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Lab 7 trypanosomiasis


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Lab 7 trypanosomiasis

  1. 1. Hemoflagellates: Trypanosoma spp. University of Sulaimani School of Science Department of Biology Practical Parasitology 2 nd stage Lab 7 : Trichomoniasis
  2. 2. <ul><li>Objectives: Students should be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify developmental stages of the life cycle of Trypanosoma spp. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>List methods of diagnosis of Trypanosoma spp. </li></ul></ul>Trypanosomiasis
  3. 3. <ul><li>Trypanosomiasis is a group of diseases caused Trypanosoma spp. in different location in the world. </li></ul>Trypanosomiasis <ul><li>African trypanosomiasis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(African Sleeping sickness) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>American trypanosomiasis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Chaga’s disease) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Trypanosomiasis <ul><li>West-Africa trypanosomiasis: </li></ul><ul><li>Trypanosoma gambiense </li></ul><ul><li>East-Africa trypanosomiasis : </li></ul><ul><li>Trypanosoma rhodesiense </li></ul><ul><li>American trypanosomiasis: </li></ul><ul><li>Trypanosoma cruzi </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Malaria </li></ul><ul><li>Onchocerciasis </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphatic filariasis </li></ul><ul><li>African Trypanosomiasis </li></ul><ul><li>American Trypanosomiasis </li></ul><ul><li>Leishmaniasis </li></ul>Trypanosomiasis Major Vector-Borne Diseases
  6. 6. <ul><li>Salivaria: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anterior section – develops in anterior portions of digestive tract. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trypanosoma gambiense,T. rodesiense T. vivax; T. evansi, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stercoraria ( sterc/o feces) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Posterior section – develops in hindgut of insect. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T. cruzi; T. melophagium; T. lewisi </li></ul></ul>Trypanosomes: Classification
  7. 7. <ul><ul><li>Amastigote (Leishmania) stage: Intracellular stage, replicate within cells of reticuloendothelial system; 2-4mm in diameter, spheroid or slightly oval, without flagella, may see > 100 amastigotes/cell. </li></ul></ul>Trypanosomes: Morphology
  8. 8. <ul><ul><li>Promastigote (Leptomonas stage): elongated or fusiform (from short and fat to long and thin) with flagella extending forward, the kinetoplastid located distally at the anterior end. without undulating membrane. </li></ul></ul>Trypanosomes: Morphology
  9. 9. <ul><ul><li>Epimastigot (C rithidia stage ): elongated with anterior flagella and undulating membrane. The kinetoplastid located near the nucleus. </li></ul></ul>Trypanosomes: Morphology
  10. 10. <ul><ul><li>Trypomastigote – in the blood stream; flagellum runs entire length from posterior. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The K is posterior to the N. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Includes metacyclic (infective) stage in tsetse fly. </li></ul></ul></ul>Trypanosomes: Morphology
  11. 11. Polymorphic spindle-shaped parasites
  12. 12. <ul><li>Trypomastigotes in the blood stream </li></ul>Trypanosomes: Morphology
  13. 13. African Trypanosomiasis <ul><li>A systemic protozoal disease </li></ul><ul><li>Organisms grow in blood, lymph, CSF, and intercellular spaces (in contrast to T. cruzi) </li></ul><ul><li>Endemic in 36 countries and affects from 20,000 to 50,000 annually. </li></ul><ul><li>Untreated is universally fatal. </li></ul>
  14. 14. African Trypanosomiasis
  15. 15. Trypanosoma gambiense <ul><li>G.D. : West and central Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Disease: mid and west African sleeping sickness </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat: extracellular parasite in blood and other body fluid of vertebrates. </li></ul><ul><li>Vector: tsetse fly ( Glossina palpalis ) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Trypanosoma gambiense <ul><li>Vector - Tse Tse fly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glossina palpalis </li></ul></ul>The Mouthpart of the Vector injected to the skin of the victim during a blood meal
  17. 17. Trypanosoma rhodesiense <ul><li>G.D. : East of Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Disease: Rhodesian or east African sleeping sickness </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat: extracellular parasite in blood and other body fluid of vertebrates. </li></ul><ul><li>Vector: tsetse fly ( Glossina morsitans ) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Transmission Transmitted by Tsetse fly A pregnant women pass it to her fetus (rare) Through a blood transfusion (rare)
  19. 20. Trypanosoma gambiense African trypanosomiasis Taking up & injecting the infectious form:
  20. 21. Where patients live
  21. 22. Tissue phase: chancre
  22. 23. Winterbottom , s sign Enlarged cervical lymph nodes <ul><ul><ul><li>Appear at the base of skull; sign of certain death according to slave traders. </li></ul></ul></ul>Hemolymphatic phase
  23. 24. CNS phase
  24. 25. <ul><li>Tissue phase </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fluid aspirated from a chancre </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Hemolymphatic phase </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lymph-node aspirate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Concentrated of the blood buffy coat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>CNS phase </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Double centrifugation technique . </li></ul></ul></ul>Diagnosis – Stage related
  25. 26. Trypanosoma
  26. 27. American Trypanosomiasis Dr. Carlos Chagas Central and South America. Chagas Disease Trypanosoma cruzi typical C or S-shaped form.
  27. 28. <ul><li>G.D. : South America. </li></ul><ul><li>Disease: American Trypanisomiasis or Chagas disease </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat: Blood, tissue cell especially heart muscle, nerves, skeletal and smooth muscle of GIT by way of the blood and lymphatic system </li></ul><ul><li>Vector: triatomine bug (reduviid bug) </li></ul>American Trypanosomiasis Triatoma infestans
  28. 29. <ul><li>Kissing bugs ( Triatoma infestans ) transmit </li></ul><ul><li>T. cruzi while feeding, </li></ul><ul><li>not by inoculation but by faecal contamination . </li></ul>
  29. 31. Chagas' disease <ul><ul><ul><li>Romaña sign: bipalpebral edema (unilateral) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 32. Laboratory diagnosis <ul><li>Acute phase </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Giemsa stained buffy coat blood smear </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biopsy specimen – find Trypomastigotes and Amastigotes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Chronic phase </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Xenodiagnosis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Culture on NNN media </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Serology –, IHA, IFAT, ELISA, </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 33. Laboratory diagnosis
  32. 34. Xenodiagnosis