University of SulaimaniaSchool of ScienceDepartment of Biology2nd Class Year 20t h La b. Pterygotes - Neopteran Insects: Orders Hemiptera and Phthiraptera Lecturer: Farhad A. Khudhur
Objectives: This lecture gives knowledge about Sucking Lice(order Phthiraptera), true bugs, aphids and cicads (OrderHemiptera).Scientific content:Order Hemiptera Suborder: Sternorrhyncha (Aphids and Scale insects) Suborder: Auchenorrhyncha (Cicadas) Suborder: Heteroptera (True bugs)Order: Phthiraptera (Human head louse, human body louse and pubic louse)
Order: Hemiptera• Minute to large insects,• head opisthognathous (homopterans) or prognathous (heteropterans),• compound eyes usually well developed• antennae filliform with few segments,• mouthparts piercing-sucking type with mandibles and maxillae in form of stylets enclosed within a labial sheath;• two pairs of wings usually present with fore wings of harder consistency than hind pair;• abdomen with 9–11 segments, external genitalia varied in both sexes, cerci absent.
Order Hemiptera divided into two groups; Homoptera and Heteroptera-Homopterans Have an opisthognathous head, a smallpronotum, and fore wings (when present) with a uniformtexture and held rooflike over the body at rest.- Suborder: Auchenorrhyncha The two features that characterize this suborder are the complex tympanal organs and antennae whose flagellum is aristoid (hairlike).Family: CICADIDAE. (Cicads) Cicada spp.- Suborder: Sternorrhyncha multisegmented, filiform antennae.Family: Coccidae (Scale Insects)Family: Aphididae (Aphids, plant lice, greenfly, and blackfly). Aphis spp.
Heteropterans: - Suborder: Heteroptera -In Heteroptera the head is usually prognathous, the pronotum is well developed; and fore wings when present are in the form of hemelytra, with wings held flat over the body when at rest. - Family: PENTATOMIDAE (stink bug) - Family: REDUVIIDAE, (Assassin bugs), - Family: Hydrometridae (Water Treaders) - Family: Gerridae (Water Striders)Family: CIMIClDAE, Cimex lectularius (Bedbugs)
Order: Phthiraptera• Suborder: Anoplura (sucking Lice)Family: PediculidaeHosts: on humans, chimpanzees, and New World monkeys Pediculus humanus capitis (human head louse) Pediculus humanus humanus (human body louse)• Family: PthiridaeHosts: on humans and gorillas Pthirus pubis (crab louse or pubic louse).
References:• David, B. V. and Ananthakrishnan, T. N. (2004). General and Applied Entomology. 2nd ed. Tata McGraw-hill Publishing Co. Ltd. New Delhi. India. 1184 p.• Elzinga, Richard J. (1997). Fundamentals of Entomology. 4th ed. New Jersey, Prentice-Hall, Inc. 475 pp.• Gillot, Cedric. (2005). Entomology. 3rd ed. Springer, Dordrecht. The Netherlands. 831 pp.• Grzimek’s Animal Life Encyclopedia, 2nd edition. Volume 3, Insects, edited by Michael Hutchins, Arthur V. Evans, Rosser W. Garrison,• Resh, Vincent H. & Cardé, Ring T. (2003). Encyclopedia of Insects. USA. Academic Press, Elsevier Science, 1266 pp.