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Thyristor Characteristics,
Two Transistor Model Of
Thyristor & Thyrisror
Turn On And Off.
 A thyristor is a four layer, semiconductor device of p-n-p-n structure
with three p-n junctions J1, J2 & J3 respectively...
Forward blocking or off state condition.
 Anode voltage is made +ve w.r.t. cathode, the junctions j1 & j3
are forward bia...
Forward blocking or off state
condition.
Forward breakdown voltage
CONTI…..
Ideal Characteristic Of SCR
Latching Current IL
 After the SCR has switched on, there is a
minimum current required to sustain
conduction.
 This cur...
Effects of gate current on
Vbo.
 If gate signal is applied, the
thyristor turn on before Vbo
is reached.
 So, forward vo...
o Ig(max) and Vg(max) are the
maximum gate current and
voltages that can flow through
the thyristor without damaging
it .
...
 The operation of thyristor can also be explained in a
simple way by two transistor analogy.
 One transister is pnp and ...
As from fig.b
mkkkd
CONTI…..
CONTI…..
CONTI…..
 If in equation 2.9
 α1+α2=1
 Ia =∞
 SCR suddenly latches to the ON state from OFF state condition
 This cha...
The turning on Process of the SCR (turning the SCR from
Forward-Blocking state to Forward-Conduction state )is known
as Tr...
Thermal Triggering (Temperature Triggering):
 Depletion layer of SCR decreases with increase in junction temp.
 In SCR w...
Junction J2 behaves as a capacitor, due to the charges existing across
the junction.
If voltage across the device is V, th...
This is most widely used SCR triggering method.
Three types .
1. DC Gate Triggering:-
2. AC Gate Triggering:-
I. Resistanc...
A DC voltage of proper polarity is applied between gate and
cathode ( Gate terminal is positive with respect to Cathode)....
o Here AC source is used for gate signals.
o This scheme provides proper isolation between power and control
circuit.
Draw...
o R is used to control the gate current.
o Depending on R, when the
gate current reaches the IL (latching)
the SCR starts ...
 Using this we can achieve firing
angle more than 90°.
 In the positive half cycle, the
capacitor is charged through the...
o In this method the gate drive consists of a single pulse appearing
periodically (or) a sequence of high frequency pulses...
Commutation
The process of turning OFF SCR is defined as "Commutation"
There are two methods:
1. Natural Commutation
2. Fo...
 To turn OFF a thyristor, the forward anode current should
be brought to zero for sufficient time to allow the removal
of...
The six distinct classes by which the SCR can be
turned off are:
1. Class A Self commutated by a resonating load.
2. Class...
When the SCR is triggered, anode current
flows and charges up C.
The current through the SCR builds up
and completes a hal...
Corresponding Waveforms.
 The Capacitor C charges up in the dot as positive before a
gate pulse is applied to the SCR.
The constant load current I...
Corresponding Circuits And Waveforms
 This configuration has two SCRs.
 One of them may be the main SCR and the other
auxiliary. Both may be load current car...
Corresponding Circuit And Waveforms
 (Class C) can be converted to Class D if the
load current is carried by only one of the
SCR’s, the other acting as an au...
Corresponding Circuit And Waveforms
 The transformer is designed with sufficient iron and air gap
so as not to saturate. It is capable of carrying the load
c...
Corresponding Circuit And Waveforms
 If the supply is an alternating voltage, load current will flow during
the positive half cycle.
 With a highly inductiv...
Corresponding Circuit And Waveforms
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Thyristor Characteristics, Two Transistor Model Of Thyristor & Thyrisror Turn On And Off.

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Thyristor Characteristics, Two Transistor Model Of Thyristor & Thyrisror Turn On And Off.

  1. 1. Thyristor Characteristics, Two Transistor Model Of Thyristor & Thyrisror Turn On And Off.
  2. 2.  A thyristor is a four layer, semiconductor device of p-n-p-n structure with three p-n junctions J1, J2 & J3 respectively.  It has three terminals, the anode, cathode and the gate. Simplified Model Of SCR SCR Symbol Thyristor Characteristics.
  3. 3. Forward blocking or off state condition.  Anode voltage is made +ve w.r.t. cathode, the junctions j1 & j3 are forward biased.  Junction j2 becomes reverse biased & only small leakage current flows.  The SCR is then said to be in the forward blocking or off state. Forward breakdown voltage Vbo.  If Vak is further increased j2 will breakdown due to avalanche effect resulting in a large current through the device.  The corresponding voltage is called the forward breakdown voltage Vbo.  Now, the device is in forward conduction or ON state. CONTI…..
  4. 4. Forward blocking or off state condition. Forward breakdown voltage CONTI…..
  5. 5. Ideal Characteristic Of SCR
  6. 6. Latching Current IL  After the SCR has switched on, there is a minimum current required to sustain conduction.  This current is called the latching current IL.  Usually IL is associated with turn ON of the device. Holding Current IH  SCR returns in its orignal off state if anode current falls below low level called holding current IH.  So, holding current IH is minimum anode current to maintain thyristor in on state.  Usually IH is associated with turn off of the device. V-I Characteristics
  7. 7. Effects of gate current on Vbo.  If gate signal is applied, the thyristor turn on before Vbo is reached.  So, forward voltage depends upon magnitude of gate current.  Higher the gate current lower the forward breakover voltage.  The typical gate current magnitudes are of order of 20 to 200mA. V-I Characteristics
  8. 8. o Ig(max) and Vg(max) are the maximum gate current and voltages that can flow through the thyristor without damaging it . o Vg (min) and Ig(min) are minimum gate voltage and current, below which thyristor will not be turned-on. o Hence to turn-on the thyristor successfully Ig(min) < Ig < Ig(max) Vg (min) < Vg < Vg (max) Thyristor Gate Characteristics
  9. 9.  The operation of thyristor can also be explained in a simple way by two transistor analogy.  One transister is pnp and second is npn.  The collector of one is attached with base of other & vice versa. TwoTransistor Model Of Thyristor
  10. 10. As from fig.b mkkkd CONTI…..
  11. 11. CONTI…..
  12. 12. CONTI…..  If in equation 2.9  α1+α2=1  Ia =∞  SCR suddenly latches to the ON state from OFF state condition  This characteristic of device is called regenerative action.
  13. 13. The turning on Process of the SCR (turning the SCR from Forward-Blocking state to Forward-Conduction state )is known as Triggering. The various SCR triggering methods are  Forward Voltage Triggering  Thermal or Temperature Triggering  Radiation or Light triggering  dv/dt Triggering  Gate Triggering Thyristor turn on Methods
  14. 14. Thermal Triggering (Temperature Triggering):  Depletion layer of SCR decreases with increase in junction temp.  In SCR when Vak is very near its breakdown voltage, the device is triggered by increasing the junction temperature.  By increasing the junction temperature the reverse biased junction collapses thus the device starts to conduct Radiation Triggering (or) Light Triggering  For light triggered SCRs a special terminal niche is made inside the inner P layer instead of gate terminal.  When light is allowed to strike this terminal, free charge carriers are generated.  When intensity of light becomes more than a normal value, the thyristor starts conducting.  This type of SCRs are called as LASCR CONTI…..
  15. 15. Junction J2 behaves as a capacitor, due to the charges existing across the junction. If voltage across the device is V, the charge by Q and capacitance by C then  ic = dQ/dt  Q = CV  ic = d(CV) / dt  ic= C. dV/dt + V. dC/dt  dC/dt = 0 (C = constant)  ic = C.dV/dt  The dV/dt across the device becomes large & scr will turn on dv/dt Triggering.
  16. 16. This is most widely used SCR triggering method. Three types . 1. DC Gate Triggering:- 2. AC Gate Triggering:- I. Resistance triggering: II. RC Triggering 3. Pulse Gate Triggering:- Gate Triggering
  17. 17. A DC voltage of proper polarity is applied between gate and cathode ( Gate terminal is positive with respect to Cathode). When applied voltage is sufficient to produce the required gate Current, the device starts conducting. Drawbacks : One drawback of this scheme is that both power and control circuits are DC and there is no isolation between the two. Another disadvantages is that a continuous DC signal has to be applied. So gate power loss is high. DC gate triggering:-
  18. 18. o Here AC source is used for gate signals. o This scheme provides proper isolation between power and control circuit. Drawback: o Drawback of this scheme is that a separate transformer is required to step down ac supply. Two methods of AC voltage triggering namely (i) R Triggering (ii) RC triggering AC Gate Triggering:-
  19. 19. o R is used to control the gate current. o Depending on R, when the gate current reaches the IL (latching) the SCR starts to conduct. o The diode D is called as blocking diode. It prevents the gate cathode junction from getting damaged in the negative half cycle. o By considering that the gate circuit is purely resistive, the gate current is in phase with the applied voltage. o By using this method we can achieve maximum firing angle up to 90. Resistance triggering:
  20. 20.  Using this we can achieve firing angle more than 90°.  In the positive half cycle, the capacitor is charged through the variable resistance R up to the peak value of the applied voltage.  The variable resistor R controls the charging time of the capacitor.  Depends on Vc, when sufficient amount of gate current will flow in the circuit, the SCR starts to conduct.  In the negative half cycle, the capacitor C is charged up to the negative peak value through the diode D2. RC Triggering
  21. 21. o In this method the gate drive consists of a single pulse appearing periodically (or) a sequence of high frequency pulses. o This is known as carrier frequency gating. Advantages 1. Low gate dissipation at higher gate current. 2. Small gate isolating pulse transformer 3. Low dissipation in reverse biased condition is possible.So simple trigger circuits are possible in some cases 4. When the first trigger pulse fails to trigger the SCR, the following pulses can succeed in latching SCR. Pulse Gate Triggering:-
  22. 22. Commutation The process of turning OFF SCR is defined as "Commutation" There are two methods: 1. Natural Commutation 2. Forced Commutation Natural Commutation:-  In AC circuit, the current always passes through zero for every half cycle.  As the current passes through natural zero, a reverse Voltage will simultaneously appear across the device.  This will turn OFF the device immediately.  This process is called as natural commutation, since no external circuit is required for this purpose. Turning off methods of SCR
  23. 23.  To turn OFF a thyristor, the forward anode current should be brought to zero for sufficient time to allow the removal of charged carriers.  In case of DC circuits the forward current should be forced to zero by means of some external circuits.  This process is called as forced commutation. Forced Commutation:
  24. 24. The six distinct classes by which the SCR can be turned off are: 1. Class A Self commutated by a resonating load. 2. Class B Self commutated by an L-C circuit. 3. Class C or L-C switched by another load carrying SCR. 4. Class D C or L-C switched by an auxiliary SCR Class. 5. E An external pulse source for commutation Class. 6. F AC line commutation. Class of force commutation circuits
  25. 25. When the SCR is triggered, anode current flows and charges up C. The current through the SCR builds up and completes a half cycle. The inductor current will then attempt to flow through the SCR in the reverse direction and the SCR will be turned off. The capacitor voltage is at its peak when the SCR turns off and the capacitor discharges into the resistance in an exponential manner. Class A Commutation By Resonating Load
  26. 26. Corresponding Waveforms.
  27. 27.  The Capacitor C charges up in the dot as positive before a gate pulse is applied to the SCR. The constant load current I(load) flows through R - L load. This is ensured by the large reactance in series with the load and the freewheeling diode clamping it.  A sinusoidal current flows through the resonant L- C circuit to charge-up C with the dot as negative at the end of the half cycle. This current will then reverse and flow through the SCR in opposition to the load current for a small fraction of the negative swing till the total current through the SCR becomes zero.  The SCR will turn off when the resonant–circuit (reverse) current is just greater than the load current. Class B Self Commutation By L-C Load
  28. 28. Corresponding Circuits And Waveforms
  29. 29.  This configuration has two SCRs.  One of them may be the main SCR and the other auxiliary. Both may be load current carrying main SCRs.  The configuration may have four SCRs with the load across the capacitor, with the integral converter supplied from a current source. Assume SCR2 is conducting.  C then charges up in the polarity shown.  When SCR1 is triggered, C is switched across SCR2 via SCR1 and the discharge current of C opposes the flow of load current in SCR2. Class C Or LC Switched By Another Load Carrying SCR
  30. 30. Corresponding Circuit And Waveforms
  31. 31.  (Class C) can be converted to Class D if the load current is carried by only one of the SCR’s, the other acting as an auxiliary turn-off SCR.  The auxiliary SCR would have a resistor in its anode lead of say ten times the load resistance. Class D, L-C or C Switched By An SCR
  32. 32. Corresponding Circuit And Waveforms
  33. 33.  The transformer is designed with sufficient iron and air gap so as not to saturate. It is capable of carrying the load current with a small voltage drop compared with the supply voltage.  When SCR1 is triggered, current flows through the load and pulse transformer.  To turn SCR1 off a positive pulse is applied to the cathode of the SCR from an external pulse generator via the pulse transformer. The capacitor C is only charged to about 1 volt and for the duration of the turn-off pulse it can be considered to have zero impedance.  Thus the pulse from the transformer reverses the voltage across the SCR, and it supplies the reverse recovery current and holds the voltage negative for the required turn-off time. Class E External Pulse Source For Commutation
  34. 34. Corresponding Circuit And Waveforms
  35. 35.  If the supply is an alternating voltage, load current will flow during the positive half cycle.  With a highly inductive load, the current may remain continuous for some time till the energy trapped in the load inductance is dissipated.  During the negative half cycle, therefore, the SCR will turn off when the load current becomes zero 'naturally'.  The negative polarity of the voltage appearing across the outgoing SCR turns it off if the voltage persists for the rated turnoff period of the device.  The duration of the half cycle must be definitely longer than the turn-off time of the SCR. If the 'fully-controlled' converter is used as an inverter with triggering angles > 900, the converter triggering can be delayed till the 'margin angle' which includes the overlap angle and the turn-off time of the SCR - both dependent on the supply voltages. Class F, AC Line Commutation
  36. 36. Corresponding Circuit And Waveforms

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