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Evaluating information


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Evaluating information

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. Once you have found information that matches the topic and requirements of your research, you should analyze or evaluate these information sources. Why? 2
  3. 3. Why Evaluating Information Is Important? Evaluating information encourages you to think critically about the reliability, validity, accuracy, authority, timeliness, point of view or bias of information sources. Evaluation is closely associated with critical thinking. Beyer (1985) argued that evaluation is equated with critical thinking. Most theorists, describe critical thinking as including evaluation among several other higher-order thinking processes (Cromwell 1992). 3
  4. 4. Another model of thinking skills is that of Benjamin Bloom and his colleagues, popularly dubbed “Bloom‟s Taxonomy.” It includes, from least to most sophisticated, knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation (Bloom et al. 1956). 4
  5. 5. There are Many Types of Information: Books, both in-print and published electronically (ebooks). Journal Articles, both in-print and electronic. Newspaper Articles, both in- print and electronic. Websites. Other types, including social media, wikis, Wikipedia, podcasts, newscasts, videos, etc. 5
  6. 6. Use CRAAP to Evaluate Information 6
  7. 7. 1.Currency: The timeliness of the information When the information published or posted? Has the information recently been revised or updated? Is the information current? Are the links functional? 7
  8. 8. 2. Relevance: The importance of the information for your needs. Does the information related to your topic? Who is the intended audience? Is the information at an appropriate level? Is the information compatible for academe research paper? 8
  9. 9. 3. Authority: The source of the information. Who is the author/ publisher/ source/ sponsor? Are the author‟s credentials or original affiliations given? What are they? What are the author‟s qualifications to write on the topic? The source of the information, is there contact information, such as a publisher or e-mail address? Does the URL reveal anything about the author or source like .com/ .edu/.gov/ .org/.net 9
  10. 10. URL is an acronym for uniform resource locator, or the website address. Understanding the structure of URLs can give you a lot of information about the authorship and credibility of the website. 10
  11. 11. Here are examples of some first level domain names: .com = Commercial .gov = Governmental .int = International .edu = Educational .mil = Military .net = Internet resource .org = Non-profits 11
  12. 12. 4. Accuracy: The reliability, truthfulness, and correctness of the informational content. Where does the information come from? Is the information supported by evidence? Has the information been reviewed or refereed? Can you verify any of the information in another source or from personal knowledge? Does the language or tone seem unbiased and free of emotion? Are there spelling, grammar or typographical errors? 12
  13. 13. 5. Purpose:The reason the information exists. What is the purpose of the information? Is the information fact, opinion, propaganda? Is the site free of advertising? Does the point of view appear objective and impartial? Is the purpose to inform? Are there political, ideological, cultural, religious, institutional and personal biases? 13
  14. 14. If you think that your source DOESD NOT pass any element of the CRAAP test, it should NOT be used. 14
  15. 15. In the 21st century classroom, students are able to use Internet to access the information by using free Web. The free Web is the part of the Web that is accessible by search engines. A search engine is an information retrieval system. It is the most common tool used to locate information on the Web. 15
  16. 16. Before you use Internet as a resource, think about: CRAAP first 16
  17. 17. Wiki/Wikipedia: • Wiki is a type of website while Wikipedia is website that uses the Wiki format. • Wikipedia is arguably the most popular Wiki in the world. • Wikipedia emulates an encyclopedia while other wikis may contain other types of information. 17
  18. 18. Most academics consider Wikipedia the enemy, so they do not allow them to use it in their research. But students do not know how Wikipedia is helpful because these following reasons: Wikipedia is vetted by volunteer academics. Everything must be cited, and if there is not cited, these information is removed. Wikipedia is one of the most common sites on the Internet. 18
  19. 19. Create online text. How wikis can be used in classrooms: Try creating to choose own adventure. Create an online presence for schools. Create digital portfolios for both learners and educators. - Create collaboration opportunities between classes across schools and across the world 19
  20. 20. Studies about using of Wikipedia as a teaching tool: • • Piotr Konieczny has studied the advantages of using Wikipedia as a teaching tool, an activity that is a simple addition to the teaching, and contributing to societies through service learning and participation in an online community of practice. Based on his five years of experience in teaching with wikis and Wikipedia and holding workshops on the subject, he discussed the most effective 20
  21. 21. Why teach with Wikipedia? Konieczny, 2012 pointed out why teach with Wikipedia, and how it can be used as an educational tool, with benefits for students, educator and the larger community. Moreover, he emphasized some several advantages of working with Wikipedia for students: 21
  22. 22. Increase student motivation in assignments, make a very pertinent observation and editing Wikipedia provides a much less artificial and much more rewarding option. The Wikipedia assignment has a potential to be more enjoyable than most other traditional assignments. Students learn the difference between essay like and fact–based, analytical, encyclopedic writing style, and encyclopedic style, similar to papers, thesis or research reports, so this style is very useful in developing critical thinking and improving the understanding of course materials. 22
  23. 23. Konieczny, 2012 pointed out why teach with Wikipedia, and how it can be used as an educational tool, with benefits for students, educator and the larger community. He emphasized some several advantages of working with Wikipedia for students: 23
  24. 24. Students strengthen their ability to search for reliable sources and evaluate them critically. Students will be able to more critically analyze the text on the Web site in their future activities. Students can interact with other group members and learn how to work in a real time, real world collaborative community of–practice environment. Students can improve their new media literacy and gain insights in the creation process of texts. 24
  25. 25. Wikipedia can be beneficial for an instructor? The instructor is assisted in the task of assessing students by other editors from the Wikipedia community. In Fall 2011, the Wikipedia Foundation begun developing an “Education Program MediaWiki Extension” to give instructors an extra set of tools that not needed by regular Wikipedia editors. Wikipedia was developed with the goal of group collaboration facilitation.It can be used for free and without having to secure permission. 25
  26. 26. Assigning Wikipedia articles as coursework is beneficial for the Wikipedia community because these following reasons: More content is created which is in a more specialized and academic topics. The content created is reviewed by course instructors. Wikipedia content is freely available to the entire world and widely used. 26
  27. 27. This site provides a good example of educational wikis. How to use a Wiki? 27
  28. 28. Advantages of using Wiki in classrooms: Wikipedia is not just words, but it encourages students to create chart and graphs to illustrate important concepts such as population growth. Anyone can edit and it is easy to use and follow. Teachers can view „recent changes‟ on the student‟s Wikispaces which assists the assessment processes. it is a flexible tool which can be used for a wide variety of applications. 28
  29. 29. Students are able to develop communication skills within classes using computers. No need to wait for a publisher to create a new edition or update information. It provides opportunities for active-learning activities in classrooms. 29
  30. 30. However, there are are some advantages and disadvantages of using Wiki in classrooms: Requires Internet connection to collaborate. Information can become disorganized. As a wiki grows, the community plans and administers the structure collaboratively. Wikipedia is not a scholarly source. Don‟t use wikipedia pages, and definitely don‟t put then in your bibliography. It is a user edited site meaning that anyone can add or delete information 30
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  32. 32. While Wikipedia seems like a comprehensive source, it can‟t be considered reliable due to its ability to be edited by anyone. Statistics could be out of date and concepts presented unclearly because of the continuing changes in water conservation research. The Wikipedia community of users may not be presenting the most up to date information. As such, we need to be careful when considering this site as a resource. 32
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  34. 34. Conclusion: There are many resources of information as well as World Web that it offers a lot of information whether reliable or unreliable, so it is necessary to evaluate what we find from information. 34
  35. 35. References Beyer, B.K. 1985. “Critical thinking: What is it?” Social Education. 49:270–6. Bloom, B.S., M.D. Engelhart, E.J. Furst, W.H. Hill, and D.R. Krathworhl. 1956. Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals. New York: David McKay. Cromwell, L.S. 1992. “Assessing critical thinking.” In Critical thinking: Educational imperative, ed. C.A. Barnes, 37–50. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Konieczny, P. (2012). Wikis and wikipedia as a teaching tool: Five years later. Retrieved from 35