Rhinoceros sivalensis from DhokRhinoceros sivalensis from DhokPathan Formation, The MiddlePathan Formation, The MiddleSiwa...
Introduction to SiwaliksIntroduction to SiwaliksHillsHillsSouth SaltRange.South SaltRange.North MargallaHillsNorth Margall...
Areas Of Fossil Collection In SiwaliksAreas Of Fossil Collection In SiwaliksEpochAge (MillionYears ago)Siwaliks(Sub Group)...
The STUDY SECTIONThe STUDY SECTIONDhok PathanDhok PathanAgeAgeEarly to Middle PlioceneEarly to Middle PlioceneThicknessThi...
OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES To study the systematics ofTo study the systematics ofRhinoceroseRhinocerose sivalensissivalensis 10...
Fossil Collection
 Rhinoceros sivalensis An Extinct species ofRhinoceros A large species ofgenus Rhinoceros
DENTAL FORMULA OFDENTAL FORMULA OFRHINOCEROSRHINOCEROS1-2/0-1, 0/11-2/0-1, 0/13-4/3-4, 3/33-4/3-4, 3/3(I.C.P.M)(I.C.P.M)
TERMINOLOGY ANDTERMINOLOGY ANDMORPHOLOGY OFMORPHOLOGY OFRHINOCEROS TOOTH CROWNRHINOCEROS TOOTH CROWNMODIFIEDMODIFIEDAFTER ...
Identification ParameterIdentification Parameter
GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF UPPERGENERAL DESCRIPTION OF UPPERPREMOLAR OF RHINOCEROSPREMOLAR OF RHINOCEROS
GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF UPPERGENERAL DESCRIPTION OF UPPERMOLAR OF RHINOCEROSMOLAR OF RHINOCEROS
CLASSIFICATION OF THE TAXON DESCRIBED INCLASSIFICATION OF THE TAXON DESCRIBED INTHE PRESENT STUDY(PROTHERO AND SCHOCH,THE ...
Studied SpecimenRhinoceros sivalensisRhinoceros sivalensisPUPC 09/115PUPC 09/115 (RP2-M1)(RP2-M1) The teeth are in latewe...
Rhinoceros sivalensisRhinoceros sivalensisPUPC 09/115PUPC 09/115 (LM1)(LM1)
Studeied SpecimenStudeied SpecimenRhinoceros sivalensisRhinoceros sivalensis PUPC 88/843aPUPC 88/843a (LM1-M3),(LM1-M3),bu...
Studeied SpecimenStudeied SpecimenRhinoceros sivalensisRhinoceros sivalensis PUPC 88/843bPUPC 88/843b (LM1-M3),(LM1-M3),oc...
Daignostic Features Of Molars OfRhinoceros sivalensis Molars with parastyle buttress A distinct crochet may unite withpr...
Measurments in mm ofMeasurments in mm of Rhinoceros sivalensisRhinoceros sivalensisToothToothpositionpositionP2P2 P3P3 P4P...
Comparision Between R.sivalensis,R.unicornis,R.sondaicus0102030405060P2 P3 P4 P2 P3 P4Length widthR.sivalensisR.unicornisR...
0102030405060M1 M2 M3 M1 M2 M3Length widthR.sivalensisR.unicornisR.sondaicus
CONCLUSIONCONCLUSION PreviouslyPreviously RhinoceroseRhinocerose sivalensissivalensiswas recorded from Upper Siwaliks ofw...
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31st congress of zoology international
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31st congress of zoology international

  1. 1. Rhinoceros sivalensis from DhokRhinoceros sivalensis from DhokPathan Formation, The MiddlePathan Formation, The MiddleSiwaliks of PakistanSiwaliks of PakistanKhadija Sarwar, Abdul Majid Khan &Khadija Sarwar, Abdul Majid Khan &Muhammad AkhtarMuhammad AkhtarDepartment of Zoology,Department of Zoology,University of PunjabUniversity of Punjab
  2. 2. Introduction to SiwaliksIntroduction to SiwaliksHillsHillsSouth SaltRange.South SaltRange.North MargallaHillsNorth MargallaHillsEast Jhelum River.East Jhelum River.WestWest Indus RiverIndus River.
  3. 3. Areas Of Fossil Collection In SiwaliksAreas Of Fossil Collection In SiwaliksEpochAge (MillionYears ago)Siwaliks(Sub Group)Formations Zones0.5BoulderConglomerate134566.578910.51111.5121314 Chinji1516171818.3Miocene 25-10Ma3.53.2Lower Siwaliks10.1NagriChinji14.2MiddleSiwaliks11.210NagriSoanKamlialChinjiKamlialDhokPathanAreas of Collection in SiwaliksPinjorTatrotPliestocene 2Ma to11000 Years agoUpper Siwaliks2Pliocene 10-2MaDhok Pathan
  4. 4. The STUDY SECTIONThe STUDY SECTIONDhok PathanDhok PathanAgeAgeEarly to Middle PlioceneEarly to Middle PlioceneThicknessThickness600-950m600-950mType localityType localityLies in the district Chakwal of Punjab province.Lies in the district Chakwal of Punjab province.It is the type locality of the Dhok Pathan Formation.It is the type locality of the Dhok Pathan Formation.LithologyLithologyDhok Pathan Formation is composed ofDhok Pathan Formation is composed ofsandstone with alternate clay and minor layers ofsandstone with alternate clay and minor layers ofconglomerate is lower part and more conglomerates withconglomerate is lower part and more conglomerates withsandstone and clay is upper part and this Formation hassandstone and clay is upper part and this Formation hasexcellent cyclic deposition of sandstone and shale.excellent cyclic deposition of sandstone and shale.
  5. 5. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES To study the systematics ofTo study the systematics ofRhinoceroseRhinocerose sivalensissivalensis 10-3.5 million10-3.5 millionyears old.years old.
  6. 6. Fossil Collection
  7. 7.  Rhinoceros sivalensis An Extinct species ofRhinoceros A large species ofgenus Rhinoceros
  8. 8. DENTAL FORMULA OFDENTAL FORMULA OFRHINOCEROSRHINOCEROS1-2/0-1, 0/11-2/0-1, 0/13-4/3-4, 3/33-4/3-4, 3/3(I.C.P.M)(I.C.P.M)
  9. 9. TERMINOLOGY ANDTERMINOLOGY ANDMORPHOLOGY OFMORPHOLOGY OFRHINOCEROS TOOTH CROWNRHINOCEROS TOOTH CROWNMODIFIEDMODIFIEDAFTER HEISSIG (1972).AFTER HEISSIG (1972).
  10. 10. Identification ParameterIdentification Parameter
  11. 11. GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF UPPERGENERAL DESCRIPTION OF UPPERPREMOLAR OF RHINOCEROSPREMOLAR OF RHINOCEROS
  12. 12. GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF UPPERGENERAL DESCRIPTION OF UPPERMOLAR OF RHINOCEROSMOLAR OF RHINOCEROS
  13. 13. CLASSIFICATION OF THE TAXON DESCRIBED INCLASSIFICATION OF THE TAXON DESCRIBED INTHE PRESENT STUDY(PROTHERO AND SCHOCH,THE PRESENT STUDY(PROTHERO AND SCHOCH,1989)1989)Phylum ChordataPhylum ChordataSubphylum VertebrataSubphylum VertebrataClass Mammalia Linneaus,1758Class Mammalia Linneaus,1758Order Perissodactyla Owen,1848Order Perissodactyla Owen,1848Family Rhinocerotidea Owen,1845Family Rhinocerotidea Owen,1845Subfamily Rhinocerotinae Owen,1845Subfamily Rhinocerotinae Owen,1845Tribe Rhinocerotini Owen,1845Tribe Rhinocerotini Owen,1845Sub tribe Rhinocerotina Owen,1845Sub tribe Rhinocerotina Owen,1845Genus Rhinoceros Linneaus,1758Genus Rhinoceros Linneaus,1758Species Rhinoceros sivalensisSpecies Rhinoceros sivalensis Falconer andFalconer andCautely,1847Cautely,1847
  14. 14. Studied SpecimenRhinoceros sivalensisRhinoceros sivalensisPUPC 09/115PUPC 09/115 (RP2-M1)(RP2-M1) The teeth are in latewear There is no crista butstrongly developedantecrochet andweakly developedcrochet is present Entrance of medianvalley is narrow andopen lingually
  15. 15. Rhinoceros sivalensisRhinoceros sivalensisPUPC 09/115PUPC 09/115 (LM1)(LM1)
  16. 16. Studeied SpecimenStudeied SpecimenRhinoceros sivalensisRhinoceros sivalensis PUPC 88/843aPUPC 88/843a (LM1-M3),(LM1-M3),buccal view, scale bar 30 mmbuccal view, scale bar 30 mm
  17. 17. Studeied SpecimenStudeied SpecimenRhinoceros sivalensisRhinoceros sivalensis PUPC 88/843bPUPC 88/843b (LM1-M3),(LM1-M3),occlusal view, scale bar 30 mmocclusal view, scale bar 30 mm
  18. 18. Daignostic Features Of Molars OfRhinoceros sivalensis Molars with parastyle buttress A distinct crochet may unite withprotoloph to enclose a fossette. Crista or cristella are absent A strongly parastyle,no mesostyle Protocone is constricted by anterior andposterior grooves Metaloph somewhat short,verybackwardly directed on M2.
  19. 19. Measurments in mm ofMeasurments in mm of Rhinoceros sivalensisRhinoceros sivalensisToothToothpositionpositionP2P2 P3P3 P4P4 M1M1 M2M2 M3M3LengthLength 3535 41.541.5 4545 4848 5353 4646WidthWidth 3737 4848 5252 5151 5656 4949
  20. 20. Comparision Between R.sivalensis,R.unicornis,R.sondaicus0102030405060P2 P3 P4 P2 P3 P4Length widthR.sivalensisR.unicornisR.sondaicus
  21. 21. 0102030405060M1 M2 M3 M1 M2 M3Length widthR.sivalensisR.unicornisR.sondaicus
  22. 22. CONCLUSIONCONCLUSION PreviouslyPreviously RhinoceroseRhinocerose sivalensissivalensiswas recorded from Upper Siwaliks ofwas recorded from Upper Siwaliks ofPakistan but in this study it isPakistan but in this study it isrecovered from the Dhok Pathanrecovered from the Dhok Pathanformations, the Middle Siwaliks,formations, the Middle Siwaliks,drawbacks the biostratigraphic rangedrawbacks the biostratigraphic rangeof this species from Late Miocene toof this species from Late Miocene toMiddle Pliocene.Middle Pliocene.
  23. 23. Thank you

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