University of SulaimaniaSchool of ScienceDepartment of Biology2nd Class Year 24t h La b. Pterygotes - Neopteran Insects: Order Hymenoptera Lecturer: Farhad A. Khudhur
Objectives: - This lecture gives knowledge about the medically and ecologically important insect group (order Hymenoptera), Ant, Wasp and Bees. Their classifications and identification keys. - Focusing on the most common and important families of Apocrita. Scientific content: Order Hymenoptera - General descriptions - Classification: Suborder: Apocrita Family: Vaspidae Family: Formicidae Family: Apidae
Order: Hymenoptera• Two pairs of membranous wings• Forewings larger• Wing coupling apparatus (Hamuli)• Social and Solitary• Caterpillar like or vermiform larvae• Exarate Pupae• Two Suborders: – Symphyta (Sawflies) – Apocrita (Wasp, Ant & Bees)
Suborder: Apocrita• Narrow waisted wasp• Wasp, Ant and Bees.• The propodeum is the first abdominal segment in Apocrita.• Geniculate Antennae.
References: • David, B. V. and Ananthakrishnan, T. N. (2004). General and Applied Entomology. 2nd ed. Tata McGraw-hill Publishing Co. Ltd. New Delhi. India. 1184 p. • Elzinga, Richard J. (1997). Fundamentals of Entomology. 4th ed. New Jersey, Prentice-Hall, Inc. 475 pp. • Gillot, Cedric. (2005). Entomology. 3rd ed. Springer, Dordrecht. The Netherlands. 831 pp. • Grzimek’s Animal Life Encyclopedia, 2nd edition. Volume 3, Insects, edited by Michael Hutchins, Arthur V. Evans, Rosser W. Garrison. • Markle, Sandra. (2008). Mosquitoes: tiny insect troublemakers. Minneapolis, USA. Lerner Publications Company. 48 p. • Resh, Vincent H. & Cardé, Ring T. (2003). Encyclopedia of Insects. USA. Academic Press, Elsevier Science, 1266 pp.