The Path to Parihaka<br />Non-Violent Resistance in Taranaki (1881)<br />Do Now<br />Write down some examples of ‘non-violent’ protest.<br />Why do you think some people might choose to use ‘non-violent’ methods?<br />What issues do you think might have led to conflict in Taranaki in the 1880s?<br />
Non-Violent Resistance <br />Sit-ins, peaceful occupations and marches, letter-writing campaigns etc.<br />People choose non-violence as a method for a range of reasons. Often it is because of their religious or political beliefs. Sometimes it is used to contrast the peaceful nature of the protestor with the violent methods used by authority.<br />Land - and the political control of land.<br />
Learning Intentions<br />By the end of these lessons you will be able to:<br />Locate the township of Parihaka on a map.<br />Explain why conflict between Maori and Pakeha broke out in 1870.<br />Describe the actions taken by Pakeha settlers that led to conflict.<br />Explain why the Maori prophet TeWhiti used non-violent strategies.<br />Describe the legacy of Parihaka.<br />
Which event is being shown here?<br />The signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840<br />Did Maori Chiefs (Rangatira) and the British have the same understanding of how the Treaty of Waitangi would affect them?<br />No! – Their understandings were different because of two words….<br />Sovereignty!<br />Rangatiratanga!<br />
One Treaty – Two Versions<br />The Treaty of Waitangi was written in a few days by Lieutenant-Governor William Hobson with the help of James Busby. It was translated into Maori overnight on February 4th by the Missionary Henry Williams and his son.<br />The two versions were very different. <br />The English language version gave the British SOVEREIGNTY (which is basically the power to make laws and rule a country). <br />The Maori language version guaranteed Maori RANGATIRATANGA (Chieftainship – or political control) of all of their taonga(treasures).<br />Almost all of the Maori Chiefs signed the Maori language version.<br />Essentially, Maori left Waitangi feeling that they had retained political control of their land. Pakeha expectations differed!<br />
1840 – 1860: Two Worlds<br />20 years after the signing of the Treaty little had changed for many North Island Maori.<br />Many Pakeha had settled in the South Island and farmed sheep.<br />Most Pakeha in the North Island lived in the Auckland and Wellington region.<br />Maori had not only kept control of much of their land but ran successful flour mills and farms feeding the North Island Pakeha.<br />
The Path to Peaceful Protest – War!<br />The 1860s – War breaks out between Pakeha and Maori<br />Fort Britomart<br />
The Path to Peaceful Protest – War!<br />Why did war break out in 1860?<br /><ul><li>In 1850 there were 60,000 Maori and 23,000 Pakeha.
By 1860 the Pakeha population had reached 60,000.
Maori had also started to realise that once land was sold it was impossible to claim back.
Some Maori had organised to form organisations opposing land sales.</li></ul>Pakeha settlers grew impatient and wanted the government to settle the issue of land once and for all!<br />
War and Confiscation<br />War in Taranaki<br /><ul><li>In 1860 war broke out after a dispute regarding a land sale at Waitara.
3500 British troops were brought in from Australia to crush the Taranaki tribes at the center of the dispute.
Many Taranaki chiefs had not signed the Treaty of Waitangi.
Maori used a range of strategies to fight the Pakeha troops, including the building of fake pa to lure the troops into a trap.</li></li></ul><li>War and Confiscation<br />War in Taranaki: Confiscations<br /><ul><li>By 1866 the New Zealand government had 5000 soldiers in Taranaki.
They included expert Forest Ranger Units who would go on missions deep inside Maori territory.
They had a policy of attacking and destroying Maori villages whether or not the inhabitants were at war.
By the end of the 1860s nearly 1,000,000 acres of Maori land had been confiscated.</li></li></ul><li>War and Confiscation<br />Why go to so much trouble over Taranaki?<br />(Use these Visual Clues)<br />Satisfy the new settlers hunger for land<br />Taranaki has fertile soil – excellent for farming.<br />Bring British law to Taranaki<br />
TeWhiti: The Chief and Prophet at Parihaka<br /><ul><li>During the 1860s a new movement of Maori leaders emerged.
They were religious leaders who combined Maori spirituality with Christian teachings.
TeWhiti O-Rongomai had been educated by a missionary.
He was also a practical man who left school to set up his own flour mill.
In 1865 government troops destroyed his village.
He refused to fight back and moved his people to a new location to establish a new village – Parihaka.</li></li></ul><li>Write down your impressions of Parihaka<br />
Activities<br />Activity One: TeWhiti and non-violence<br /><ul><li>Paste the picture of TeWhiti into your book.
Around the picture write down a quote from page 50 in TeMana o TeTiritithat:
Gives instructions to his followers.</li></ul>Activity Two: The Parihaka township<br /><ul><li>Complete the cloze exercise describing the township.</li></li></ul><li>Activities<br />Activity Three: Resistance and loss<br /><ul><li>Cut out the events and place them in the correct order using pages 52 and 53.
Use the events to create an illustrated history road of the events of Parihaka.</li></ul>Activity Four: An IDEA about Parihaka<br />In your books:<br />I = Identify THREE non-violent strategies used by TeWhiti<br />D = In your own words describe ONE<br />E = Explain WHY TeWhiti would have used this method<br />A = Apply. Write a letter from TeWhiti to the local Europeans explaining WHY he is resisting the survey and the choice of methods he has used.<br />
Activities<br />Activity Five: The Legacy of Parihaka<br />Watch the videos and read the articles on the decades following Parihaka.<br />Complete the ‘Legacy of Parihaka sheet’. <br />Write a paragraph that responds to this question “Te Whiti and Tohu’s non-violent resistance at Parihaka was a failure”. <br />Your paragraph needs to argue FOR of AGAINST this point of view and use evidence from your table.<br />