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Rare World: Towards Technology for Rare Diseases

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Presentation at CHI 2015

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Rare World: Towards Technology for Rare Diseases

  1. 1. RARE WORLD: TOWARDSTECHNOLOGYFORRAREDISEASES Haley MacLeod Ÿ Kim Oakes Ÿ Danika Geisler Ÿ Kay Connelly Ÿ Katie Siek School of Informatics and Computing Indiana University @haley_macleod www.haleymacleod.com
  2. 2. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) < 0.05%
  3. 3. There are over 7,000 different rare diseases.
  4. 4. 10% of the world’s population has a rare disease.
  5. 5. Only 3% of the world’s population uses Twitter.
  6. 6. If everyone with a rare disease lived in the same country, it would be the world’s third most populous nation.
  7. 7. Are there common problems experienced by people with rare diseases that can be addressed through design?
  8. 8. 1.  A profile of people with rare diseases 2.  Similarities and differences between rare and common chronic diseases 3.  Opportunities for technology to address these challenges
  9. 9. I call it ‘Rare World’. It’s very difficult. The receptionist doesn’t understand, the doctor doesn’t understand. No one’s heard of it. It’s a really strange spot to be in.
  10. 10. Method Recruitment •  RareShare •  RareConnect •  The Rare Disease Foundation •  Facebook groups Rare Disease Communities
  11. 11. •  53% from USA •  13 different conditions (S1 – S15) •  2 multiple conditions (M1, M2) •  2 undiagnosed (U1, U2) 19 participantsMethod Participants
  12. 12. Method Procedure Semi-Structured Interviews •  Experience living with the condition •  Relationships and support •  Use of technology and information management •  Sensemaking
  13. 13. Method Analysis Inductive Qualitative Methods •  Participants reviewed the paper before submission •  None requested any changes
  14. 14. 1. Profile of People with Rare Diseases
  15. 15. Friends Family Members Peer Supporters Patients and Advocates Copers Researchers Record Keepers {Role as
  16. 16. Friends Family Members Peer Supporters Patients and Advocates Copers Researchers Record Keepers {Role as
  17. 17. “There’s nothing to see. Nobody’s ever heard of it. I mean, if I said I had Multiple Sclerosis everybody would know what I was talking about and they would know what to expect...It’s not obvious that there is anything wrong with me at all. So I think that some people think that maybe I’m putting them on a bit.” – S11 Friends / Family Members / Patients / Record Keepers
  18. 18. “Some want to be there for you, but they are so scared that they don’t even know how to talk to you. Then you find the friends who come out of the woodwork when you don’t know what to do … some of the people who you thought would really be there actually weren’t.” – S12 Friends / Family Members / Patients / Record Keepers
  19. 19. “[My friends] never realised that it can be life-threatening. When I started my fight for my son, and when I called them [for support] they would say ‘We can’t come because we have to go shopping’… And then I said, ‘I’m having this life struggle for my baby. You guys are my friends, I expect you there.’...So they were a little slow in understanding how important this was but it’s because I never made a big fuss about it.” – S3 Friends / Family Members / Patients / Record Keepers
  20. 20. “I feel sorry for [my wife] because she has to take care of a husband who is in much worse shape than her…she’s had to cope with a husband who’s lost a lot of his abilities and she’s done very well with it...I’m sure she doesn’t like it but what are you going to do? I mean, you know, that’s what marriage is about.” – S5 Friends / Family Members / Patients / Record Keepers
  21. 21. “Earlier I just had to tell him, ‘You can stay in denial all you want to, but when I say I need you to do something...you just have to do it.’ And for a long time he used to say things like...‘Do you really need that cane?’ And I said, ‘Yes I do. Stop asking me questions like that.’” – S6 Friends / Family Members / Patients / Record Keepers
  22. 22. “I actually have to smuggle [the medicine] from other countries. For my son, one shot is around [€600 or $800]...so I have to have three or four vials of the medicine. And I’m keeping it only for my son because I don’t earn that much money that I can have a shot for me. So it’s on destiny whether I will live another day.” – S3 Friends / Family Members / Patients / Record Keepers
  23. 23. “I just hope and pray that, if I have an attack, what happens at the hospital is that they listen. We did have an incident where… they tried to tell me I had a tummy bug and it wasn’t until I actually passed out lying down that then they thought, ‘Okay, we need to start listening to this person.’” – S14 Friends / Family Members / Patients / Record Keepers
  24. 24. “I had to suck it up and go back because no one would take me. You’d call them, you’d tell them what you’ve got and they look it up, they’d say, ‘Oh, no, I’m sorry we don’t treat that.’ I heard that over and over and over again. But I had to suck it up and go back, because no one else would take me.” – S13 Friends / Family Members / Patients / Record Keepers
  25. 25. “They were all like, ‘We don’t know what it is. We don’t want to take this risk. So go away. We have other problems, other patients.’ So I told them, ‘Okay, go on Google and Google it.’ ‘No, no, go to somebody else’s door.’ So we lost a lot of hours…And that’s when I said ‘Okay, I’m going to learn to give myself the shot.’” – S3 Friends / Family Members / Patients / Record Keepers
  26. 26. “I said, ‘This is my little book where I write down what you tell me to do, or changes that we make.’ And he said, ‘Oh you won’t need that. We keep charts of everything and blah blah blah’. Then he started asking me all these questions, ‘When did you do this? When did you do that?’ So I just kind of whipped my little book out and I said, ‘Okay, let me just look at my book and I’ll tell you.’ It was really kind of funny.” – S6 Friends / Family Members / Patients / Record Keepers
  27. 27. “We would go in to see a specialist or an expert and [my mother] would just immediately, first thing, hand [the medical resume] to the doctor and say, ‘Read this first before we start… I’m a medical doctor, here’s her medical summary, it’s on two pages. Read this first and then we’ll start the appointment.’ And I saw the power in that.” – U1 Friends / Family Members / Patients / Record Keepers
  28. 28. “…The surgeons speak in very bullet point kind of language, so a patient has to get used to boiling things down to one or two sentences — to speaking in surgeon-ese, bullet-ese.” – U1 Friends / Family Members / Patients / Record Keepers
  29. 29. “I’ve had these cards made up through the myositis association. It looks like a little gift card. It’s got your name on the front...It tells you what to do about the disease and it’s one of the greatest tools to have because when I go somewhere and if something happens to me, I just give them that card. And they’ve got everything there that they need.” – S8 Friends / Family Members / Patients / Record Keepers
  30. 30. 2. Common vs. Rare Chronic Diseases
  31. 31. Friends •  Communicating unfamiliar diseases •  Losing friendships •  Downplaying symptoms Family Members •  Guilt about impact on caregivers •  Caregivers in denial •  Making sacrifices for family members Advocates •  Awareness campaigns, fundraisers •  Running research or support groups •  Political projects & lawsuits Patients •  Ill informed physicians •  Unable to find replacement doctors •  Reducing reliance on doctors •  Active and empowered patients Record Keepers •  For personal use •  As as communication tool Researchers •  Reading research papers •  Limited information available •  Perception of self as intelligent Peer Supporters •  Sharing findings, trading resources, social support, asking questions •  Global connections •  Privacy concerns •  Inactivity in specific communities Copers •  Full spectrum of attitudes & emotions •  Struggling to stay optimistic •  It could be worse
  32. 32. Friends Family Members Advocates Patients Record Keepers Researchers Peer Supporters Copers DifferentSimilar
  33. 33. 3. Implications for technology
  34. 34. Expanding the Care Network It’s Who I Am Leveraging Existing Platforms Patient-Provider Relationship
  35. 35. Expanding the Care Network It’s Who I Am Leveraging Existing Platforms Patient-Provider Relationship
  36. 36. (Consolvo et al., 2013) Expanding the Care Network/ It’s Who I Am
  37. 37. We encourage HCI researchers to design for a slow discovery process through which people with rare disease can disseminate information about their conditions. Expanding the Care Network/ It’s Who I Am
  38. 38. (Liu al., 2013) Expanding the Care Network/ It’s Who I Am
  39. 39. We need to investigate how to help caregivers accept a new diagnosis and work towards providing them with the ability to catch up when they are ready. Expanding the Care Network/ It’s Who I Am
  40. 40. “…people in our case studies explain that their everyday life as a whole is what matters…” (Ballegaard et al. 2008) “…addressing patient's experience of a disease as a closely interwoven matter of both the medical and personal side of an individual…” (Huh et al. 2014) “…finding the right balance between pleasurable activities and the desired state of health…” (Mamykina et al. 2006) Expanding the Care Network/ It’s Who I Am
  41. 41. “It’s who I am.” – S3 “This is part of my story.” – S12 “I know how I am.” – S5 Expanding the Care Network/ It’s Who I Am
  42. 42. Expanding the Care Network/ It’s Who I Am
  43. 43. We must investigate mechanisms for advocacy outreach, public response to these initiatives, and how the initiative improves the initial outreach aims. Expanding the Care Network/ It’s Who I Am
  44. 44. Haley MacLeod hemacleo@indiana.edu Kim Oakes kimoakes@indiana.edu Danika Geisler djgeisle@indiana.edu Kay Connelly connelly@indiana.edu Katie Siek ksiek@indiana.edu

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