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Ch. 3 elements and the periodic table(sec.1,2and 3)


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Chaptr 3, Sections 1, 2 and 3

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Ch. 3 elements and the periodic table(sec.1,2and 3)

  1. 1. Atomic Structure
  2. 2. The structure of the atom The Ancient Greeks used to believe that everything was made up of very small particles. I did some experiments in 1808 that proved this and called these particles ATOMS: Dalton ELECTRON – negative, mass nearly nothing NEUTRON – PROTON –neutral, same positive, samemass as proton mass as (“1”) neutron (“1”)
  3. 3. The Atom Nucleus ElectronShell or Orbit
  4. 4. The Atom Hydrogen Proton ElectronHydrogen has one proton, one electron and NO neutrons
  5. 5. The Atom Helium Proton ElectronNeutronHelium has two electrons, two protons and two neutrons
  6. 6. Mass and atomic number ChargeParticle Relative Mass Relative Proton 1 1Neutron 1 0Electron 0 -1 MASS NUMBER = number of protons + number of neutrons SYMBOL PROTON NUMBER = number of protons (obviously)
  7. 7. The Atom Helium Proton ElectronNeutronHelium has two electrons, two protons and two neutrons
  8. 8. The Atom Lithium Protons ElectronsNeutrons
  9. 9. The Atom Beryllium Protons ElectronsNeutrons Beryllium has four electrons, four protons and five neutrons.
  10. 10. The Atom Boron Protons ElectronsNeutrons Boron has five electrons, five protons and six neutrons.
  11. 11. The Atom Carbon Protons ElectronsNeutrons Carbon has six electrons, six protons and six neutrons.
  12. 12. The Atom Nitrogen Protons ElectronsNeutrons Nitrogen has seven electrons, seven protons and seven neutrons.
  13. 13. The Atom Oxygen Protons ElectronsNeutrons Oxygen has eight electrons, eight protons and eight neutrons.
  14. 14. The Atom Fluorine Protons ElectronsNeutrons Fluorine has nine electrons, nine protons and ten neutrons.
  15. 15. The Atom Neon Protons ElectronsNeutrons Neon has ten electrons, ten protons and ten neutrons.
  16. 16. The Atom Sodium Protons ElectronsNeutrons Sodium has eleven electrons, eleven protons and twelve neutrons.
  17. 17. How many protons, neutrons and electrons?
  18. 18. IsotopesAtoms of the same number of protons and a different number of neutrons Isotopes of Lithium Isotopes of Carbon
  19. 19. Sec 2; Organizing The Elements• Patterns in the Elements Mendeleev• 1869: Dmitri Mendeleev made first periodic table – arranged elements by increasing atomic mass – switched problem elements – made predictions for gaps – he was right – nominated for Nobel prize• Henry Moseley (English chemist) found that pattern of table was due to atomic number, not atomic mass
  20. 20. Sec 2; Organizing The ElementsThe periodic table arranges all the elementsin groups according to their properties.Verticalcolumns are Mendeleevcalled GROUPS Horizontal rows are called PERIODS
  21. 21. The Periodic Table Fact 1: Elements in the same group have the same number of electrons in the outer shell Mendeleev’s (this correspond to their group number) work H He Li Be B C N O F Ne M Na Al Si P S Cl Ar g C K Ca Fe Ni Zn Br Kr u Ag I Xe A H Pt u gE.g. all group 1 metals These elements have These elementshave __ electron in __ electrons in their have __ electronstheir outer shell outer shells in their outer shell
  22. 22. The Periodic TableFact 2: As you move down through the groups an extra electron shell is added: E.g. Lithium has 3 electron H the in He configuration 2,1Li Be B C N O F Ne MNa Al Si P S Cl Ar g Sodium has 11 CK Ca electrons in the Ni Fe Zn Br Kr u configuration 2,8,1 Ag I Xe A H Pt u g Potassium has 19 electrons in the configuration __,__,__
  23. 23. Fact 3: Most of the elements are metals: The Periodic Table These elements are metals H HeLi Be B C N O F Ne MNa Al Si P S Cl Ar g CK Ca Fe Ni Zn Br Kr u Ag I Xe A H Pt u g This line divides These elements metals from non- are non-metals metals
  24. 24. The Periodic TableFact 4: (Most important) All of the elementsin the same group have similar PROPERTIES.This is how I thought of the periodic table inthe first place. This is called PERIODICITY. H HeLi Be B C N O F Ne MNa Al Si P S Cl Ar g CK Ca Fe Ni Zn Br Kr u E.g. consider the group 1 metals. They all: Ag I Xe A H 2) Are soft Pt u g 3) Can be easily cut with a knife 4) React with water
  25. 25. Group 1 – The alkali metalsLiNaKRbCsFr
  26. 26. Properties of Metals Physical Properties Chemical Properties• Includes shininess, • Elements can combine malleability, ductility, or react by losing and conductivity. electrons to other atoms• Malleable means can to produce a new be hammered. product.• Ductile means can be • Ex. Sodium reacts pulled out into long strongly when exposed wires. to air or water to produce• Conductivity is ability of sodium hydroxide. element to conduct heat • Corrosion destruction of or electricity. metals through chemical process
  27. 27. Group 1 – The alkali metalsSome facts…1) These metals all have ___electron in their outer shell2) Reactivity increases as you go _______ the group. This isbecause the electrons are further away from the _______every time a _____ is added, so they are given up more easily.3) They all react with water to form an alkali (hence theirname) and __________, e.g: Potassium + water potassium hydroxide + hydrogen 2K(s) + 2H2O(l) 2KOH(aq) + H2(g) Words – down, one, shell, hydrogen, nucleus
  28. 28. Group 2- Alkaline Earth Metals• Fairly hard.• gray-white in colour.• Good conductor of electricity.• React by losing two electrons.• Less reactivity than group 1 but still more reactive than the other groups.
  29. 29. TRANSITION METALS• Elements in group 3 through 12 are called Transition Element• Most of them are hard and shiny.• All of them form colourful compounds.• All of them are good conductors of heat and electricity.• They less reactive than group 1 and 2 elements.• Some of them are very important to our health such as iron that forms haemoglobin which carries oxygen in our blood.
  30. 30. Metals in Mixed Groups• they are metals in groups 13 through 15 of the periodic table.• Aluminium is the lightweight metal that used in beverage cans and airplanes bodies.• Lead is used in paints and water pipes, but it is very poisonous and does not used any more, now is using for batteries of car and weights for balancing tires.• Tin is used for coating other elements to prevent their rust.
  31. 31. Heavy elements • Lanthanides • Actinides• Soft, malleable, shiny • Nuclei of those elements metals with high are heavy. conductivity. • Uranium is used to• They are mixed with produce energy in nuclear more common elements power plants. to form alloys. • All elements heavier than• They are found together uranium were created and hard to separate artificially in laboratories. them due to their similar • They are unstable that properties. they are last for only a fraction of second after they are made.
  32. 32. Synthetic ElementsThey are elements with atomic numberhigher than 92 and follow uranium in theperiodic table.Ex. Plutonium is made by bombardingnuclei of uranium-238 with neutrons in anuclear reactor.Scientists synthesized element 112 in1996 by accelerating zinc nuclei andcrashing it into lead in the nuclearaccelerator.