University of SulaimaniaSchool of ScienceDepartment of Biology2nd Class Year Practical Entomology 2011-2012 12th Lab.Insects’ Respiratory Apparatus Lecturer: Farhad A. Khudhur
Objective• This Lab. making the students to be familiar with different insects respiratory apparatus.• Students must know more details about the diversity in respiratory apparatus of aquatic and terrestrial insects.
Spiracular Distribution– Polypneustic at least 8 pairs of spiracles (e.g., adults of terrestrial insects)– Oligopneustic – 1-2 pairs of spiracles • Amphipneustic – 1 pr mesothorax, 1 pair post- abdominal (e.g., Trichoptera: Psychodidae larvae) • Metapneustic – 1 pair post-abdominal (e.g., Diptera: Culicidae larvae) • Propneustic – 1 pair mesothorax (e.g., dipterous pupae)– Apneustic – no spiracles (e.g., Ephemeroptera and odonata larvae)
References• Gillot, Cedric. (2005). Entomology. 3rd ed. Springer, Dordrecht., The Netherlands. 831 pp.• Grzimek’s Animal Life Encyclopedia, 2nd edition. Volume 3, Insects, edited by Michael Hutchins, Arthur V. Evans, Rosser W. Garrison,• Resh, Vincent H. & Cardé, Ring T. (2003). Encyclopedia of Insects. USA. Academic Press, Elsevier Science, 1266 pp.• Elzinga, Richard J. (1997). Fundamentals of Entomology. 4th ed. New Jersey, Prentice-Hall, Inc. 475 pp.• Gullan, P.J. and Cranston, P.S. (). The insects: An Outline of Entomology. 3rd ed. U.K. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 505 pp.