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Published in: Lifestyle, Health & Medicine
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  1. 1. செவாய் கிரகத்து பப்பி குட்டியும்– சுக்கிரனின் பூஸூ குட்டியும்<br />ஹைஷ்126<br />
  2. 2. யார் என உங்களுக்கே தெரியும்<br />
  3. 3. What is this?<br />
  4. 4. It’s a small dog!<br />
  5. 5. What is this?<br />
  6. 6. It’s not a small dog!<br />
  7. 7. The differences between dogs and cats!<br /><ul><li>Dogs come when you call them. Cats take a message and get back to you when they are good and ready.
  8. 8. Dogs will give you unconditional love forever. Cats will make you pay for every mistake you’ve ever made since the day you were born.
  9. 9. Dogs will tilt their heads and listen whenever you talk. Cats will yawn and close their eyes.
  10. 10. Dogs will bring you your slippers or the evening newspaper. Cats might bring you a dead mouse. </li></li></ul><li>The differences between dogs and cats!<br /><ul><li>Dogs will greet you and lick your face when you come home from work. Cats will be mad that you went to work at all.
  11. 11. Dogs will sit on the car seat next to you. Cats have to have their own private box or they will not go at all.
  12. 12. Dogs have owners, cats have staff.</li></li></ul><li>Considerations in the shelter environment for any species<br /><ul><li>Evolutionary origin
  13. 13. Behaviour
  14. 14. Exercise and mental stimulation
  15. 15. Accommodation
  16. 16. Reproductive cycle
  17. 17. Diet
  18. 18. Disease and its prevention</li></li></ul><li>Evolutionary origins - dogs<br /><ul><li>Descended from wolves and other wild dogs
  19. 19. Pack animals
  20. 20. Social species
  21. 21. Hierarchy
  22. 22. Hunt and scavenge
  23. 23. Been domesticated for 15-30,000 years
  24. 24. Huge variation in size, shape and use through domestication and selective breeding</li></li></ul><li>Evolutionary origin - cats<br /><ul><li>Descended from the African Wildcat
  25. 25. Solitary hunter
  26. 26. Not social as not evolved to live in close proximity to other cats
  27. 27. Highly territorial
  28. 28. Been domesticated for approx 6,000 years
  29. 29. Have not changed much in shape and size since domestication</li></li></ul><li>Behaviour - Dogs<br /><ul><li>Evolved to live in groups
  30. 30. Generally sociable and like company
  31. 31. Developed ways of communicating with others through facial expressions, stance and voice
  32. 32. Respond well to training</li></li></ul><li>Behaviour - cats<br /><ul><li>Can live in groups of related females and young males
  33. 33. Tend to act independently
  34. 34. Generally stressed by the presence of strange cats
  35. 35. Communicate through smell
  36. 36. Do not have a wide range of facial expressions
  37. 37. Deal with conflict by hiding/fleeing/climbing if possible </li></li></ul><li>Socialisation<br />Puppies<br /><ul><li>Sensitive period is between 3-12 weeks
  38. 38. Must be exposed to a variety of people, animals, sounds etc during this period to avoid being fearful of them later
  39. 39. Need interactive play
  40. 40. Even if socialised before 12 weeks can regress to fearfulness in the absence of social contact</li></ul>Kittens<br /><ul><li>Sensitive period is between 2-7 weeks
  41. 41. Must be exposed to a variety of people, animals, sounds etc during this period to avoid being fearful of them later
  42. 42. If not handled during this period they are unlikely ever to become very sociable pets</li></li></ul><li>Socialisation of kittens<br /><ul><li>Socialisation is very time-consuming and needs experienced, patient staff/volunteers.
  43. 43. Need to put kittens in kitten pen in a busy part of the shelter or property.
  44. 44. Feral kittens that are old enough (from 6 weeks) can be neutered and returned rather than socialised.</li></li></ul><li>Exercise and mental stimulation - dogs<br /><ul><li>Can be taken for walks
  45. 45. Changes environment
  46. 46. Allows exercise
  47. 47. Can undergo training, agility etc
  48. 48. Need variety of toys and activities</li></li></ul><li>Exercise and mental stimulation - cats<br /><ul><li>Generally restricted to the run or pen
  49. 49. Need to be encouraged to exercise and play
  50. 50. Need to exhibit hunting behaviour
  51. 51. Need to have something to scratch on
  52. 52. Need facilities on different levels for climbing, perching etc</li></li></ul><li>Exercise<br />
  53. 53. Stimulation<br />
  54. 54. Toys – mimic prey through shape, texture and movement<br />
  55. 55. Accommodation<br />Dogs<br /><ul><li>Happier with companions
  56. 56. Need adequate floor area but height not so important
  57. 57. Sound-proofing</li></ul>Cats<br /><ul><li>Prefer to be on their own (or with a familiar cat)
  58. 58. Stressed by seeing other cats
  59. 59. Need places to hide, climb and perch</li></li></ul><li>Cat pen design<br />Safe and secure – safety corridors<br />Adequate ventilation – 6 to 12 air changes/hr<br />Adequate temperature – Ideally 15-24C<br />Smooth surfaces, non-porous surfaces <br />Solid (ideally opaque) barriers between cats – sneeze barriers<br />
  60. 60. Cat pen design<br />Ease of cleaning/access cats<br />Ease of public viewing<br />Adequate space for cats to exercise<br />Ideally separate sleeping area and run<br />Food bowls and litter trays kept separately<br />Areas for cats to feel secure and hide<br />Areas to climb and <br /> perch<br />
  61. 61. Cat pen design<br />
  62. 62. Reproductive cycle<br />Dog<br /><ul><li>Comes into season twice yearly
  63. 63. Easier to control whether bitch is mated
  64. 64. Some debate about risks of early neutering</li></ul>Cat<br /><ul><li>Has many seasons in one year
  65. 65. Can have up to 3 litters a year
  66. 66. Difficult to avoid pregnancy if going outside and un-neutered</li></li></ul><li>Cats are very good at reproducing!<br />One entire female can be responsible for the production of over 20,000 kittens in 5 years<br />
  67. 67. Early Neutering<br /><ul><li>The key to neutering being effective at population control is to neuter before sexual maturity, particularly before a female’s first season
  68. 68. Studies show no increased surgical, anaesthetic or developmental risks with pre-pubertal neutering</li></li></ul><li>Early neutering<br /><ul><li>Advantages of early neutering (pre-puberty) resulting in:
  69. 69. Fewer unwanted kittens
  70. 70. Fewer homed cats to follow up
  71. 71. Fewer cats presented for neutering being pregnant
  72. 72. Easier surgically due to less body fat and smaller blood vessels
  73. 73. Quicker recovery</li></li></ul><li>Diet<br />Dogs<br /><ul><li>Originally predators and scavengers
  74. 74. Although generally considered carnivores are more omnivorous
  75. 75. Can survive on a vegetarian diet
  76. 76. Can tolerate prolonged fasting and can use body fat efficiently</li></ul>Cats<br /><ul><li>Supreme predators
  77. 77. Obligate carnivores
  78. 78. Cannot survive on a vegetarian diet
  79. 79. Do not tolerate starvation well </li></li></ul><li>NB If you want a vegetarian pet….<br />…get a rabbit!<br />
  80. 80. Feline diet<br /><ul><li>Need higher levels of protein than dogs
  81. 81. MUST have a meat-based diet
  82. 82. Would eat 9 mice daily in the wild
  83. 83. When healthy, drink less than dogs as were desert animals
  84. 84. Require certain essential nutrients including taurine, arachidonic acid and pre-formed Vitamin A that are only available from animal sources
  85. 85. Can develop a fatal liver condition called hepatic lipidosis if not eating for a few days, especially if obese</li></li></ul><li>Disease<br />Cats<br /><ul><li>Hide pain very well
  86. 86. May not show overt signs of stress
  87. 87. With infectious disease, can often be symptomless carriers or recover but still shed the organism especially when stressed
  88. 88. Do not tolerate certain drugs such as NSAIDs as well as dogs</li></ul>Dogs<br /><ul><li>Show pain or illness more overtly
  89. 89. Show stress more overtly
  90. 90. When ill with infectious disease tend to get better or die
  91. 91. Carrier states less common</li></li></ul><li>Feline infectious disease<br /><ul><li>Many diseases can have a carrier state e.g. FeLV, FIV, feline herpesvirus, feline calicivirus
  92. 92. Stress tends to increase shedding of organisms and susceptibility
  93. 93. Disease is worse in overcrowded, poorly ventilated shelters</li></li></ul><li>Controlling feline infectious disease<br />Avoid overcrowding <br />Keep cats singly where possible<br />Avoid cats sharing litter trays<br />Reduce stress<br />Use isolation<br />Barrier nursing<br />Stringent hygiene/disinfection regime<br />Stop the movement of cats in affected area<br />Vaccination<br />Screen for disease where possible<br />
  94. 94. Common signs of stress<br />Dogs<br /><ul><li>Avoidance
  95. 95. Defensive aggression
  96. 96. Howling/barking
  97. 97. Pacing
  98. 98. Panting
  99. 99. Digging
  100. 100. Excessive activity
  101. 101. Elimination
  102. 102. Anorexia
  103. 103. Compulsive behaviour (tail chasing etc)</li></ul>Cats<br /><ul><li>Avoidance
  104. 104. Hiding
  105. 105. Reduced activity/immobility
  106. 106. Climbing
  107. 107. Elimination/spraying
  108. 108. Reduction in maintenance behaviours (sleeping, grooming, eating, elimination etc)
  109. 109. Excessive grooming
  110. 110. Panting
  111. 111. Aggression</li></li></ul><li>Avoiding stress in cats in shelters<br />Acute stress on arrival is helped by<br /><ul><li>Giving the cat somewhere to hide
  112. 112. Preventing the cats looking directly at other cats
  113. 113. Providing a regular and predictable routine
  114. 114. Having the same person deal with the cat each day</li></ul>Chronic stress occurs after time and is helped by<br /><ul><li>Using different toys and active play
  115. 115. Using puzzle feeders and making them work for their food
  116. 116. Varying the routine with regard to people and timing</li></li></ul><li>Thank You!<br />Cats were once worshipped as gods and they’ve never forgotten it!<br />
  117. 117. Any questions?<br />