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Knowledge Transfer


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Knowledge Transfer

  1. 1. KNOWLEDGETRANSFERWeek 4 – July 12 2010
  2. 2. Last week Horse trotting Explaining Tacit and explicit Knowledge Baking Apple Cake Changing Flat Tyre Installing windows Database Exercising the right way Banana juice Making Doughnut Playing badminton
  3. 3. Explicit Knowledge •Easily written down or codified. •Easy to articulate and communicate •Easier to transfer between individuals and organizations. •Explicit knowledge resides in formulate, textbooks or technical documents.
  4. 4. Explicit Knowledge •Can easily be transmitted or shared using IT tools. •IT plays an important role to maintain explicit knowledge. •Explicit knowledge alone cant create a learning organization.
  5. 5. Tacit knowledge ‘‘we know more than we can tell’’ Tacit knowledge is that which is very difficult to describe or express.
  6. 6. Tacit knowledge Riding It is the knowledge which is usually transferred by demonstration, rather than description, and encompasses such things as skills. In contrast to explicit knowledge, tacit knowledge cannot be explicated fully even by an expert. It is transferred from one person to another only through a long process of apprenticeship (Polanyi, 1966). Business planChoosing the right deal Tacit knowledge is work-related practical know how that is learned informally on the job (Wagner and Sternberg, 1987).
  7. 7. BakingWhich one is tacit knowledge, which one is explicit knowledge? Which of these chefs that you would go for train
  8. 8. List down the explicit knowledge andtacit knowledge that you can think of
  9. 9. Knowledge conversionConversion = Exchange, adaptation, translation  In each case, an individual’s personal knowledge is transformed into organizational knowledge, which expands through the organization and is valuable to the company as a whole.  Making personal knowledge available to others should be the central activity of the knowledge and innovation creating company. It takes place continuously and at all levels of the organization.  Through these interactions an organization creates a knowledge process, called knowledge conversion.
  10. 10. SECI Model knowledge conversion Change Adapt The SECI model is a best approach to describe the way knowledge is generated, transferred re- created in an organization.
  11. 11. SECI Model: Socialization interaction discussing observing analyzing
  12. 12. SECI Model: Socialization Customer SupplierInternal:OrganizationExternal:Customer, supplier, stakeholders Stake holders
  13. 13. SECI Model: Externalization
  14. 14. SECI Model: Externalization managers Young team ideas automobile evolution Inexpensive Not cheap Proposal of new car
  15. 15. SECI Model: Combination•Combining explicit knowledge Annual financial•Transform into another form report
  16. 16. SECI Model: Internalization•Training•Reading documents•Creating documents•Blogging Learning by doing
  17. 17. SECI Model• Face to face• Storytelling• Blog • SOP• Yahoo groups • Reports• CoP • Post mortem• Knowledge fair • Video• K-space• Mentoring• Training • Reading • Practicing • Database • Searching • Report • Revision • Portal •Blogging
  18. 18. SECI Model: Hopscotch •Make a group that consist of 4 students in •a group •Watch the lecturer •Play the game •Reflect back the experience that you have gone through based on SECI model •Explain in class •Upload it in your edublog 30 minutes
  19. 19. SECI Model: 7 stones tacit tacit Teach /demonstrate explicit tacit your friends Video shows of 7 stones how to play socialization externalization Write down the Practice + 7 stones steps from explicit video tacit internalization combination explicit explicit
  20. 20. SECI modelKnowledge Knowledgeconversion transfer Knowledge generation
  21. 21. • Face to face• Storytelling SECI model • SOP• Blog • Reports• Yahoo groups • Post mortem• CoP • Video• Knowledge fair• K-space• Mentoring• Training • Reading • Database • Practicing • Report • Searching • Portal • Revision •Blogging
  22. 22. Knowledge Transfer The ability of the organization to transfer knowledge – Critical factor in KM Key dimension of a learning organization Learning occurs when:  knowledge in one part of an organization is transferred effectively to other parts and used to solve problems Knowledge is transferred
  23. 23. Strategies of Knowledge Transfer• Transferring Explicit & Transferring Tacit Knowledge• Method of knowledge transfer • Best Practice • Communities of Practices • “Water cooler” and “Talk rooms” • Knowledge Fairs and Open Forums • Mentoring • Electronic technologies
  24. 24. Strategies of Knowledge Transfer Best Practices To identify a documented way of achieving a specific results under specific circumstances in an effective way. It is a concept based on lessons learned by one group that are passed on to other groups. In this way an individual or organization can focus on performance of the task rather than first determining the best way to accomplish the task. This can save both time and money. Can facilitate a more consistent set of results.
  25. 25. Strategies of Knowledge TransferBest Practices  Minimize the “silo thinking” in the organization  This is a metaphor drawn from the large grain silos that one sees throughout the US Midwest.  Teams within an organization stand alone  Each silo may be operating quite effectively in their own right  But they don’t work together to create an optimal performance for the organization
  26. 26. Strategies of Knowledge Transfer Community of practice A network of individuals with common problems or interests who get together to:  Explore ways of working  Identify common solutions  Share good practice and ideasLearning is social and comes largely from ofour experience of participating in daily life
  27. 27. Community of practice: The Strategies of Knowledge Transfer characteristics The practice. Members of a community of practice are practitioners. They develop a shared repertoire of resources: experiences, stories, tools, ways of addressing recurring problems—in short a shared practice. This takes time and sustained interaction The domain. The community.A community of practice is something more than a club of In pursuing their interest in their domain,friends or a network of connections between people. It has anidentity defined by a shared domain of interest. Membership members engage in joint activities andtherefore implies a commitment to the domain, and therefore a discussions, help each other, and shareshared competence that distinguishes members from other information. They build relationships thatpeople enable them to learn from each other’.
  28. 28. The Characteristics Of Communities Of Practice A community of practice is different from a community of interest or a geographical community in that it involves a shared practice. Communities of practice are formed by people who engage in a process of collective learning in a shared domain of human endeavor: o A tribe learning to survive o A band of artists seeking new forms of expression o A group of engineers working on similar problems o A clique of pupils defining their identity in the school o A network of surgeons exploring novel techniques o A gathering of first-time managers helping each other cope.
  29. 29. Water Cooler Water cooler a metaphor for the different ‘talk spaces’ where staff can meet and talk informally Dedicated talk spaces Smart office layout Smart office layout
  30. 30. Knowledge Fairs An event designed to showcase information about a topic Using speakers, demonstrations, or booths Displaying information of interest to the attendees Eg. Pasar Ilmu# 1-8
  31. 31. Mentoring Mentoring is a developmental partnership through which one person shares knowledge, skills, information, and perspective to foster the personal and professional growth of someone else. "a trusted counselor or guide.“ A mentor is an individual, usually older, always more experienced, who helps and guides another individual’s development.
  32. 32. Mentoring Mentoring can be delivered:  One-on-one, typically with a more senior person mentoring a less senior individual, or in small teams.  In teams consisting of peers with different backgrounds and skills mentoring each other or a small group matched with a more senior person. Peer mentoring teams are effective since they are based on the concept of mutual benefit; participants receive support and advice as they provide support and advice for others.
  33. 33. Electronic Technologies• Built to support knowledge management applications• Fact: – There is no single technology that is a cure-all for managing knowledge – Know which one to select and deploy for the right situation
  34. 34. KM Toolkit (Amrit Tiwana ) Intranet Digital whiteboard Web conferencing KM Data warehouse Groupware A data warehouse is a central repository for all or significant•Collaborative software parts of the data that an Email•To facilitate the work of groups. enterprises various business•May be used to communicate, systems collect.cooperate, coordinate, solveproblems, compete, ornegotiate.
  35. 35. Benefits of Electronic Technology Innovation Generation of new ideas Productivity Shortening the cycle times in responding to problems and questions Competency The tools will facilitate on-line training and exchange of information Responsiveness The tools will enable Just-In-Time (JIT) information, thus ensuring quick response
  36. 36. The Culture of Knowledge TransferLack of trust Build relationships and trust through face-to-face meetingsDifferent cultures and vocabularies Create common ground through education, discussion, publications, teaming, job rotationLack of time and meeting places Establish times and places for knowledge transfers: fairs, talk rooms, conference reportsStatus and rewards go to knowledge owners Evaluate performance and provide incentives based on sharing
  37. 37. Thank you for listening Please choose one of this topic, prepare are 10 slides of the topic. Must include, and example 1. Serial transfer 2. Near transfer 3. Far transfer 4. Strategic transfer 5. Expert transfer