University of SulaimaniaSchool of ScienceDepartment of Biology2nd Class Year 14th Lab.An Introduction to Insect Classification Apterygota: Orders Zygentoma and Microcoryphia Lecturer: Farhad A. Khudhur
Objectives:-Students will be familiar with common information in animalclassification.- Provide familiarities with insect large taxa and importantorders.-Then they will study primitive wingless insect orders indetail.Scientific content:- An Introduction to Insect Classification- Insect Orders Apterygota: Order: Zygentoma Order: Microcoryphia
Subphyllum Hexapoda. 1. CLASS. Collembola 2. CLASS AND ORDER. Protura 3. CLASS AND ORDER. Diplura 4. CLASS. Insecta I. SUBCLASS. Apterygota ORDERS. Microcoryphia and Zygentoma II. SUBCLASS. Pterygota A. INFRACLASS. Paleoptera ORDERS. Ephemeroptera and Odonata B. INFRACLASS. Neoptera a. DIVISION. Polyneoptera (orthopteroid orders) ORDERS. Orthoptera, Grylloblattodea, Dermaptera, Plecoptera,Embioptera. Blattodea, Mantodea, Isoptera, Phasmida, Mantophasmatodea, andZoraptera b. DIVISION. Paraneoptera (hemipteroid orders) ORDERS. Psocoptera, Phthiraptera, Hemiptera, and Thysanoptera c. DIVISION. Oligoneoptera (endopterygote orders) ORDERS. Mecoptera, Lepidoptera, Trichoptera, Diptera. Siphonaptera,Neuroptera, Megaloptera, Raphidioptera, Coleoptera, Strepsiptera, andHymenoptera
Order: Zygentoma Family: Lepismatidae• This family includes the familiar silverfish and firebrats• They are common in both natural and domestic habitats.• Outdoor species occur in caves, under stones and debris, and some species are associated with the nests of ants.• The domestic species occupy a variety of habitats, and feed on starchy substances and plant material.
Common silverfish, Lepisma saccharina• Adults are about 12 mm long.• They are silver-gray, with a metallic sheen.• This species is cosmopolitan and a domiciliary pest in most regions of the world.• Development and reproduction indoors require high temperatures and humidity.• Development from larva to adult takes 90-120 days at 27 ◦C.• They damage paper products• Paper with high cellulose content is preferred.• Cotton and silk fabrics are also attacked.t
Firebrat, Thermobia domestica• Adults are about 14 mm long.• They are silver-gray.• Firebrats prefer indoor locations with temperatures above 32 ◦C; optimum development occurs between 37 and 39 ◦C.• Firebrats are pests in commercial locations that maintain high temperatures.
References:•David, B. V. and Ananthakrishnan, T. N. (2004). General and AppliedEntomology. 2nd ed. Tata McGraw-hill Publishing Co. Ltd. New Delhi.India. 1184 p.•Elzinga, Richard J. (1997). Fundamentals of Entomology. 4th ed.New Jersey, Prentice-Hall, Inc. 475 pp.•Gillot, Cedric. (2005). Entomology. 3rd ed. Springer, Dordrecht. TheNetherlands. 831 pp.•Grzimek’s Animal Life Encyclopedia, 2nd edition. Volume 3, Insects,edited by Michael Hutchins, Arthur V. Evans, Rosser W. Garrison,•Resh, Vincent H. & Cardé, Ring T. (2003). Encyclopedia of Insects.USA. Academic Press, Elsevier Science, 1266 pp.