Chapter03 section01 Scientific Measurements By Hamdy Karim

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Students will learn about the accuracy, Precision and Errors. Also they will learn about the Significant Numbers and their importance in Science in addition to Math.

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  • Expressing very large numbers, such as the estimated number of stars in a galaxy, is easier if scientific notation is used.
  • The distribution of darts illustrates the difference between accuracy and precision. a) Good accuracy and good precision: The darts are close to the bull’s-eye and to one another. b) Poor accuracy and good precision: The darts are far from the bull’s-eye but close to one another. c) Poor accuracy and poor precision: The darts are far from the bull’s-eye and from one another.
  • Expressing very large numbers, such as the estimated number of stars in a galaxy, is easier if scientific notation is used.
  • The scale below has not been properly zeroed, so the reading obtained for the person’s weight is inaccurate. There is a difference between the person’s correct weight and the measured value. Calculating What is the percent error of a measured value of 114 lb if the person’s actual weight is 107 lb?
  • Three differently calibrated meter sticks are used to measure the length of a board. a) A meter stick calibrated in a 1-m interval. b) A meter stick calibrated in 0.1-m intervals. c) A meter stick calibrated in 0.01-m intervals. Measuring How many significant figures are reported in each measurement?
  • Chapter03 section01 Scientific Measurements By Hamdy Karim

    1. 1. chemistry Slide 1 of 48
    2. 2. 3.1 Measurements and Their Uncertainty On January 4, 2004, the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit landed on Mars. Each day of its mission, Spirit recorded measurements for analysis. In the chemistry laboratory, you must strive for accuracy and precision in your measurements. Slide 2 of 48 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    3. 3. 3.1 Measurements and Their Uncertainty > Using and Expressing Measurements Using and Expressing Measurements How do measurements relate to science? Slide 3 of 48 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    4. 4. 3.1 Measurements and Their Uncertainty > Using and Expressing Measurements A measurement is a quantity that has both a number and a unit. Measurements are fundamental to the experimental sciences. For that reason, it is important to be able to make measurements and to decide whether a measurement is correct. Slide 4 of 48 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    5. 5. 3.1 Measurements and Their Uncertainty > Using and Expressing Measurements In scientific notation, a given number is written as the product of two numbers: a coefficient and 10 raised to a power. The number of stars in a galaxy is an example of an estimate that should be expressed in scientific notation. © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 5 of 48
    6. 6. 3.1 Measurements and Their Uncertainty > Accuracy, Precision, and Error Accuracy, Precision, and Error How do you evaluate accuracy and precision? Slide 6 of 48 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    7. 7. 3.1 Measurements and Their Uncertainty > Accuracy, Precision, and Error Accuracy and Precision • Accuracy is a measure of how close a measurement comes to the actual or true value of whatever is measured. • Precision is a measure of how close a series of measurements are to one another. Slide 7 of 48 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    8. 8. 3.1 Measurements and Their Uncertainty > Accuracy, Precision, and Error To evaluate the accuracy of a measurement, the measured value must be compared to the correct value. To evaluate the precision of a measurement, you must compare the values of two or more repeated measurements. Slide 8 of 48 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    9. 9. 3.1 Measurements and Their Uncertainty > Accuracy, Precision, and Error Slide 9 of 48 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    10. 10. 3.1 Measurements and Their Uncertainty > Accuracy, Precision, and Error Determining Error • The accepted value is the correct value based on reliable references. • The experimental value is the value measured in the lab. • The difference between the experimental value and the accepted value is called the error. Slide 10 of 48 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    11. 11. 3.1 Measurements and Their Uncertainty > Accuracy, Precision, and Error The percent error is the absolute value of the error divided by the accepted value, multiplied by 100%. Slide 11 of 48 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    12. 12. 3.1 Measurements and Their Uncertainty > Accuracy, Precision, and Error Slide 12 of 48 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    13. 13. 3.1 Measurements and Their Uncertainty > Accuracy, Precision, and Error Just because a measuring device works, you cannot assume it is accurate. The scale below has not been properly zeroed, so the reading obtained for the person’s weight is inaccurate. Slide 13 of 48 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    14. 14. 3.1 Measurements and Their Uncertainty > Significant Figures in Measurements Significant Figures in Measurements Why must measurements be reported to the correct number of significant figures? Slide 14 of 48 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    15. 15. 3.1 Measurements and Their Uncertainty > Significant Figures in Measurements Suppose you estimate a weight that is between 2.4 lb and 2.5 lb to be 2.46 lb. The first two digits (2 and 4) are known. The last digit (6) is an estimate and involves some uncertainty. All three digits convey useful information, however, and are called significant figures. The significant figures in a measurement include all of the digits that are known, plus a last digit that is estimated. Slide 15 of 48 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    16. 16. 3.1 Measurements and Their Uncertainty > Significant Figures in Measurements Measurements must always be reported to the correct number of significant figures because calculated answers often depend on the number of significant figures in the values used in the calculation. Slide 16 of 48 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    17. 17. 3.1 Measurements and Their Uncertainty > Significant Figures in Measurements Slide 17 of 48 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    18. 18. 3.1 Measurements and Their Uncertainty > Significant Figures in Measurements Insert Illustration of a sheet of paper listing the six Insert Illustration of a sheet of paper listing the six rules for determining whether a digit in a measured rules for determining whether a digit in a measured value is significant. Redo the illustration as process value is significant. Redo the illustration as process art. Each rule should be a separate image. art. Each rule should be a separate image. Slide 18 of 48 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    19. 19. Measurements and Their Uncertainty > Significant Figures in Measurements Animation 2 See how the precision of a calculated result depends on the sensitivity of the measuring instruments. Slide 19 of 48 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    20. 20. 3.1 Measurements and Their Uncertainty > Significant Figures in Measurements Slide 20 of 48 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    21. 21. Slide 21 of 48 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    22. 22. Slide 22 of 48 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    23. 23. Slide 23 of 48 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    24. 24. Practice Problems for Conceptual Problem 3.1 Problem Solving 3.2 Solve Problem 2 with the help of an interactive guided tutorial. Slide 24 of 48 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    25. 25. 3.1 Measurements and Their Uncertainty > Significant Figures in Calculations Significant Figures in Calculations How does the precision of a calculated answer compare to the precision of the measurements used to obtain it? Slide 25 of 48 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    26. 26. 3.1 Measurements and Their Uncertainty > Significant Figures in Calculations In general, a calculated answer cannot be more precise than the least precise measurement from which it was calculated. The calculated value must be rounded to make it consistent with the measurements from which it was calculated. Slide 26 of 48 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    27. 27. 3.1 Measurements and Their Uncertainty > Significant Figures in Calculations Rounding To round a number, you must first decide how many significant figures your answer should have. The answer depends on the given measurements and on the mathematical process used to arrive at the answer. Slide 27 of 48 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    28. 28. SAMPLE PROBLEM 3.1 Slide 28 of 48 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    29. 29. SAMPLE PROBLEM 3.1 Slide 29 of 48 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    30. 30. SAMPLE PROBLEM 3.1 Slide 30 of 48 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    31. 31. SAMPLE PROBLEM 3.1 Slide 31 of 48 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    32. 32. Practice Problems for Sample Problem 3.1 Problem Solving 3.3 Solve Problem 3 with the help of an interactive guided tutorial. Slide 32 of 48 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    33. 33. 3.1 Measurements and Their Uncertainty > Significant Figures in Calculations Addition and Subtraction The answer to an addition or subtraction calculation should be rounded to the same number of decimal places (not digits) as the measurement with the least number of decimal places. Slide 33 of 48 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    34. 34. SAMPLE PROBLEM 3.2 Slide 34 of 48 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    35. 35. SAMPLE PROBLEM 3.2 Slide 35 of 48 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    36. 36. SAMPLE PROBLEM 3.2 Slide 36 of 48 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    37. 37. SAMPLE PROBLEM 3.2 Slide 37 of 48 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    38. 38. Practice Problems for Sample Problem 3.2 Problem Solving 3.6 Solve Problem 6 with the help of an interactive guided tutorial. Slide 38 of 48 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    39. 39. 3.1 Measurements and Their Uncertainty > Significant Figures in Calculations Multiplication and Division • In calculations involving multiplication and division, you need to round the answer to the same number of significant figures as the measurement with the least number of significant figures. • The position of the decimal point has nothing to do with the rounding process when multiplying and dividing measurements. Slide 39 of 48 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    40. 40. SAMPLE PROBLEM 3.3 Slide 40 of 48 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    41. 41. SAMPLE PROBLEM 3.3 Slide 41 of 48 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    42. 42. SAMPLE PROBLEM 3.3 Slide 42 of 48 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    43. 43. SAMPLE PROBLEM 3.3 Slide 43 of 48 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    44. 44. Practice Problems for Sample Problem 3.3 Problem Solving 3.8 Solve Problem 8 with the help of an interactive guided tutorial. Slide 44 of 48 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    45. 45. Section Assessment Assess students’ understanding of the concepts in Section 3.1. Continue to: -or- Launch: Section Quiz Slide 45 of 48 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    46. 46. 3.1 Section Quiz 1. In which of the following expressions is the number on the left NOT equal to the number on the right? a. 0.00456 × 10–8 = 4.56 × 10–11 b. 454 × 10–8 = 4.54 × 10–6 c. 842.6 × 104 = 8.426 × 106 d. 0.00452 × 106 = 4.52 × 109 Slide 46 of 48 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    47. 47. 3.1 Section Quiz 2. Which set of measurements of a 2.00-g standard is the most precise? a. 2.00 g, 2.01 g, 1.98 g b. 2.10 g, 2.00 g, 2.20 g c. 2.02 g, 2.03 g, 2.04 g d. 1.50 g, 2.00 g, 2.50 g Slide 47 of 48 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    48. 48. 3.1 Section Quiz 3. A student reports the volume of a liquid as 0.0130 L. How many significant figures are in this measurement? a. 2 b. 3 c. 4 d. 5 Slide 48 of 48 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    49. 49. END OF SHOW

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