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Cognitive Science Perspective on User eXperience!

H
Hamed Abdi

How can we use research and knowledge about the brain, the visual system, memory and Emotion to design more effective products, services and systems? In this presentation i explain how we can synthesize two different disciplinary to reach to more effectiveness in developing services, products and systems.

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CognitiveSciencePerspectiveon
User eXperience
1
Presented by: Hamed Abdi
ignore
—Frank Chimero (Design Director)
2
logical
think act
—Paul Boag (UX Consultant & Expert)
3
Foundations of WorkShop
• Context Strategy
• Research Method
• User Interface (UI)
• User Experience (UX)
• Interaction Design (Ixd)
• Accessibility & Usability
• Customer Journey Mapping
• Natural User Interface (NUI)
• Information Architecture (IA)
• User Centered Design (UCD)
• Brain-Computer Interface (BCI)
• Search Engine Optimization (SEO)
• Human-Computer Interaction (HCI)
4
UX
5
User Experience Design Process
UI
6
Google Newsstand
Ad

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Cognitive Science Perspective on User eXperience!

  • 3. logical think act —Paul Boag (UX Consultant & Expert) 3
  • 4. Foundations of WorkShop • Context Strategy • Research Method • User Interface (UI) • User Experience (UX) • Interaction Design (Ixd) • Accessibility & Usability • Customer Journey Mapping • Natural User Interface (NUI) • Information Architecture (IA) • User Centered Design (UCD) • Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) • Search Engine Optimization (SEO) • Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) 4
  • 12. Brutalism 12 Craigslist • Users: 60 Million users • Monthly Pageviews: 50 Billion • Monthly Ads posted: 80 Million ads • Revenue (2016): $690 Million • Estimated value: $3 Billion
  • 14. CS 14 Context Strategy • Personal • Environmental • Social & Cultural • Technological • Temporal • Business
  • 15. CJM 15 Customer Journey Map Customer journey maps combine two powerful instruments (storytelling and visualization) in order to help teams understand and address customer needs. Goals of customer journey maps: • Creating empathy • Driving conversation and engagement • Building consensus • Revealing opportunities
  • 16. Maps 16 UX Mapping • Empathy mapping • Customer journey mapping • Experience mapping • Service blueprinting
  • 17. CJM 17 Customer Journey Map The framework: 1. Persona 2. Scenario 3. Phases of the journey 4. Actions 5. Thoughts 6. Emotional experience 7. Opportunities 8. Internal ownership
  • 18. IA 18 Information Architecture Five components of information architecture: • Structure types: Hierarchy, linear, and web • Organization schemes: Topic, task, format, audience, alphabet, time, geographical, attributes, tags, and popularity • Label names: Being specific vs. concise • Search: Designing search for content to be found • Logic: Taxonomy and metadata, when and why they're needed
  • 19. IA 19 Information Architecture Designing information architecture: • Mental models and scenarios • Domain modeling and task flow sketching • Card sorting method Evaluating information architecture: • Identifying issues and potential solutions • Measuring baseline performance • Testing structure, schemes, and labels
  • 23. Research Methods • Qual data offer a direct assessment of the usability of a system: researchers will observe participants struggle with specific UI elements and infer which aspects of the design are problematic and which work well. • Quant data offer an indirect assessment of the usability of a design. They can be based on users’ performance on a given task (e.g., task-completion times, success rates, number of errors) or can reflect participants’ perception of usability (e.g., satisfaction ratings).
  • 24. Research Method 24 Qualitative Research Quantitative Research Questions answered Why? How many and how much? Goals Both formative and summative: • inform design decisions • identify usability issues and find solutions for them Mostly summative: • evaluate the usability of an existing site • track usability over time • compare site with competitors • compute ROI When it is used Anytime: during redesign, or when you have a final working product When you have a working product (either at the beginning or end of a design cycle) Outcome Findings based on the researcher’s impressions, interpretations, and prior knowledge Statistically meaningful results that are likely to be replicated in a different study Methodology • Few participants • Flexible study conditions that can be adjusted according to the team’s needs • Many participants • Well-defined, strictly controlled study conditions
  • 25. Quantifying User Research Research Method 25 UsabilityTesting •Sample Sizes •Representativeness and Randomness •Data Collection •Completion Rates •Usability Problems •Task Time •Errors •Satisfaction Ratings •Combined Scores A/BTesting •Clicks, Page Views, and Conversion Rates SurveyData •Rating Scales •Net Promoter Scores •Comments and Open-ended Data RequirementsGathering •UI Behavior Matrix
  • 29. Most Common UX Methods 1. Usability-Lab Studies: participants are brought into a lab, one-on-one with a researcher, and given a set of scenarios that lead to tasks and usage of specific interest within a product or service. 2. Ethnographic Field Studies: researchers meet with and study participants in their natural environment, where they would most likely encounter the product or service in question. 3. Participatory Design: participants are given design elements or creative materials in order to construct their ideal experience in a concrete way that expresses what matters to them most and why. 4. Focus Groups: groups of 3–12 participants are lead through a discussion about a set of topics, giving verbal and written feedback through discussion and exercises. 5. Interviews: a researcher meets with participants one-on-one to discuss in depth what the participant thinks about the topic in question. Research Method 29
  • 30. Most Common UX Methods 6. Eyetracking: an eyetracking device is configured to precisely measure where participants look as they perform tasks or interact naturally with websites, applications, physical products, or environments. 7. Usability Benchmarking: tightly scripted usability studies are performed with several participants, using precise and predetermined measures of performance. 8. Moderated Remote Usability Studies: usability studies conducted remotely with the use of tools such as screen-sharing software and remote control capabilities. 9. Unmoderated Remote Panel Studies: a panel of trained participants who have video recording and data collection software installed on their own personal devices uses a website or product while thinking aloud, having their experience recorded for immediate playback and analysis by the researcher or company. Research Method 30
  • 31. Most Common UX Methods 10. Concept Testing: a researcher shares an approximation of a product or service that captures the key essence (the value proposition) of a new concept or product in order to determine if it meets the needs of the target audience; it can be done one-on-one or with larger numbers of participants, and either in person or online. 11. Diary/Camera Studies: participants are given a mechanism (diary or camera) to record and describe aspects of their lives that are relevant to a product or service, or simply core to the target audience; diary studies are typically longitudinal and can only be done for data that is easily recorded by participants. 12. Customer Feedback: open-ended and/or close-ended information provided by a self-selected sample of users, often through a feedback link, button, form, or email. 13. Desirability Studies: participants are offered different visual-design alternatives and are expected to associate each alternative with a set of attributes selected from a closed list; these studies can be both qualitative and quantitative. Research Method 31
  • 32. Most Common UX Methods 14. Card Sorting: a quantitative or qualitative method that asks users to organize items into groups and assign categories to each group. This method helps create or refine the information architecture of a site by exposing users’ mental models. 15. Clickstream Analysis: analyzing the record of screens or pages that users clicks on and sees, as they use a site or software product; it requires the site to be instrumented properly or the application to have telemetry data collection enabled. 16. A/B Testing (also known as “multivariate testing,” “live testing,” or “bucket testing”): a method of scientifically testing different designs on a site by randomly assigning groups of users to interact with each of the different designs and measuring the effect of these assignments on user behavior. 17. Email Surveys: a survey in which participants are recruited from an email message. Research Method 32
  • 33. Most Common UX Methods 18. Unmoderated UX Studies: a quantitative or qualitative and automated method that uses a specialized research tool to captures participant behaviors (through software installed on participant computers/browsers) and attitudes (through embedded survey questions), usually by giving participants goals or scenarios to accomplish with a site or prototype. 19. True-Intent Studies: a method that asks random site visitors what their goal or intention is upon entering the site, measures their subsequent behavior, and asks whether they were successful in achieving their goal upon exiting the site. 20. Intercept Surveys: a survey that is triggered during the use of a site or application. Research Method 33
  • 35. Research Methods The primary measures of standardized questionnaire quality are reliability (consistency of measurement) and validity (measurement of the intended attribute)
  • 36. Standardized Usability Questionnaires Research Method 36 Poststudy Questionnaires • QUIS • SUMI • PSSUQ • SUS Post-Task Questionnaires • ASQ • SEQ • SMEQ • ER • UME Questionnaires for Assessing Perceived Usability of Websites • WAMMI • SUPR-Q • UPWQ • ISQ • CBP • WIS Other Questionnaires of Interest • CSUQ • USE • UMUX • HQ • ACSI • NPS • CxPi • TAM
  • 38. ethical UXPA (User Experience Professionals Association) Ethical Principles: • Act in the best interest of everyone • Be honest with everyone • Do no harm and if possible provide benefits • Act with integrity • Avoid conflicts of interest • Respect privacy, confidentiality, and anonymity • Provide all resultant data https://uxpa.org/resources/uxpa-code-professional-conduct FACT
  • 40. accurate worth expert —Grace Hopper (Computer Scientist) 40
  • 41. UX Tools 41 UX Tools For UX Designers A/BorSplitTesting AccessibilityTesting DesignPrototyping EvaluatingDesign EvaluatingInformation Architecture Heatmaps,Mouse-trackingor SyntheticEye-tracking MobileAppTestingTools ProcessAids RemoteResearch ResearchNotetaking ScreenCapture Sketching&VisualThinking SurveyingUsers UsabilityTesting WebAnalytics Wireframing&Diagramming
  • 44. UX Tools 44 Eye tracking is the process of measuring either the point of gaze (where one is looking) or the motion of an eye relative to the head. The most commonly visualizations methods are: • Animated representations of a point on the interface • Static representations of the saccade path • Heat maps • Blind zones maps, or focus maps
  • 47. UX Tools 47 Engagement • Number of Fixation • Total dwell time • Percentage of time on an area Processing • Fixation • Duration Findability • Time to first fixation • Number of fixations • Prior to first fixation Processing Order • Gaze path Comprehension • Repeat fixations Workload/Excitement • Pupil dilation
  • 55. “ 55 “Design is not just what it looks like and feels like. Design is how it works.”
  • 58. use brain visual system memory Emotion Question
  • 61. Brain 61 HindBrain (Reptilian): • Common to all animals • Basic function (heart rate, breathing, body temperature) MidBrain (Mammalian): • Limbic system • Emotional functions (fear, happy, sad, …) • Risk and reward ForeBrain (Neocortex): • Higher cognitive function • Problem solving • Social cognition • Language and abstract thought
  • 68. Vision 68 Visual Perception Visual perception is the end product of vision” It can be described as the way the brain interprets what the eyes see. Perceptual Processing Categories: • Visual Discrimination: ability to be aware of the distinctive features of forms including shape, orientation, size, and color. • Visual Figure Ground: ability to distinguish an object from irrelevant background information. • Visual Closure: ability to recognize a complete feature from fragmented information.
  • 70. Vision 70 Visual perception Process • Bottom-up: • Low level features • Patterns • Objects • Top-down: • Task or goal Oriented • Holistic
  • 73. Gestalt 73 Gestalt laws • Law of Proximity • Law of Similarity • Law of Figure and Ground • Law of Continuity • Law of Closure • Law of Simplicity
  • 74. Gestalt 74 Law of Proximity Elements that are placed close to each other will often be perceived as one group.
  • 75. Gestalt 75 Law of Similarity Objects that look alike, with similar components or attributes, are more likely to be organized together.
  • 76. Gestalt 76 Law of Continuity Objects will be grouped as a whole if they are co-linear, or follow a direction
  • 77. Gestalt 77 Law of Figure and Ground Viewers will perceive an object (figure) and a surface (ground) even in shapes are grouped together.
  • 78. Gestalt 78 Law of Closure In perception there is the tendency to complete unfinished objects. We tend to ignore gaps and complete contour lines.
  • 79. Gestalt 79 Law of Pragnanz or Simplicity Figures are seen as their simple elements instead of complicated shapes.
  • 87. laziness predict minimal effort do lots of things —Greg Madison (VR designer at Google Labs) 87
  • 88. Social Device 88 Designing experiences for nearby device ecosystems
  • 89. Data 89 Exploring what data means for the people living
  • 96. GUX/GUI 96 Motion sensing and gesture recognition as part of NUX/NUI interactions introduce new approaches to interactive user experience in the areas that require audience attraction and involvement, such as education, entertainment, public relations, and marketing. Presentations, training sessions, and promotional events can become highly interactive and engaging with NUX/NUI applied.
  • 101. predict create —Abraham Lincoln (Cognitive Scientist) 101
  • 102. Thank you for Attention!