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Assignment #1
Green Chemistry
and principles of
Green Chemistry
Hajira Mahmood
Ph.D. CHEMISTRY
Green chemistry
 An area of chemistry and chemical engineering that focus on the design
of products and processing that eliminate or minimize the use of and generation
of hazardous substances.
 The design of chemical processes and products to reduce or to eliminate the
use and generation of toxic, poisonous, hazardous and bio-accumulative
chemical substances, that are more environmental friendly and reduce negative
impacts to human health and to the environment.
 A new scientific approach based on Environment Protection, plays vital role in
controlling global warming, acid rain and climate change, and is an extremely
important area of Chemistry due to the importance of Chemistry in our world
today and the implications it can show on our environment.
 The Green Chemistry program supports the invention of more
environmentally friendly chemical processes which reduce or even eliminate
the generation of hazardous substances
Principles of
Green
Chemistry
Real-time Analysis for
Pollution Prevention
Design for
Degradation
Catalysis
Reduce Derivatives
Design for
energy
efficiency.
Use of
Renewable
Feedstocks
Waste
Prevention
Less hazardous
synthesis
Designing Safer
Chemicals
Safer Solvents
and Auxiliaries
Design for Energy
Efficiency
Atom
Economy.
1. Waste prevention
It is better to prevent waste formation than to treat or clean it after its
formation.
ü beneficial to carry out a synthesis in such a way that the formation of
waste products is minimum or absent.
ü If wastes are discharged into the atmosphere, seas and to land, it would
cause not only pollution, but expenditure would also be needed for
cleaning up.
Waste
Prevention
2. Atom Economy
“Synthetic methods should be designed to
maximize the incorporation of all materials
used in the process into the final product.”
• A synthesis is Perfectly Efficient or Atom
Economical if it generates significant
amount of waste which is not visible in
percentage yield calculation.
• Percent yield:
% Yield= actual yield / theoretical yield ×
𝟏𝟎𝟎
•Atom Economy: % AE = 𝑭𝑾 𝒐𝒇 𝒂𝒕𝒐𝒎𝒔 𝒖
𝒕𝒊𝒍𝒊𝒔𝒆𝒅 /𝑭𝑾 𝒐𝒇 𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝒓𝒆𝒂𝒄𝒕𝒂𝒏𝒕𝒔 × 𝟏𝟎𝟎
Atom Economy
Addition and Rearrangement reactions are 100% atom economical
reactions as all the reactants are incorporated into products.
While Substitution and Elimination reactions are less atom economical.
Atom economical reaction
In Propene-propane reaction 64.8% reactants are incorporated into product as it
takes place in presence of Nickel.
1. H3C-CH=CH2 + H2 H3C-CH2-CH3
less atom economical the % atom economy is 36.5%
2. CH3(CH2)4CH2OH +SOCl2 SO2 + CH3(CH2)4CH2Cl
3. Less hazardous synthesis
Wherever practicable,
synthetic methodologies
should be designed to use and
generate substances that
possess little or no toxicity to
human health and to
environment.
Example of an unsafe drug is
THALIDOMIDE for
lessening the effect of nausea
and vomiting during
pregnancy. The child suffers
from birth defects like
deformed-limbs.
4. Designing
Safer
Chemicals
For example: in the manufacture of Polystyrene, CFC’s which
contribute to ozone depletion and global warming are replaced by CO2
Synthetic methodologies should be designed to generate substances
that generate substances that possess less harmful or toxic products.
This principle focuses on choosing reagents that pose the least risk
and generate only safe by-products.
"Chemical products should be designed to preserve efficacy of
function while reducing toxicity.”
5. Safer
Solvents
and
Auxiliaries
“The use of auxiliary substances like solvents,
separating agents, etc. should be made unnecessary
wherever possible or otherwise make
them innocuous.”
The solvent selected for a particular reaction
shouldn't cause any environmental pollution or
hazard e.g. benzene, alcohol.
•One major problem with many solvents is their
volatility that may damage environment and
human health.
To avoid this many reactions are carried out in
safer green solvents like ionic liquids, supercritical
CO2 fluid etc. which maintain the solvency of the
material and are also non-volatile.
Solvent
selection
6. Design for Energy Efficiency
“it is important to recognize energy requirements for their
environmental and economic impacts and should be
minimized. Synthetic methods should be conducted at
ambient temperature and pressure.”
 In any chemical synthesis the energy requirement
should be kept low for example:
 If the starting material is soluble in a particular solvent,
the reaction mixture must be heated till the reaction is
complete.
 If the final product is impure, it must be purified by the
process of distillation or recrystallization .
 All these steps involve the use of high amount of energy
which is uneconomical.
7. Use of Renewable Feedstocks
“A raw material or feedstock should be renewable rather
than depleting wherever technically and economically
practicable.”
•Renewable feedstocks are the wastes of other processes
and are often made from agricultural products. depleting
Feedstocks that comprises petroleum, coal or natural gas
are depleted from fossil fuels or are mined.
• For example :- Substances like CO2 generated from
natural sources and methane gas are considered as
renewable starting materials.
Use of Renewable
Feedstocks
8. Reduce
Derivatives
“ Unnecessary derivatization such as blocking
groups, protection/deprotection, temporary
modification of physical or chemical processes
should be minimized or if possible, avoid.”
• This is necessarily important to overcome
such steps because they required additional
reagents and can generate waste.
• Overall yield and atom economy decrease.
• Instead, more selective and better
alternative synthetic sequences that
eliminate the need for functional group
protection should be adopted.
9. Catalysis
“Catalytic reagents (as selective as possible) are superior to
stoichiometric reagents.”
Use of a catalyst facilitates transformation without the
catalyst being consumed in the reaction and without being
incorporated in the final product.
Advantages
1. Better yields H3C-CH=CH2 + H2 H3C-CH2-CH3
Propene Propane the hydrogenation of olefins is carried out
in presence of nickel.
2. The reaction becomes feasible in those cases where no
reaction is normally possible.
3. Better utilization of starting material and minimum
waste product formation.
10. Design for Degradation
Chemical products should be designed so that at the end of
their function they do not persist in the environment and
break down into innocuous degradation products.”
For example
• Sulfonated detergents
• Long Alkylbenzene sulfonates – 1950’s & 60’s
• Foam in sewage plants, rivers and streams Persistence
was due to alkyl chain
• Introduction of alkene group into the chain increased
degradation
• Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
• Do not break down, persist in atmosphere and contribute
to destruction of ozone layer
• Insecticides like DDT tend to bio-accumulate in many
plant and animal species and incorporate into the food
chain resulting in population decline of beneficial insects
and animals.
11. Real-time Analysis for
Pollution Prevention
“Analytical methodologies need to be
further developed to allow for real-
time, in-process monitoring and
control prior to the formation of
hazardous substances.”
Real time analysis for a chemist is the
process of “checking the progress of
chemical reactions as it happens.”
Knowing when your product is “done”
can save a lot of waste, time and
energy.
12. Inherently Safer Chemistry for
Accident Prevention
“Substances and the form of a substance used in a chemical process should be
chosen to minimize potential for chemical accidents, including releases,
explosions, and fires.”
Design chemicals and their forms (solid, liquid, or gas) to minimize the potential
for chemical accidents including explosions, fires and releases to the
environment.
Example of such incident due to lack of such measures:-
December 3, 1984 – poison gas leaked from a Union Carbide factory, killing
thousands instantly and injuring many more (many of who died later of
exposure). Up to 20,000 people have died as a result of exposure (3-8,000
instantly). More than 120,000 still suffer from ailments caused by exposur
Four paths defining inherently safer
design
Merits of green synthesis
Green synthesis” of nanoparticles makes use
of environmentally friendly, non-toxic and
safe reagents.
• Nanoparticles synthesized using biological
techniques or green technology have diverse
natures, with greater stability and
appropriate dimensions since they are
synthesized using a one-step procedure.
Merits of green synthesis
An important concern about the synthesis of SNPs
is the formation of hazardous wastes, noxious by-
products and ruinous pollutants. The best
solution to mitigate and/or exclude these noxious
substances are plant mediated biosynthesis of SNPs.
Eco-benevolent SNPs from plant extracts have
been identified as precious nanomaterial in various
agricultural, biomedical and catalytic
applications including lithium-sulfur batteries,
pesticides, fungicides, carbon nanotube
modification, gas sensor and neutron capture in
cancer therapy because of their splendid
performance and selectivity

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Presentation.pptx. Green Chemistry and principal of green Chemistry​

  • 1. Assignment #1 Green Chemistry and principles of Green Chemistry Hajira Mahmood Ph.D. CHEMISTRY
  • 2. Green chemistry  An area of chemistry and chemical engineering that focus on the design of products and processing that eliminate or minimize the use of and generation of hazardous substances.  The design of chemical processes and products to reduce or to eliminate the use and generation of toxic, poisonous, hazardous and bio-accumulative chemical substances, that are more environmental friendly and reduce negative impacts to human health and to the environment.  A new scientific approach based on Environment Protection, plays vital role in controlling global warming, acid rain and climate change, and is an extremely important area of Chemistry due to the importance of Chemistry in our world today and the implications it can show on our environment.  The Green Chemistry program supports the invention of more environmentally friendly chemical processes which reduce or even eliminate the generation of hazardous substances
  • 3. Principles of Green Chemistry Real-time Analysis for Pollution Prevention Design for Degradation Catalysis Reduce Derivatives Design for energy efficiency. Use of Renewable Feedstocks Waste Prevention Less hazardous synthesis Designing Safer Chemicals Safer Solvents and Auxiliaries Design for Energy Efficiency Atom Economy.
  • 4. 1. Waste prevention It is better to prevent waste formation than to treat or clean it after its formation. ü beneficial to carry out a synthesis in such a way that the formation of waste products is minimum or absent. ü If wastes are discharged into the atmosphere, seas and to land, it would cause not only pollution, but expenditure would also be needed for cleaning up.
  • 6. 2. Atom Economy “Synthetic methods should be designed to maximize the incorporation of all materials used in the process into the final product.” • A synthesis is Perfectly Efficient or Atom Economical if it generates significant amount of waste which is not visible in percentage yield calculation. • Percent yield: % Yield= actual yield / theoretical yield × 𝟏𝟎𝟎 •Atom Economy: % AE = 𝑭𝑾 𝒐𝒇 𝒂𝒕𝒐𝒎𝒔 𝒖 𝒕𝒊𝒍𝒊𝒔𝒆𝒅 /𝑭𝑾 𝒐𝒇 𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝒓𝒆𝒂𝒄𝒕𝒂𝒏𝒕𝒔 × 𝟏𝟎𝟎
  • 7. Atom Economy Addition and Rearrangement reactions are 100% atom economical reactions as all the reactants are incorporated into products. While Substitution and Elimination reactions are less atom economical. Atom economical reaction In Propene-propane reaction 64.8% reactants are incorporated into product as it takes place in presence of Nickel. 1. H3C-CH=CH2 + H2 H3C-CH2-CH3 less atom economical the % atom economy is 36.5% 2. CH3(CH2)4CH2OH +SOCl2 SO2 + CH3(CH2)4CH2Cl
  • 8. 3. Less hazardous synthesis Wherever practicable, synthetic methodologies should be designed to use and generate substances that possess little or no toxicity to human health and to environment. Example of an unsafe drug is THALIDOMIDE for lessening the effect of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. The child suffers from birth defects like deformed-limbs.
  • 9. 4. Designing Safer Chemicals For example: in the manufacture of Polystyrene, CFC’s which contribute to ozone depletion and global warming are replaced by CO2 Synthetic methodologies should be designed to generate substances that generate substances that possess less harmful or toxic products. This principle focuses on choosing reagents that pose the least risk and generate only safe by-products. "Chemical products should be designed to preserve efficacy of function while reducing toxicity.”
  • 10. 5. Safer Solvents and Auxiliaries “The use of auxiliary substances like solvents, separating agents, etc. should be made unnecessary wherever possible or otherwise make them innocuous.” The solvent selected for a particular reaction shouldn't cause any environmental pollution or hazard e.g. benzene, alcohol. •One major problem with many solvents is their volatility that may damage environment and human health. To avoid this many reactions are carried out in safer green solvents like ionic liquids, supercritical CO2 fluid etc. which maintain the solvency of the material and are also non-volatile.
  • 12. 6. Design for Energy Efficiency “it is important to recognize energy requirements for their environmental and economic impacts and should be minimized. Synthetic methods should be conducted at ambient temperature and pressure.”  In any chemical synthesis the energy requirement should be kept low for example:  If the starting material is soluble in a particular solvent, the reaction mixture must be heated till the reaction is complete.  If the final product is impure, it must be purified by the process of distillation or recrystallization .  All these steps involve the use of high amount of energy which is uneconomical.
  • 13. 7. Use of Renewable Feedstocks “A raw material or feedstock should be renewable rather than depleting wherever technically and economically practicable.” •Renewable feedstocks are the wastes of other processes and are often made from agricultural products. depleting Feedstocks that comprises petroleum, coal or natural gas are depleted from fossil fuels or are mined. • For example :- Substances like CO2 generated from natural sources and methane gas are considered as renewable starting materials.
  • 15. 8. Reduce Derivatives “ Unnecessary derivatization such as blocking groups, protection/deprotection, temporary modification of physical or chemical processes should be minimized or if possible, avoid.” • This is necessarily important to overcome such steps because they required additional reagents and can generate waste. • Overall yield and atom economy decrease. • Instead, more selective and better alternative synthetic sequences that eliminate the need for functional group protection should be adopted.
  • 16. 9. Catalysis “Catalytic reagents (as selective as possible) are superior to stoichiometric reagents.” Use of a catalyst facilitates transformation without the catalyst being consumed in the reaction and without being incorporated in the final product. Advantages 1. Better yields H3C-CH=CH2 + H2 H3C-CH2-CH3 Propene Propane the hydrogenation of olefins is carried out in presence of nickel. 2. The reaction becomes feasible in those cases where no reaction is normally possible. 3. Better utilization of starting material and minimum waste product formation.
  • 17. 10. Design for Degradation Chemical products should be designed so that at the end of their function they do not persist in the environment and break down into innocuous degradation products.” For example • Sulfonated detergents • Long Alkylbenzene sulfonates – 1950’s & 60’s • Foam in sewage plants, rivers and streams Persistence was due to alkyl chain • Introduction of alkene group into the chain increased degradation • Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) • Do not break down, persist in atmosphere and contribute to destruction of ozone layer • Insecticides like DDT tend to bio-accumulate in many plant and animal species and incorporate into the food chain resulting in population decline of beneficial insects and animals.
  • 18. 11. Real-time Analysis for Pollution Prevention “Analytical methodologies need to be further developed to allow for real- time, in-process monitoring and control prior to the formation of hazardous substances.” Real time analysis for a chemist is the process of “checking the progress of chemical reactions as it happens.” Knowing when your product is “done” can save a lot of waste, time and energy.
  • 19. 12. Inherently Safer Chemistry for Accident Prevention “Substances and the form of a substance used in a chemical process should be chosen to minimize potential for chemical accidents, including releases, explosions, and fires.” Design chemicals and their forms (solid, liquid, or gas) to minimize the potential for chemical accidents including explosions, fires and releases to the environment. Example of such incident due to lack of such measures:- December 3, 1984 – poison gas leaked from a Union Carbide factory, killing thousands instantly and injuring many more (many of who died later of exposure). Up to 20,000 people have died as a result of exposure (3-8,000 instantly). More than 120,000 still suffer from ailments caused by exposur
  • 20. Four paths defining inherently safer design
  • 21. Merits of green synthesis Green synthesis” of nanoparticles makes use of environmentally friendly, non-toxic and safe reagents. • Nanoparticles synthesized using biological techniques or green technology have diverse natures, with greater stability and appropriate dimensions since they are synthesized using a one-step procedure.
  • 22. Merits of green synthesis An important concern about the synthesis of SNPs is the formation of hazardous wastes, noxious by- products and ruinous pollutants. The best solution to mitigate and/or exclude these noxious substances are plant mediated biosynthesis of SNPs. Eco-benevolent SNPs from plant extracts have been identified as precious nanomaterial in various agricultural, biomedical and catalytic applications including lithium-sulfur batteries, pesticides, fungicides, carbon nanotube modification, gas sensor and neutron capture in cancer therapy because of their splendid performance and selectivity