Enablers of transfer Enable? to make possible, practical, or easy to cause to operate Enabler? one that enables another to achieve an end;
Enablers of Transfer Culture Technology Infrastructure
Enablers of transfers organization structure, processes, and people networks to ensure Infrastructure knowledge flow Technologyenabling platform upon which Culture many KM initiatives are built organizational norms
Enablers of Transfer: Culture The integrated pattern of human knowledge, belief, and behavior that depends upon the capacity for learning and transmitting knowledge to succeeding generations The customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits of a racial, religious, or social group; also : the characteristic features of everyday existence (as diversions or a way of life} shared by people in a place or time <popular culture> <southern culture> The set of shared attitudes, values, goals, and practices that characterizes an institution or organization <a corporate culture focused on the bottom line> The set of values, conventions, or social practices associated with a particular field, activity, or societal characteristic
Culture in KM context Culture relates to organizational norms Culture relates to such knowledge enabling (or inhibiting) factors as willingness to share, support for learning from mistakes, encouragement to share knowledge, allowing time for reflection, and recognition for new knowledge create How to get people in an organization to appreciate the value of knowledge attributes and how to motivate them to put in the effort required, if any, to generate or extract knowledge attributes and use technology that exploits knowledge attributes? Reasons for not using knowledge attributes may be complacency, apathy, lack of awareness, lack of understanding or proof of their value, or technology not yet being up to the mark.
Culture as an enabler of transfer KM begins with self knowledge KM deals with people The tacit & explicit spiral – SECI model
Initiatives to instill KM culture Believe people want to share (help colleagues, learn from others) Prepare to lead (actions speak louder than words) Develop collaborative relationships (CoP- communities of practice, project teams) To reward or not to reward (a ‘standardized’ reward system)
Culture: Case Study Organizational culture should encourage and foster information and knowledge sharing as an activity that is part of the job rather than a form of idle socialization. This requires more than simply incorporating knowledge sharing in the organizational culture. It requires a shift in perceiving knowledge sharing as a professional, rather than a social, activity. A striking example is British Petroleum (BP), showing how the first attempts at KM failed, despite leaderships stress on the value of knowledge sharing. It was not until BP made it part of the job to move personnel to other divisions and departments, where they are encouraged to share their knowledge, that KM succeeded. Incorporating knowledge sharing in the job design resulted in employees changing their behavior, gradually changing the culture to one in which knowledge sharing became one of the most admired professional skills.
Enablers of Transfer: Technology Technology relates to the enabling platform upon which many KM initiatives are built. Technology extending the reach and enhancing the speed of knowledge transfer Right information to the right people at the right time An excessive focus on technology [as] the most common pitfall in knowledge management Although IT is a wonderful facilitator of data and information transmission and distribution, it can never substitute for the rich interactivity, communication, and learning that is inherent in dialogue. Knowledge is primarily a function and consequence of the meeting and interaction of minds. Human intervention remains the only source of knowledge generation" (p. 273).
Guidelines to implement technology Understand the business purpose Determine whether the current technology can be adapted Identify internal support requirements for maintenance of the system Organize your content Design for ease of use Consider initial costs
Commonly Used Technologies Databases & Knowledge-base Document Management Intranets Groupware & Collaborative Tools Search Navigation Tools Decision Support and AI Internet & Web Multimedia
Enablers of Transfer: Infrastructure Definition of infrastructure The underlying foundation or basic framework (as of a system or organization) The system of public works of a country, state, or region; also : the resources (as personnel, buildings, or equipment) required for an activity
Infrastructure in KM context Infrastructure includes organization structure, technology, processes, and people networks to ensure knowledge flow Approaches: Self Directed [storage, codification, repository, database, retrieval, yellow pages, intranets, internet] Knowledge services and networks [information services, help desk, networks, communities of practice, knowledge managers] Facilitated transfer [facilitators, implementers, technical assistance, consultants]
MeasurementHow do we measure ‘knowledge’ or ‘best practices sharing’?Measure by : Observing its impact on other forces e.g. competition and innovation Employee morale productivity Product excellence
Measurement Measuring Through Outcomes business objectives business needs business process Measuring Through Activities how frequently users are accessing Actual Costs and Returns Costs associated with developing support systems (people & technology) Support costs
The importance of measurement Design future systems and applications Improve the current sharing processes Ensure the transfer effort stays on track