Extracting value from Big Data is not easy. The field of technologies and vendors is fragmented and rapidly evolving. End-to-end, general purpose solutions that work out of the box don’t exist yet, and Hadoop is no exception. And most companies lack Big Data specialists. The key to unlocking real value lies with thinking smart and hard about the business requirements for a Big Data solution. There is a long list of crucial questions to think about. Is Hadoop really the best solution for all Big Data needs? Should companies run a Hadoop cluster on expensive enterprise-grade storage, or use cheap commodity servers? Should the chosen infrastructure be bare metal or virtualized? The picture becomes even more confusing at the analysis and visualization layer. The answer to Big Data ROI lies somewhere between the herd and nerd mentality. Thinking hard and being smart about each use case as early as possible avoids costly mistakes in choosing hardware and software. This talk will illustrate how Deutsche Telekom follows this segmentation approach to make sure every individual use case drives architecture design and the selection of technologies and vendors.