of staff and beneficiaries Partnership Service provider reduces burden of implementation Active partner contributing skills and resources Accessibility User friendly: Generally understood; people want it Convenience: Reduced opportunity cost Cost Cost efficiencies over time Is possible delivered without significant investment in hardware Efficiency Can function without network connectivity Generally technology performed well Time savings for agency Wider impacts Potential for wider usage of technology by recipients/ agencies Time saving leads to greater programme impact. 8
  9. 9.       Experiences   Challenges Accountability Still some potential for corruption/deception Increased ‘Control’ for agency reduces choice for recipient Some problems with accuracy Partnership Capacity issues of service provider Accessibility User friendly: Literacy is a barrier to full usage; trust Convenience: Delays in cash flow or long distance to agents Barriers to access: Lack of formal ID, political environment Cost Initial set up costs can be high Efficiency Lack of network connectivity impacted on programme Technical glitches: new system, technology not fool proof Technology didn’t perform well in the context Set up (service selection, contracts, preparation) takes time Wider impacts Data protection and privacy issues Barriers to wider uptake of technology or services. 9
  10. 10.      Lessons  Learned  (Headlines)   Suitability: Engaging with the private sector: •  Experiences over all have been positive •  Realistic expectations based on   •  People want it capacity of both partners •  No single solution: assess the options •  Proactive approaches to the private available to select the best for the context sector can generate results •  Cost/efficiency gains increase with scale and duration Preparedness: •  Contractual negotiations take time Factors key to success include: •  After an emergency is too late •  Strong delivery partners •  Build on what exists   •  Functioning branchless banking •  On the ground support •  Adequate training for all stakeholders •  Reliable connectivity 10 .
  11. 11.     Constraints  to  Wider  AdopEon  of     New  Technology   Theme Issue •  Whilst the landscape is changing rapidly network coverage is lacking especially in Africa FINANCIAL TECHNICAL •  Limited coverage and cash flow of branchless banking systems •  Concerns over error rates of fingerprint recognition technology •  Lack of business case to justify expansion of network services to remote areas •  High set up cost is at odds with the time horizons of humanitarian programming •  Donors tend to restrict capital costs to a percentage of the total budget •  Lack of agency knowledge of the options available in a rapidly changing market place INSTITUTIONAL •  Institutional inertia within agencies in terms of adoption of new ways of working •  No organisation with a mandate to moderate the pros and cons of new technology or promote adoption of technical standards •  Limited capacity of service providers to scale up •  Low levels of education amongst recipients. 11
  12. 12.     Constraints  to  Wider  AdopEon  of     New  Technology   Theme Issue •  Researching, costing, selection and set-up of new technology requires time and OPERATIONAL resources •  Undertaking these activities post-disaster interferes with rapid response •  Lack of willingness of agencies to share information, experiences, systems •  Donor focus on ‘innovation’ and competition for funding fuels this LEGISLATIVE ATTITUDINALPOLITICAL •  Concerns about data protection issues •  Wariness of involving private sector actors in the humanitarian sphere •  Tendency of humanitarian agencies to be risk averse •  Technology seen as a ‘black box’ requiring specialist knowledge outside of programme remit •  Regulatory environment can constrain roll out of branchless banking and other technology •  Lack of clear national policies or humanitarian standards on data protection •  Proprietary issues around custom-designed solutions can limit uptake. 12
  13. 13.     SupporEng  Wider  AdopEon:   Improving  the  Technological  Environment       Ø Proac,ve  approaches  by  agencies  to  service  providers  to  inform  the   development  of  branchless  banking  and  network  to  where  it  is  needed.     Ø Collec,ve  approaches  have  greater  influence.     Ø Consider  co-­‐financing  arrangements  between  donors,  governments  and   mobile  network  operators  to  support  the  extension  of  networks.     Ø Where  feasible,  realise  efficiencies  by  ‘piggy  backing’  emergency  payments  on   the  e-­‐payments  systems  of  government  such  as  those  used  to  deliver  social   protec,on.     Ø Advocate  for  improvements  in  the  regulatory  environment  for  new   technology.    . 13
  14. 14.     CoordinaEon  benefits:   an  illustraEon   Investment   Coordina,on  mechanism   Sharing  arrangements   Exis,ng  infrastructure   Required  for   Individual  organisa,ons’  investments  . new  tech   14
  15. 15.     SupporEng  Wider  AdopEon:   Develop  the  Capacity  of  Stakeholders   Ø Increase   familiarity   of   staff   with   technology   solu,ons   that   are   available,   through  prac,cal  training  use  of  these  systems  in  everyday  work.     Ø This  would  also  mean  new  technologies  become  cost  effec,ve  more  quickly.     Ø Invest   in   ac,ons   to   build   recipients’   capacity   to   use   mobile   technology   and   branchless  banking.   Ø Invest  in  building  capacity  of  service  providers   Ø Investment  in  mobile  literacy  programmes.       Ø Build  the  evidence  base  to  fill  cri,cal  gaps:      value  for  money  of  technology-­‐based  systems      wider  social  impacts  of  the  increased  u,lisa,on  of  technology  . 15
  16. 16.     SupporEng  Wider  AdopEon:   New  Ways  of  Working   Ø Partner  with  external  exper,se   Ø Incen,ve   structures   for   the   private   sector   to   develop   technology   pladorms   that  meet  humanitarian  needs   Ø Establish   commitments   with   service   providers   as   part   of   con,ngency   planning   and  develop  preparedness  frameworks  between  all  stakeholders.     Ø Donors   to   finance   and   coordinate   adop,on   and   scale-­‐up   of   technological   solu,ons  by  their  implemen,ng  partners  and  disseminate  lessons  learned.       Ø Consolidate  experience  to  move  towards  a  ‘tool  box’  of  standard  approaches.     Ø Develop  codes  of  conduct  for  the  management  and  sharing  of  personal  data.     Ø Linking  humanitarian  and  development  funding.    . 16
  17. 17.     Overcoming  funding  constraints:   an  illustraEon   Emergency   Proposed   Total   funding  horizon   funding  horizon   cost   Manual   Hi-­‐tech   Time   Setup   costs  . 17
  18. 18.             Thank  you    Find  the  report  here: new-technologies-in-cash-transfer-programming- and-humanitarian-assistance  . 18