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TTRRAAIINNIINNGGGGUUIIDDEE
www.aveva.com
AVEVA Plant
(12 Series)
Programmable Macro
Language (Basic)
TM-1401
AVEVA Plant (12 Series)
Programmable Macro Language - TM-1401
2
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AVEVA Plant (12 Series)
Programmable Macro Language - TM-1401
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Revision Log
Date Revision Description of Re...
AVEVA Plant (12 Series)
Programmable Macro Language - TM-1401
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Copyright
Copyright and all other intellectu...
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Contents
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1 Introduction......................................................................................
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7.4 Alert Objects that return value ...........
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11.5.2 Use Notepad to open file................
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Appendix B11 - Example ex7.pmlfrm .............
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CHAPTER 1
1 Introduction
This manual is designed to give an introduction to the AVEVA Plant Programming Ma...
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CHAPTER 2
2 PML Overview
Macros A macro is a group of PDMS commands written to a file
PML Programmable Ma...
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2.3 PML 2 Jargon
2.4 Features of PML2
The m...
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CHAPTER 3
3 Macros and Synonyms
A macro is a group of PDMS commands written to a file (in sequence) that ...
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3.3 Communicating with AVEVA Products in PM...
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e.g. $SNewBox=NEW BOX XLEN $S1 YLEN $S2 ZLE...
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Exercise 1 - The Centre of a Handwheel
Writ...
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CHAPTER 4
4 Variables
Variables set using the VAR syntax are PML1 style variables and are stored in AVEVA...
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4.3 PML 2 Variable types
There are four bas...
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4.3.3 Expressions
Expressions are calculati...
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4.3.6 PML 2 expressions
PML 2 expressions m...
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Exercise 2 - The variable Centre of a Handw...
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CHAPTER 5
5 PML Control
5.1 DO loop
A DO loop is a way of looping within the PML macro allowing pieces of...
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5.1.2 DO loops with SKIP
It is possible to ...
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5.2 IF Statements
An IF statement is a cons...
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5.4 Conditional Jumping
Type out the follow...
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CHAPTER 6
6 Boolean Expressions and IF Statements
6.1 Simple Boolean Expressions
Expressions based on the...
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6.4 Invalid Boolean expressions
The followi...
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CHAPTER 7
7 Errors & Error Handling
An error condition can occur when a command could not complete succes...
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By default, all alert forms appear with the...
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Exercise 4 – Error Handling
Add some error ...
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CHAPTER 8
8 PML 1 Hierarchy
All PML1 Macros are in a directory structure pointed at by the variable PDMSU...
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CHAPTER 8
9 PML2 Functions and Objects
9.1 The pmllib environment variable
The PMLLIB environment variabl...
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9.3 Updating PDMSUI and PMLLIB
Edit the Eva...
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For each object type, the table shows:
NAME...
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9.7 The !!CE Object
A special GLOBAL PML va...
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!Height = 64
!CylinderVolume = !!Area(2.3) ...
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Exercise 5(b) – Adding arguments to the fun...
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CHAPTER 10
10 Forms
10.1 Forms Are Global Objects
Forms now look like GLOBAL OBJECTS, with Gadgets as the...
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10.3 Form Definition...
Forms are defined w...
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10.3.3 Built-in methods for Forms
Although ...
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define method .quitcall()
$p --Quit Method-...
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10.5.2 Gadget positioning
Gadgets are posit...
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10.5.2.1 Position Gadgets using the path co...
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Resize the form and observe the results.
On...
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endmethod
define method .check()
-- Return ...
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setup form !!TextExample
!this.formTitle = ...
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10.10List Gadgets
A LIST gadget presents an...
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Refer to the Reference Manual and Guide for...
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10.11Frame Gadgets
A FRAME is a cosmetic ga...
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Programmable Macro Language (Basic)

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Programmable Macro Language (Basic)

  1. 1. TTRRAAIINNIINNGGGGUUIIDDEE www.aveva.com AVEVA Plant (12 Series) Programmable Macro Language (Basic) TM-1401
  2. 2. AVEVA Plant (12 Series) Programmable Macro Language - TM-1401 2 www.aveva.com
  3. 3. AVEVA Plant (12 Series) Programmable Macro Language - TM-1401 3 www.aveva.com Revision Log Date Revision Description of Revision Author Reviewed Approved 16/01/2009 0.1 Issued for Review BT 26/01/2009 0.2 Reviewed BT EW 29/01/2009 1.0 Approved for Training 12.0.SP3 BT EW RP Updates All headings containing updated or new material will be highlighted. Suggestion / Problems If you have a suggestion about this manual or the system to which it refers please report it to the AVEVA Group Solutions Centre at gsc@aveva.com This manual provides documentation relating to products to which you may not have access or which may not be licensed to you. For further information on which products are licensed to you please refer to your licence conditions. Visit our website at http://www.aveva.com Disclaimer Information of a technical nature, and particulars of the product and its use, is given by AVEVA Solutions Ltd and its subsidiaries without warranty. AVEVA Solutions Ltd. and its subsidiaries disclaim any and all warranties and conditions, expressed or implied, to the fullest extent permitted by law. Neither the author nor AVEVA Solutions Ltd or any of its subsidiaries shall be liable to any person or entity for any actions, claims, loss or damage arising from the use or possession of any information, particulars or errors in this publication, or any incorrect use of the product, whatsoever. Trademarks AVEVA and Tribon are registered trademarks of AVEVA Solutions Ltd or its subsidiaries. Unauthorised use of the AVEVA or Tribon trademarks is strictly forbidden. AVEVA product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of AVEVA Solutions Ltd or its subsidiaries, registered in the UK, Europe and other countries (worldwide). The copyright, trademark rights or other intellectual property rights in any other product, its name or logo belongs to its respective owner.
  4. 4. AVEVA Plant (12 Series) Programmable Macro Language - TM-1401 4 www.aveva.com Copyright Copyright and all other intellectual property rights in this manual and the associated software, and every part of it (including source code, object code, any data contained in it, the manual and any other documentation supplied with it) belongs to AVEVA Solutions Ltd. or its subsidiaries. All other rights are reserved to AVEVA Solutions Ltd and its subsidiaries. The information contained in this document is commercially sensitive, and shall not be copied, reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted without the prior written permission of AVEVA Solutions Limited. Where such permission is granted, it expressly requires that this Disclaimer and Copyright notice is prominently displayed at the beginning of every copy that is made. The manual and associated documentation may not be adapted, reproduced, or copied in any material or electronic form without the prior written permission of AVEVA Solutions Ltd. The user may also not reverse engineer, decompile, copy or adapt the associated software. Neither the whole nor part of the product described in this publication may be incorporated into any third-party software, product, machine or system without the prior written permission of AVEVA Solutions Limited or save as permitted by law. Any such unauthorised action is strictly prohibited and may give rise to civil liabilities and criminal prosecution. The AVEVA products described in this guide are to be installed and operated strictly in accordance with the terms and conditions of the respective licence agreements, and in accordance with the relevant User Documentation. Unauthorised or unlicensed use of the product is strictly prohibited. Printed by AVEVA Solutions on 28 January 2009 © AVEVA Solutions and its subsidiaries 2001 – 2007 AVEVA Solutions Ltd, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HB, United Kingdom.
  5. 5. 5 Contents www.aveva.com 1 Introduction.............................................................................................................................................. 9 1.1 Aim .................................................................................................................................................... 9 1.2 Objectives......................................................................................................................................... 9 1.3 Prerequisites .................................................................................................................................... 9 1.4 Course Structure.............................................................................................................................. 9 1.5 Using this guide ............................................................................................................................... 9 2 PML Overview ........................................................................................................................................ 11 2.1 PML Programmable Macro Language.......................................................................................... 11 2.2 PML2 - A More Powerful Language.............................................................................................. 11 2.3 PML 2 Jargon.................................................................................................................................. 12 2.4 Features of PML2 ........................................................................................................................... 12 3 Macros and Synonyms.......................................................................................................................... 13 3.1 A simple Macro............................................................................................................................... 13 3.2 The OUTPUT Command ................................................................................................................ 13 3.3 Communicating with AVEVA Products in PML........................................................................... 14 3.4 Parameterised Macros................................................................................................................... 14 3.5 Synonyms....................................................................................................................................... 14 3.6 Recursive Synonyms..................................................................................................................... 15 3.7 Deleting Synonyms........................................................................................................................ 15 Exercise 1 - The Centre of a Handwheel ..................................................................................................... 16 4 Variables................................................................................................................................................. 17 4.1 Numbered Variable types.............................................................................................................. 17 4.2 Named Variable types.................................................................................................................... 17 4.2.1 Setting named variables........................................................................................................... 17 4.3 PML 2 Variable types ..................................................................................................................... 18 4.3.1 Creating Variables.................................................................................................................... 18 4.3.2 Expanding Variables ................................................................................................................ 18 4.3.3 Expressions.............................................................................................................................. 19 4.3.4 Expression operators ............................................................................................................... 19 4.3.5 Operator Precedence............................................................................................................... 19 4.3.6 PML 2 expressions................................................................................................................... 20 4.3.7 Using Variables In Expressions ............................................................................................... 20 4.3.8 Arrays....................................................................................................................................... 20 4.3.9 Concatenation Operator........................................................................................................... 20 Exercise 2 - The variable Centre of a Handwheel....................................................................................... 21 5 PML Control............................................................................................................................................ 23 5.1 DO loop ........................................................................................................................................... 23 5.1.1 DO loops with BREAK.............................................................................................................. 23 5.1.2 DO loops with SKIP.................................................................................................................. 24 5.1.3 DO Index and DO Values......................................................................................................... 24 5.1.4 DO Loops Examples ................................................................................................................ 24 5.2 IF Statements.................................................................................................................................. 25 5.2.1 Simple IF construct. ................................................................................................................. 25 5.2.2 IF, THEN, ELSEIF and ELSE Statements ............................................................................... 25 5.3 Branching ....................................................................................................................................... 25 5.4 Conditional Jumping ..................................................................................................................... 26 Exercise 3 - The Full Handwheel.................................................................................................................. 26 6 Boolean Expressions and IF Statements ............................................................................................ 27 6.1 Simple Boolean Expressions........................................................................................................ 27 6.2 Converting a value to BOOLEAN ................................................................................................. 27 6.3 Valid Boolean expressions ........................................................................................................... 27 6.4 Invalid Boolean expressions ........................................................................................................ 28 6.5 Boolean expressions PML1 upward compatibility.................................................................... 28 7 Errors & Error Handling ........................................................................................................................ 29 7.1 Example of Errors .......................................................................................................................... 29 7.2 Error Handling................................................................................................................................ 29 7.3 Alert Objects................................................................................................................................... 29 7.3.1 Alert Objects with no return value ............................................................................................ 29
  6. 6. AVEVA Plant (12 Series) Programmable Macro Language - TM-1401 6 www.aveva.com 7.4 Alert Objects that return value ..................................................................................................... 30 7.4.1 Confirm Alerts........................................................................................................................... 30 7.4.2 Question Alerts......................................................................................................................... 30 7.4.3 Input Alerts ............................................................................................................................... 30 Exercise 4 – Error Handling.......................................................................................................................... 31 8 PML 1 Hierarchy..................................................................................................................................... 33 8.1 Modifications to PDMSUI .............................................................................................................. 33 9 PML2 Functions and Objects ............................................................................................................... 35 9.1 The pmllib environment variable.................................................................................................. 35 9.2 Modifications to pmllib.................................................................................................................. 35 9.3 Updating PDMSUI and PMLLIB..................................................................................................... 36 9.4 PML2 Objects ................................................................................................................................. 36 9.5 PML2 Methods................................................................................................................................ 36 9.6 Method Concatenation .................................................................................................................. 37 9.7 The !!CE Object .............................................................................................................................. 38 9.8 PML2 Functions ............................................................................................................................. 38 Exercise 5(a) – Convert the Hose reel macro into a function ................................................................... 39 Exercise 5(b) – Adding arguments to the function .................................................................................... 40 10 Forms .................................................................................................................................................. 41 10.1 Forms Are Global Objects............................................................................................................. 41 10.2 Dynamic loading of Objects, Forms and Functions................................................................... 41 10.3 Form Definition............................................................................................................................... 42 10.3.1 Using the .net framework ......................................................................................................... 42 10.3.2 Showing and hiding Forms....................................................................................................... 42 10.3.3 Built-in methods for Forms....................................................................................................... 43 10.4 Callbacks ........................................................................................................................................ 43 10.5 Form Gadgets................................................................................................................................. 44 10.5.1 Built-in members and methods for Gadgets ............................................................................ 44 10.5.2 Gadget positioning ................................................................................................................... 45 10.5.3 Docking and Anchoring Gadgets ............................................................................................. 46 10.6 Paragraph Gadgets........................................................................................................................ 47 10.7 Button Gadgets .............................................................................................................................. 47 10.7.1 Linklabel ................................................................................................................................... 48 10.8 Text Entry Gadgets ........................................................................................................................ 48 10.9 Format Object................................................................................................................................. 49 10.10 List Gadgets ............................................................................................................................... 50 10.11 Frame Gadgets........................................................................................................................... 52 10.11.1 Fold Up Panel Frames ......................................................................................................... 53 10.12 Textpane Gadgets...................................................................................................................... 53 10.13 Option Gadgets .......................................................................................................................... 54 10.14 Toggle Gadgets.......................................................................................................................... 54 10.15 Radio Gadgets............................................................................................................................ 55 10.16 Form Member Variables ............................................................................................................ 56 10.17 Tooltips ....................................................................................................................................... 56 10.18 Progress Bar............................................................................................................................... 57 Exercise 6(a) - Calculation methods........................................................................................................... 58 Exercise 6(b) - Loops .................................................................................................................................... 59 Exercise 6(c) – Concatenation ..................................................................................................................... 60 Exercise 6(d) – String manipulation ............................................................................................................ 61 Exercise 7 – Storing and resetting defaults................................................................................................ 62 10.19 Open Callbacks .......................................................................................................................... 63 Exercise 8 – Tabsets and Open Callbacks.................................................................................................. 64 10.20 Bar Menus................................................................................................................................... 65 10.20.1 Defining a Menu Object........................................................................................................ 65 11 PML Objects ....................................................................................................................................... 67 11.1 Built in PML OBJECT Types ......................................................................................................... 67 11.2 Forms and Menus Objects............................................................................................................ 68 11.3 3D Geometry Objects .................................................................................................................... 68 11.4 Methods Available to All Objects ................................................................................................. 69 11.5 The File Object ............................................................................................................................... 70 11.5.1 Using file objects ...................................................................................................................... 70
  7. 7. AVEVA Plant (12 Series) Programmable Macro Language - TM-1401 7 www.aveva.com 11.5.2 Use Notepad to open file.......................................................................................................... 71 Exercise 9 – Menubar.................................................................................................................................... 71 12 User-Defined Objects ........................................................................................................................ 73 13 Collections.......................................................................................................................................... 75 13.1 The Collection Syntax (PML 1) ..................................................................................................... 75 13.2 The Object Collection Syntax (PML 2) ......................................................................................... 75 Exercise 10 – Equipment Collections.......................................................................................................... 76 14 Pop-Up Menus.................................................................................................................................... 77 Exercise 11(a) – Pop-up menu ..................................................................................................................... 78 Exercise 11(b) – Equipment Checking ........................................................................................................ 79 Exercise 11(c) – Setting Equipment attributes........................................................................................... 80 15 View Gadgets ..................................................................................................................................... 81 15.1 Alpha Views.................................................................................................................................... 81 15.2 Plot View Example ......................................................................................................................... 81 15.3 Volume View example ................................................................................................................... 82 Exercise 12(a) – Adding a Volume View...................................................................................................... 83 Exercise 12(b) – Adding a Clipbox to the view........................................................................................... 84 Exercise 12(c) – Dynamically modify a clipbox.......................................................................................... 85 Exercise 12(d) – Add Nozzle tagging........................................................................................................... 86 Exercise 12(e) – Add Highlighting ............................................................................................................... 87 16 Event Driven Graphics (EDG) ........................................................................................................... 89 16.1 Simple EDG..................................................................................................................................... 89 16.2 Using EDG ...................................................................................................................................... 90 Exercise 13 – Using EDG .............................................................................................................................. 91 Exercise 13(a) – Add EDG to !!ex10............................................................................................................. 91 Exercise 13(b) – Add EDG to !!ex11b .......................................................................................................... 92 Exercise 13(c) – Add EDG to !!ex12b........................................................................................................... 93 17 Miscellaneous .................................................................................................................................... 95 17.1 Recursive Pml2 Functions............................................................................................................ 95 17.2 Undo and Redo............................................................................................................................... 95 17.2.1 Marking the database............................................................................................................... 95 17.2.2 Undo and Redo Database Commands .................................................................................... 95 17.3 Error tracing ................................................................................................................................... 96 18 Menu Additions .................................................................................................................................. 97 18.1 Miscellaneous Notes ..................................................................................................................... 97 18.2 Modules that use the new Addins functionality ......................................................................... 97 18.3 Adding a Menu/Toolbar................................................................................................................. 97 18.4 Application Design ........................................................................................................................ 97 18.5 Form and Toolbar Control............................................................................................................. 98 18.6 Converting Existing Applications ................................................................................................ 98 18.6.1 DBAR and Add-in Object ......................................................................................................... 99 18.6.2 Bar Menu and Toolbar ............................................................................................................. 99 18.6.3 Define toolbar........................................................................................................................... 99 18.6.4 Adding to Menus ...................................................................................................................... 99 18.6.5 Adding new menus to form .................................................................................................... 100 18.7 Example object including toolbars, bar menus and menus.................................................... 101 Exercise 14 – Add a Utility and Toolbar menu ......................................................................................... 103 19 Upgrading from PML1 to PML2 ...................................................................................................... 105 19.1 Points to watch out for................................................................................................................ 105 Appendix A – PDMS Primitives.................................................................................................................. 107 Appendix B – Example code ...................................................................................................................... 111 Appendix B1 - Example ex1.mac ........................................................................................................... 111 Appendix B2 - Example ex2.mac ........................................................................................................... 112 Appendix B3 - Example ex3.mac ........................................................................................................... 113 Appendix B4 - Example ex4.mac ........................................................................................................... 114 Appendix B5 - Example ex5a.pmlfnc..................................................................................................... 115 Appendix B6 - Example ex5b.pmlfnc..................................................................................................... 116 Appendix B7 - Example ex6a.pmlfrm .................................................................................................... 118 Appendix B8 - Example ex6b.pmlfrm .................................................................................................... 119 Appendix B9 - Example ex6c.pmlfrm .................................................................................................... 121 Appendix B10 - Example ex6d.pmlfrm .................................................................................................. 124
  8. 8. AVEVA Plant (12 Series) Programmable Macro Language - TM-1401 8 www.aveva.com Appendix B11 - Example ex7.pmlfrm .................................................................................................... 127 Appendix B12 - Example ex8.pmlfrm .................................................................................................... 131 Appendix B13 - Example ex9.pmlfrm .................................................................................................... 135 Appendix B14 - Example ex10.pmlfrm .................................................................................................. 139 Appendix B15 - Example ex11a.pmlfrm ................................................................................................ 140 Appendix B16 - Example ex11b.pmlfrm ................................................................................................ 141 Appendix B17 - Example ex11c.pmlfrm ................................................................................................ 143 Appendix B18 - Example ex12a.pmlfrm ................................................................................................ 146 Appendix B19 - Example ex12b.pmlfrm ................................................................................................ 150 Appendix B20 - Example ex12c.pmlfrm ................................................................................................ 154 Appendix B21 - Example ex12d.pmlfrm ................................................................................................ 159 Appendix B22 - Example ex12e.pmlfrm ................................................................................................ 165 Appendix B23 - Example ex13a.pmlfrm ................................................................................................ 172 Appendix B24 - Example ex13b.pmlfrm ................................................................................................ 174 Appendix B25 - Example ex13c.pmlfrm ................................................................................................ 177 Appendix B26 - Example ex14................................................................................................................ 182
  9. 9. 9 www.aveva.com CHAPTER 1 1 Introduction This manual is designed to give an introduction to the AVEVA Plant Programming Macro Language, There is no intention to teach software programming but just how the customisation using PML can be done in AVEVA Plant. Appendix B contains example code that answers each exercise. The exercises have been deliberately written to be open to interpretation. This means that the code you produce maybe different. 1.1 Aim The following points need to be understood by the trainees: Understand how PML can be used to customise Vantage Plant Design (PDMS) Understand how to create Functions, Forms and Objects. Understand how to use the built-in features of Vantage Plant Design (PDMS) Understand the use of Addins to customise the environment. 1.2 Objectives At the end of this training, you will have a: Broad overview of Programmable Macro Language Basic coding practices and conventions How PML can interact with the Design model How Forms and Menus can be defined with PML 1.3 Prerequisites The participants must have completed an AVEVA Basic Design Course and have some basic progremmin knowledge. 1.4 Course Structure Training will consist of oral and visual presentations, demonstrations and set exercises. Each workstation will have a training project, populated with model objects. This will be used by the trainees to practice their methods, and complete the set exercises. 1.5 Using this guide Certain text styles are used to indicate special situations throughout this document, here is a summary; Menu pull downs and button press actions are indicated by bold dark turquoise text. Information the user has to Key-in 'will be red and BOLD' Annotation for trainees benefit: Additional information Refer to other documentation System prompts should be bold and italic in inverted commas i.e. 'Choose function' Example files or inputs will be in the courier new font, colours and styles used as before.
  10. 10. AVEVA Plant (12 Series) Programmable Macro Language - TM-1401 10 www.aveva.com
  11. 11. 11 www.aveva.com CHAPTER 2 2 PML Overview Macros A macro is a group of PDMS commands written to a file PML Programmable Macro Language (two parts) PML1 First version of PML including loops, IF statements, string handling, labels etc. PML2 Object orientated language builds on PML1 and extends the facilities to be like other object based languages (C++, Smalltalk) Forms Most applications are driven by forms and menus. Most PML will be based on a form. 2.1 PML Programmable Macro Language Macros are ASCII files containing PDMS commands in sequence. By asking PDMS to run a macro, you are really asking PDMS to run a series of commands in a set order (as defined in the macro file) Programmable macros are macros that contain program constructs such as IF statements, DO loops and variables Macros are run in PDMS by typing $m/FILENAME on to the command line (Display>Command Line). Any extra information added to a macro line is treated as input parameters and are passed to the macro. i.e. $M/BUILDBOX 100 200 300 This means that the extra 3 values after the macro name are treated as parameters 1, 2 and 3. When entered in this way, these parameters are then available for use in the macro instead of fixed values. 2.2 PML2 - A More Powerful Language PML2 is an enhanced version of PML and is more like other modern languages that you may be familiar with. PML2 is almost an object oriented language. It provides most features of other Object Orientated Programming (OOP) languages except for inheritance. It provides for classes of built-in, system-defined and user-defined object types. Objects have members (their own variables) and methods (their own functions). All PML variables are an instance of a built-in, system-defined or user-defined object type. Typically, fewer lines of code needed with PML2 when compared to traditional PML (PML1) and it has been designed to be easier to read/write. While most PML1 macros will still run within PDMS, PML2 bring many new features that were previously unavailable. Built in methods for different variable types remove several multi line procedures used in old style macros. Use of $ characters is dramatically reduced with a more readable format for expressions $-style macros will still work provided the syntax has been followed correctly. It is possible to convert traditional PML code to include newer PML2 features, but it is important that users maintain compatibility at all times. Many new features have been added to improve speed and ease of use. These features will be discussed and demonstrated through this course.
  12. 12. AVEVA Plant (12 Series) Programmable Macro Language - TM-1401 12 www.aveva.com 2.3 PML 2 Jargon 2.4 Features of PML2 The main features of PML2 are: • Available Variable Types - STRING, REAL, BOOLEAN, ARRAY • Built in Methods for commonly used actions • Global Functions supersede old style macros • User Defined Object Types • PML Search Path (PMLLIB) • Dynamic Loading of Forms, Functions and Objects • Aid objects for geometric modelling PML is now more consistent with other programming languages and more structured in form. The new data types are now OBJECTS which can be operated by running METHODS. The old $ based variables are still valid, but are always treated as strings. Global functions are macros which can be called more like subroutines than traditional macros. e.g. a function can be called between the brackets of an IF statement and return a BOOLEAN result User-defined object types enable a group of mixed variables to be combined into packages. The resulting object can then be used as a simple variable and the separate parts set or used as attributes of the variable. e.g. !fred.position !fred.name Search paths and dynamic loading mean that it is no longer necessary to pre load forms or have synonyms for calling macros. A large number of new aid objects have been created so that users can do more graphical construction.
  13. 13. 13 www.aveva.com CHAPTER 3 3 Macros and Synonyms A macro is a group of PDMS commands written to a file (in sequence) that can be run together. This removes the need for user to have to enter every line of code separately. This means that repetitive processes can be run as a macro. 3.1 A simple Macro Below is an example of a macro to produce a BOX and CYLINDER and connect to two together, all within an EQUI. Type the following into a suitable text editor and save it as c:pmltrainingSimpleMac.mac NEW EQUIP /ABCD NEW BOX XLEN 300 YLEN 400 ZLEN 600 NEW CYL DIA 400 HEI 600 CONN P1 TO P2 OF PREV You have created your first macro. To run the macro into PDMS, type $M/ onto the command file, followed by the full file path of the saved macro. e.g. $M/c:pmltrainingSimpleMac.mac When running this macro in, ensure the Current Element (CE) is a ZONE or below Alternatively the macro can be run by Dragging and Dropping it onto the Command Window. 3.2 The OUTPUT Command While developing a macro there are two main methods within PDMS to find the information it needs: OUTPUT command DB listing utility Both provide the information needed, so the choice on which will be personal. An example of using the OUTPUT command is as follows: Type file /c:pmltrainingaa.txt onto the command line, then press enter (typing file /c:pmltrainingaa.txt over or FFile /c: pmltrainingaa.txt is also acceptable). PDMS will open the specified file ready to write to. If the file does not exist, this process will create it. Choose the require element of interest and ensure it is the CE. After it is chosen, type OUTPUT CE onto the command line. This will print the information PDMS has about the CE to the file. Last step, type TERM onto the command line. This will close the form, allowing it to be opened by another program. This file will hold the information (e.g. attributes) PDMS needs to define the elements. Try the OUTPUT command on the equipment created by SimpleMac.mac. Notice the additional information PDMS saves about the elements (information not specified in the macro).
  14. 14. AVEVA Plant (12 Series) Programmable Macro Language - TM-1401 14 www.aveva.com 3.3 Communicating with AVEVA Products in PML All commands need to be supplied to the command processor as STRINGS. This is important when working with element creation (using the NEW syntax) To expand the contents of a PML variable into a string - put a $ in front of it! !CompType = |ELBO| !dist = 5600 NEW $!CompType DIST $!dist 3.4 Parameterised Macros Macros can be parameterised. This means instead of hard coding the values through the macro, the values can be referenced, allowing them to be varied. Simplemac.mac can be parameterised as follows: NEW EQUIP /$1 NEW BOX XLEN $2 YLEN $3 ZLEN $4 NEW CYL DIA $3 HEI $4 CONN P1 TO P2 OF PREV Save the Macro as c:pmltrainingParameterMac.mac To run this Macro, parameters need to be passed to it. This appending the parameter values to the macro: e.g. $M/c:pmltrainingParameterMac.mac ABCDE 300 400 600 If no parameters are specified, the macro will fail. To avoid this, default values can be put inside the macro. This is done by specified $d1= at the top of the macro. For example: $d1=ABCDEF $d2=300 $d3=400 $d4=600 Default values will only be used if no parameters are specified. Macros may have up to 9 parameters separated by space. In the below example, ABC, DEF & GHK are seen as separate strings and therefore different parameters: e.g. $M/c:pmltrainingNinePara.mac ABC DEF GHK 55 66 77 88 99 00 If a text string is required as a single parameter, it can be entered by placing a $< before and a $> after the string. e.g. $M/c:pmltrainingSevenPara.mac $<ABC DEF GHK$> 55 66 77 88 99 00 $< $> act as delimiters and anything in between is interpreted as a single parameter. 3.5 Synonyms Synonyms are abbreviations of longer commands. They are created by assigning the command to a synonym variable: e.g. $SNewBox=NEW BOX XLEN 100 YLEN 200 ZLEN 300 A synonym can also be parameterised:
  15. 15. AVEVA Plant (12 Series) Programmable Macro Language - TM-1401 15 www.aveva.com e.g. $SNewBox=NEW BOX XLEN $S1 YLEN $S2 ZLEN $S3 To call the first version, type NewBox. For the second version, type NewBox 100 200 300 3.6 Recursive Synonyms It is possible for a synonym to call itself, effectively looping through the same command. The following example shows how the XLEN attribute of a group of boxes (owned by the same element) can be updated: e.g. $SXChange=XLEN 1000 $/ NEXT $/ XChange This method will end with an error as it runs until it runs out of boxes to change. $/ acts as a return character 3.7 Deleting Synonyms To kill a synonym, type $SXXX= & all synonyms $sk To switch synonyms off and on $S- and $S+ If all synonyms are killed, the synonyms needed to run PDMS will be removed. This means PDMS will no longer work properly and will require restarting. If synonyms are turned off, some PDMS functionality will also be removed. The return this functionality, the synonyms should be turned back on.
  16. 16. AVEVA Plant (12 Series) Programmable Macro Language - TM-1401 16 www.aveva.com Exercise 1 - The Centre of a Handwheel Write a macro to build the centre of a handwheel (shown right) It shall be constructed from 4 primitives: 2 boxes, a cylinder and a dish Create the primitives within a PDMS Design session using the available appware. Once this is done, use the OUTPUT command to see the information PDMS needs to create them. Based on the output, use the CONN command to connect the Ppoints of primitives together i.e. CONN P1 TO P1 OF PREV This will connect PPoint 1 (P1) of the current primitive to P1 of the primitive created previously. The hierarchy created should look similar to the following: The dimensions of the primitives are: BOX1 - Xlength = 100mm Ylength = 100mm Zlength = 100mm CYLI - Diameter = 80mm Height = 5mm BOX2 - Xlength = 50mm Ylength = 50mm Zlength = 15mm DISH1 - Diameter = 50mm Height = 15mm To aid with connecting the primitives, refer to the adjacent diagram showing an exploded version of the equipment, with the PPoints identified. At the end of the macro add the following line: ADD /HandWheel AUTO /HandWheel This line will add the created equipment to the drawlist and scale the view so it can be seen. You could also add the following line before it. REM ALL This will clear the drawlist first, ensuring that only the new piece of equipment is seen in the main 3D window. Save the file as c:pmltrainingex1.mac and run it on the command line by typing $m/c:pmltrainingex1.mac An example of the completed macro can be found in Appendix B
  17. 17. 17 www.aveva.com CHAPTER 4 4 Variables Variables set using the VAR syntax are PML1 style variables and are stored in AVEVA products as strings. Otherwise, they are PML2 style variables. 4.1 Numbered Variable types Numbered variables are set by typing a number then value after the command VAR. Examples of this are below: var 1 name var 2 ‘hello’ var 3 (99) var 4 (99 * 3 / 6 + 0.5) var 117 pos in site var 118 (name of owner of owner) var 119 ‘hello ’ + ‘world ‘ + ‘how are you’ To obtain the value of variable 1, enter q var 1, q var 117 etc. The available variable numbers only go to 119 (there is no 120) and they are module dependant. For these reasons, this technique is no longer commonly used. 4.2 Named Variable types To give a variable a name, the required name must be preceded with either a single or double exclamation mark (!), !variablename or !!variablename single ! - a local variable (can only be seen in the current macro) double!! - a global variable Variable names may be up to 64 characters long and the names can contain alpha and numeric characters. Variable names must not start with a number or contain a . (full stop) 4.2.1 Setting named variables The following are some examples of setting variables: VAR !FRED NAME Takes the current element’s (ce) name attribute VAR !POS POS IN WORLD Takes ce position attribute relative to world coordinates VAR !x ‘NAME’ Sets the variable to the text string ‘NAME’ VAR !temp (23 * 1.8 + 32) Calculate a value using the expression VAR !list COLL ALL ELBO FOR CE Makes a string array of database references Quotes ‘ ‘ or vertical bars | | may be used as text Delimiters
  18. 18. AVEVA Plant (12 Series) Programmable Macro Language - TM-1401 18 www.aveva.com 4.3 PML 2 Variable types There are four basic variable types: STRING ‘any alpha numeric characters’ REAL any numeric value BOOLEAN true/false t/f (but not 0/1) ARRAY any combination of the above Note: PML1 style variables using the VAR syntax are only stored as strings. 4.3.1 Creating Variables The following are some examples of setting PML2 variables types: !Name = ‘Fred’ To create a LOCAL, STRING variable !!Answer = 42 To create a GLOBAL, REAL variable: !!Flag = TRUE To create a GLOBAL, BOOLEAN variable: !newarray = ARRAY() To create a LOCAL empty ARRAY !newarray[1] = |xxx| or !newarray[1] = ‘xxx’ To add to first value to the empty ARRAY (locally) The type of variable is automatically implied by its content !!answer = 42 becomes a REAL !name = ‘fred’ becomes STRING !flag = TRUE becomes BOOLEAN Variables can be initialised to ensure only correct results can be set. All variable types can be set up the following way: !!number = real() !!text = string() 4.3.2 Expanding Variables To expand variables in AVEVA products on the command line use a $. When the line is read, the values of the variables will be used. VAR !XLEN (1000) VAR !YLEN (1000) VAR !ZLEN (1000) NEW BOX XLEN $!XLEN YLEN $!YLEN ZLEN $!ZLEN
  19. 19. AVEVA Plant (12 Series) Programmable Macro Language - TM-1401 19 www.aveva.com 4.3.3 Expressions Expressions are calculations using PML variables. This can be done is a PML1 or PML2 style: PML1: VAR !Z ( |$!X| + |$!Y| ) PML2: !Z = !X + !Y In the PML1 example, !Z is set as a STRING variable. In the PML2 example, !Z is returned as a REAL, if !X and !Y are REAL Setting variables using the PML2 method is neater and more readable when compared to PML1. Any variable can be forced to be a STRING by putting a dollar in front of it. !x = 64 this returns a REAL. VAR !y (64) this returns a STRING IF(!x eq !y)THEN is invalid syntax because the comparison is mixing variable types. IF($!x eq !y)THEN valid because the dollar in front of !x forces it to be a STRING. 4.3.4 Expression operators There are a number of expression operators which are available for use. The actual syntax will depend on whether a PML1 or PML2 style has been adopted. Numeric operators: + - / * Comparison operators: LT GT EQ NE LE GE Logic operators: NOT AND OR Numeric functions: SIN COS TAN SQR POW NEGATE ASIN ACOS ATAN LOG ALOG ABS INT NINT For further examples, refer to PDMS Software Customisation Reference Manual: Some examples of expressions in use: !s = 30 * sin(45) !t = pow(20,2) (raise 20 to the power 2 (=400)) !f = (match(name of owner,|LPX|)gt 0) 4.3.5 Operator Precedence When PDMS reads an expression, there is a precedence that applied to it. This should be considered when writing one. The order is as follows: () * / + - EQ NE GT LT GE LE NOT AND OR e.g. (60 * 2 / 3 + 5) = 45
  20. 20. AVEVA Plant (12 Series) Programmable Macro Language - TM-1401 20 www.aveva.com 4.3.6 PML 2 expressions PML 2 expressions may be of any complexity, they may contain calls to PML Functions and Methods and include Form gadget values ,object members and methods. For example: !NewVal = !!MyFunc(!OldVal) * !!Form.Gadget.Val / !MyArray.Method() 4.3.7 Using Variables In Expressions $ and quotes are not necessary when using the value of a variable in a PML2 expression: !X = 64 (instead of VAR !X (64)) !Y = 32 !Z = !X + !Y The same expression PML1 is still valid ( VAR !Z (|$!X| + |$!Y|) ), but in this case !Z is a STRING variable 4.3.8 Arrays An ARRAY variable can contain many values, each of which is called an ARRAY ELEMENT. An array is created automatically by creating one of its array elements or it can be initialised as an empty ARRAY. If an ARRAY ELEMENT is itself an ARRAY, this will create a Multi-dimensional ARRAY. For example an example of an array, type out the following onto the command line: !x[1] = |ABCD| !x[2] = |DEFG| !y[1] = |1234| !y[2] = |5678| !z[1] = !x !z[2] = !y To query the information about !z, type q var !z. This will return the following information: <ARRAY> [1] <ARRAY> 2 Elements [2] <ARRAY> 2 Elements To find out more information about the elements within the Multi-dimensional array, type q var !z[1] or q var !z[2][1] 4.3.9 Concatenation Operator Values to be concatenated are automatically converted to STRING by the ‘&’ operator. Type the following onto the command line: !a = 64 !b = 32 !m = ‘mm’ !c = !a & !b & !m q var !c Compare this against the results of typing !d = !a + !b q var !d
  21. 21. AVEVA Plant (12 Series) Programmable Macro Language - TM-1401 21 www.aveva.com Exercise 2 - The variable Centre of a Handwheel Write a parameterised macro to build the centre of a handwheel. ex1.mac will be the basis for the new macro. Also, add two extra primitives to represent an arm (a cylinder) and part of the wheel (a circular torus). Use the $d1=XXX syntax to replace the values used in ex1.mac with parameters $d1 should be used for the name of the equipment and the rest should be set as the required dimensions Give BOX1 a name so that it can be referred to. This will be useful when positioning the new cylinder and circular torus. As $1 is a string, a unique name can be created by using the variable with some additional characters e.g. /$1-XXX The new cylinder shall have a height of 500mm and should not overlap the original BOX1. Both the cylinder and circular torus shall have a diameter of 50mm. The centre line of the circular torus shall intercept the end of the new cylinder. The CONN method from exercise 1 can still be used, but instead of using PREV, we can reference other named elements. Think about the available PPoints when positioning the new primitives (Refer to Appendix A) The hierarchy created should look similar to the following: Save the file as c:pmltrainingex2.mac and run it on the command line by typing $m/c:pmltrainingex2.mac An example of the completed macro can be found in Appendix B Try running the macro again with a different equipment name variable to check it works
  22. 22. AVEVA Plant (12 Series) Programmable Macro Language - TM-1401 22 www.aveva.com
  23. 23. 23 www.aveva.com CHAPTER 5 5 PML Control 5.1 DO loop A DO loop is a way of looping within the PML macro allowing pieces of code to be run more than once. This is useful as it allows code to be reused and reduces the length of code. As an example, type out the following and save it a c:pmltrainingDoLoop.mac: DO !loopCounter FROM 1 TO 10 !value = !loopCounter * 2 q var !loopCounter !value ENDDO If the above example is run into PDMS, values of !loopCounter and !value with be printed to the command line for the full range of the defined loop. The step of the loop can be altered by adding BY to the loop definition: eg: DO !loopCounter FROM 1 TO 10 BY 2 5.1.1 DO loops with BREAK If you need a loop to run until a certain condition is reached, a BREAK command will exit the current loop: Type out the following example and save it a c:pmltrainingDoBreak.mac: !n = 0 DO !n = !n + 1 !value = POW(!n, 2) q var !value BREAK IF (!value GT 1000) ENDDO The BREAK command can also be called from within a normal IF construct. This is typically done if multiple break conditions need to be considered. e.g. IF (!value GT 1000) BREAK ENDIF The loop in the example will run until the BREAK condition is met. If the condition is never reached, then the code will run indefinitely! A DO loop of 1 to 100000 could be used instead, as it has an end. An open DO loop that never meets the break condition will run indefinitely
  24. 24. AVEVA Plant (12 Series) Programmable Macro Language - TM-1401 24 www.aveva.com 5.1.2 DO loops with SKIP It is possible to skip part of the DO loop using the SKIP command. This could be useful if parts of a number sequence needs to be missed: Type out the following example and save it a c:pmltrainingDoSkip.mac: DO !n FROM 1 TO 25 SKIP IF (!n LE 5) OR (!n GT 15) q var !n ENDDO The SKIP command can also be called within a normal IF construct (as the BREAK command) 5.1.3 DO Index and DO Values DO Index and DO Values are ways of looping through arrays. This is an effective method for controlling the values used for the loops. Typically values are collected into an ARRAY variable then looped through using the following: DO !X VALUES !ARRAY !X takes each ARRAY element ENDDO DO !X INDEX !ARRAY !X takes a number from 1 to !ARRAY size ENDDO 5.1.4 DO Loops Examples Type out the following as an example of looping through an ARRAY of values. Save the following as c:pmltrainingDoArray.mac. VAR !Zones COLL ALL ZONES FOR SITE VAR !Names EVAL NAME FOR ALL FROM !Zones q var !Names DO !x VALUES !Names q var !x ENDDO DO !x INDEX !Names q var !Names[!x] ENDDO The example uses the COLL syntax as a method of defining an array. This syntax will be explained later in the manual. It shows how the two methods can extract the same information from the source array.
  25. 25. AVEVA Plant (12 Series) Programmable Macro Language - TM-1401 25 www.aveva.com 5.2 IF Statements An IF statement is a construct for the conditional execution of commands. The commands will only be run if the conditions of the IF statement are met. 5.2.1 Simple IF construct. A simple example of an IF construct is shown below. The code within the IF construct is only run if the expression is TRUE. An example is as follows: IF ( !Number LT 0 ) THEN !Negative = TRUE ENDIF 5.2.2 IF, THEN, ELSEIF and ELSE Statements An IF construct can be extended by adding additional conditions. This is done by adding either ELSEIF or ELSE to it. When an IF construct is encountered, PML will evaluate its condition. If the condition is FALSE, PDMS will look to the next ELSEIF condition. Once a condition is found to be TRUE, that code will be run that proportional of the code and the IF construct is complete. If an ELSE condition is added, this portion of code will only be run if the other conditions are never met. This is a way of ensuring some code is always run. Type out the following example, and save it as c:pmltrainingNumCheck.mac. Run it with one real parameter. IF ($1 EQ 0) THEN $p Your value is zero ELSEIF ($1 LT 0) THEN $p Your value is less than zero ELSE $p Your value is Greater than zero ENDIF The ELSEIF and ELSE commands are optional, but there can only be one ELSE command in an IF construct. 5.3 Branching PML provides a way of jumping from one part of a macro to another using GOLABEL. LABEL /FRED Max length 16 characters, excluding (/) ... Some PML code ... GOLABEL /FRED The next line to be executed will be the line following LABEL /FRED, which could be before or after the GOLABEL command. The use of this method should be limited. It can make code hard to read and debug.
  26. 26. AVEVA Plant (12 Series) Programmable Macro Language - TM-1401 26 www.aveva.com 5.4 Conditional Jumping Type out the following as an example of conditional jumping. Save it as c:pmltrainingConditional.mac. DO !A $P Processing $!A DO !B TO 10 !C = !A * !B GOLABEL /finished if (!C GT 100) $P Product $!C ENDDO ENDDO LABEL /finished $P Finished with processing = $!A Product = $!C If the expression !C GT 100 is TRUE there will be a jump to label /finished and PML execution will continue with the $P command. If the expression is FALSE, PML execution will continue with the command: $P Product $!C and go back through the DO loop. Exercise 3 - The Full Handwheel Introduce variables and calculations to reduce the number of parameters needed to build a handwheel. Use ex2.mac as a basis for the new macro and use a loop to complete the outer wheel. Create two SUBE elements. One will contain the primitives that make up the centre of the handwheel and the other the arm of the handwheel. Use a loop to copy the arm SUBE element to complete the outer wheel. When building the loop, consider how many copies are needed. When creating a copy, create the element as usual but append COPY /XXXX to the line. This will create a new element, but copy it from /XXXX e.g. NEW BOX COPY /XXXX As each arm will need to be rotated 90° from the previous, the ROTATE command can be used e.g. ROTATE BY AAA ABOUT BBB where AAA is the angle of rotation and BBB a direction to rotate around i.e. U. Think about how the loop can be used to change the angle of rotation and the name of the copied elements. The hierarchy created should look similar to the following Save the file as c:pmltrainingex3.mac and run it on the command line by typing $m c:pmltrainingex3.mac An example of the completed macro can be found in Appendix B
  27. 27. 27 www.aveva.com CHAPTER 6 6 Boolean Expressions and IF Statements 6.1 Simple Boolean Expressions Expressions based on the operators such as EQ (equal to) and GT (greater than) give a BOOLEAN result which can be used directly in an IF construct. An example is as follows. Type out the example and save it as c:pmltrainingBoolean.mac. Run it as a single parameter macro. !value = int($1) IF ( !value NE 1 ) THEN !Test = FALSE ELSEIF ( !value.eq(1) ) THEN !Test = TRUE ENDIF q var !Test The expression can be a simple variable provided it is a BOOLEAN type variable: !Success = !Value GT 0 IF ( !Success ) THEN The expression could be a user-defined PML function or method that returns a BOOLEAN result: IF ( !!MyFunction() ) THEN 6.2 Converting a value to BOOLEAN There is a built-in PML method and a function for converting a value to BOOLEAN: !MyString = |TRUE| IF ( !MyString.Boolean() ) THEN ... The Boolean conversion is as follows: REAL zero becomes FALSE All other positive and negative REAL values become TRUE STRING ‘FALSE, ‘F’, ‘NO’ and ‘N’ become FALSE STRING ‘false, ‘f’, ‘no’ and ‘n’ become FALSE STRING ‘TRUE’, ‘T’, ‘YES’ AND ‘Y’ become TRUE STRING ‘true’, ‘t’, ‘yes’ and ‘y’ become TRUE 6.3 Valid Boolean expressions BOOLEAN constants are TRUE, FALSE, YES and NO and their single-letter abbreviations not enclosed in quotes return Boolean results and so can be used directly in expressions. For example: if ( TRUE ) and if ( FALSE ) BOOLEAN OK if ( T ) and if ( F ) BOOLEAN OK if ( YES ) and if ( NO ) BOOLEAN OK if ( Y ) and if ( N ) BOOLEAN OK
  28. 28. AVEVA Plant (12 Series) Programmable Macro Language - TM-1401 28 www.aveva.com 6.4 Invalid Boolean expressions The following do not return BOOLEAN values and are therefore invalid: if ( 1 ) and if ( 0 ) REAL invalid if ( |TRUE| ) and if ( |FALSE| ) STRING invalid if ( |T| ) and if ( |F| ) STRING invalid if ($Variable) where Variable = 1 REAL invalid 6.5 Boolean expressions PML1 upward compatibility For upward compatibility with PML1, STRING variables set to ‘TRUE’, ‘FALSE’, ‘YES’ or ‘NO’ or their single- letter abbreviations can be used in an if test as long as they are evaluated with a preceding $. For example: if ($Variable) where Variable = ‘TRUE’ STRING OK
  29. 29. 29 www.aveva.com CHAPTER 7 7 Errors & Error Handling An error condition can occur when a command could not complete successfully. This is because of a mistake in the macro or function (either input or execution). An error normally has three effects: • An Alert box appears which the user must acknowledge. • An error message is outputted to the command line together with a trace back to the error source. • Any current running PML macros and functions are abandoned. 7.1 Example of Errors This example of an error is caused by an attempt to create an Equipment when in the wrong part of the hierarchy. (41,8) ERROR – Cannot create an EQUI at this level. The 41 is the program section which identified the error and 8 is the error code itself. 7.2 Error Handling If the input line was part of a PML macro or function, the error may optionally be HANDLED. This allows the designer of the macro to limit the errors the user will experience. Type out the following example and save it as c:pmltrainingErrorTest.mac. First run the macro at a SITE element, then at a ZONE element and then again at the same ZONE. Compare the return printed lines in the command window. NEW EQUI /ABCD HANDLE (41, 8) $p Need to be at a ZONE or below ELSEHANDLE (41, 12) $p That name has already been used. Names must be unique ELSEHANDLE ANY $p Another error has occurred ELSEHANDLE NONE $p Everything OK. EQUI created ENDHANDLE 7.3 Alert Objects Alert objects allow user-controlled pop-up forms to be used. 7.3.1 Alert Objects with no return value There are 3 types of alert with no return value: !!Alert.Error( |You cannot do this!| ) !!Alert.Message( |Saving your data now| ) !!Alert.Warning( |Incorrect value!| )
  30. 30. AVEVA Plant (12 Series) Programmable Macro Language - TM-1401 30 www.aveva.com By default, all alert forms appear with the relevant button as near to the cursor as possible. To position an alert specifically, X and Y values can be specified as a proportion of the screen size. !!Alert.Error( |You cannot do this!| , 0.25, 0.1) 7.4 Alert Objects that return value There are three types of alert which return a value, confirm, question and input alerts. 7.4.1 Confirm Alerts Confirm alerts return ‘YES’ or ‘NO’ as strings e.g. !Answer = !!Alert.Confirm( |Are you sure!| ) After typing the above onto the command line, type q var !Answer 7.4.2 Question Alerts Answer alerts return ‘YES’ or ‘NO’ or ‘CANCEL’ as strings e.g. !Answer = !!Alert.Question( |OK to delete Site| ) After typing the above onto the command line, type q var !Answer 7.4.3 Input Alerts The first value is the prompt and the second is the default value. Input alerts return a value as a string. e.g. !Answer = !!Alert.Input( |Enter Width of Floor|,|10| ) After typing the above onto the command line, type q var !Answer
  31. 31. AVEVA Plant (12 Series) Programmable Macro Language - TM-1401 31 www.aveva.com Exercise 4 – Error Handling Add some error handling to control any errors generated while running ex3.mac. Although you will not be able to handle every error, think about likely errors and how to handle them What would be a suitable response to an error? Should it be ignored? Or maybe some user-feedback provided? Maybe PDMS should do something automatically to correct it? An example of user-feedback could be to print a warning to the command line. To do this, start a line with $p followed by a space. Whatever is written after this shall be printed to the command line. e.g. $p Error Found To get you started, the following are examples of some errors which may occur: • At the wrong level in the hierarchy (i.e. at a PIPE element rather than a ZONE) • A suitable hierarchy level for equipment creation does not exist (or cannot be found) • An element called ‘HandWheel’ already exists Save the file as c:pmltrainingex4.mac and run it on the command line by typing $m/c:pmltraining ex4.mac An example of the completed macro can be found in Appendix B
  32. 32. AVEVA Plant (12 Series) Programmable Macro Language - TM-1401 32 www.aveva.com
  33. 33. 33 www.aveva.com CHAPTER 8 8 PML 1 Hierarchy All PML1 Macros are in a directory structure pointed at by the variable PDMSUI. The PDMSUI environment variable Set PDMSUI=C:AVEVAplantPDMS12.0.2pdmsui Standard AVEVA environment variable are set in a bat files called EVAR.bat in the executable directory. All PML1 macros and forms are called using synonyms For example the macros and forms associated with piping are called using the synonym CALLP $S CALLP=$M/%PDMSUI%/DES/PIPE/$s1 CALLP MPIPE This is why if all synonyms are killed that PDMS will no longer work properly 8.1 Modifications to PDMSUI It is normal practice to create a parallel hierarchy to contain any new or modified PML. Changes to AVEVA standard product may cause PDMS to function inappropriately These modifications can then be called by modifying the PDMSUI variable to point at a multi path. This can be done by putting a new file path in front of the %PDMSUI% definition. This will update the PDMSUI environment variable to include the specified file path. Set PDMSUI=c:pmltrainingPDMSUI %pdmsui% The new file path should go in front of %PDMSUI% so this area is checked first for content. Once content is found, other locations will not be searched. This modification should be done after the PDMSUI environment variable has been defined. This can be done at the bottom of the EVAR.bat file or in the PDMS.bat file (after the line which calls evar.bat). The environment variables can be checked with PDMS by using the q evar syntax q evar PDMSUI or q evar ‘SAM000’
  34. 34. AVEVA Plant (12 Series) Programmable Macro Language - TM-1401 34 www.aveva.com
  35. 35. 35 www.aveva.com CHAPTER 8 9 PML2 Functions and Objects 9.1 The pmllib environment variable The PMLLIB environment variable points to a PML2 directory structure Set PMLLIB= C:AVEVAplantPDMS12.0.2pmllib There are 3 new file extensions .pmlfnc for Functions, .pmlfrm for Forms and .pmlobj for Objects, with these extensions the files will be loaded by PDMS automatically when the program is started. Functions are loaded by PDMS and are run by typing the following !!mymac(). This runs file mymac.pmlfnc Forms are displayed by typing Show !!Myform or !!Myform.show() Objects have to be assigned to a variable before they can be used i.e. !x = object MyObject() 9.2 Modifications to pmllib It is normal practice to create a parallel hierarchy to contain any new or modified PML. Changes to AVEVA standard product may cause PDMS to function inappropriately These modifications can then be called by modifying the PMLLIB variable to point at a multi path. This can be done by putting a new file path in front of the %PMLLIB% definition. This will update the PMLLIB environment variable to include the specified file path. Set pmllib=c:pmltrainingPMLLIB %pmllib% The new file path should go in front of %PMLLIB% so this area is checked first for content. Once content is found, other locations will not be searched. This modification should be done after the PMLLIB environment variable has been defined. This can be done at the bottom of the EVAR.bat file or in the PDMS.bat file (after the line which calls evar.bat). In AVEVA products environment variables can be checked using the q evar syntax i.e. q evar pmllib
  36. 36. AVEVA Plant (12 Series) Programmable Macro Language - TM-1401 36 www.aveva.com 9.3 Updating PDMSUI and PMLLIB Edit the Evar.bat file to include multi paths for PDMSUI and PMLLIB These settings should be made at the bottom of the evar.bat file Set pdmsui=c:pmltrainingpdmsui %pdmsui% Set pmllib=c:pmltrainingpmllib %pmllib% The setting of the variable can be checked in AVEVA Plant Design (PDMS) using the following commands: q evar pdmsui and q evar pmllib If a pmllib file is c once items have been loaded by PDMS, it needs to be reloaded. This can be done by typing either pml reload form !!NAME or pml reload object NAME If a new file is to pmllib, the files can be remapped so PDMS knows where it is located. This is done by typing pml rehash onto the command line. This will update the first file location in the search path. To update all search paths, type pml rehash all. 9.4 PML2 Objects An object is a PML grouping of information. It may have MEMBERS (used to hold data) ands METHODS (used to complete an action). Once assigned to a variable, that variable becomes an instance of that object. This means that variable will behave as the object definition. While it is possible to create user-defined objects (discussed later), PDMS is supplied with a large number of built-in objects. A full list of these can be found in the PDMS Software Customisation Reference Manual. For example, type !pos = object position() onto the command line. Query the variable and check the results against the members of a position object listed in the reference manual. Although a FORM is an object, it is a subject in its own and will be discussed later. 9.5 PML2 Methods When working with built-in objects, there may also be BUILT-IN METHODS (object dependant). These methods have been defined to complete certain actions applicable to object. For example, type the following into the command line: !value = |56| !result = !value * 2 This example will have caused an error as a string cannot be used in an expression like this. To avoid the error, refer to the STRING object in the Reference Manual and find the .real() method. This method translates the variable from a STRING to a REAL so that it can be used in the expression. The !value remains a string, but !results now becomes a REAL e.g. !value = |56| !result = !value.real() * 2 Within PML2, there are built-in methods for all the standard objects (ARRAY, TABLE, FORM, and STRING). Refer to PDMS Software Customisation Reference Manual for the available methods and information
  37. 37. AVEVA Plant (12 Series) Programmable Macro Language - TM-1401 37 www.aveva.com For each object type, the table shows: NAME The name of the method or member. For example, a REAL object has a method named Cosine. If there are any arguments, they are indicated in the brackets () after the name. For example, the REAL object has a method named BETWEEN which takes two REAL arguments. RESULT The type of value returned by the method. For example, the result of the method Cosine is a REAL value. Some methods do not return a value: these are shown as NO RESULT. STATUS This column is used to give other information about the method or members. For methods, this column tells you whether the method MODIFIES the value of the object. For members, this column tells you whether the member is SETTABLE (by the user) or UNSETTABLE. Note that for the system-defined PDMS object types, members correspond to PDMS attributes ACTION This column tells you what the member or method does. A large number of methods have been provided for the built-in PML data types: For example, for STRING objects, you will find a method named Length. !Name = ‘Tony Blair’ !NumberOfLetters = !Name.Length() q var !NumberOfLetters This method returns a REAL value (the number of characters in the string), but has NO EFFECT on the variable itself. Notice the dot separator between the name of the variable and the name of the method. Also note the () brackets following the name of the method. The brackets are used to enclose the arguments of the method, but they must be present. The following method creates an ARRAY of STRINGS: e.g. !NameStrings = !Name.Split() 9.6 Method Concatenation It is possible to apply multiple methods to the same variable within the same line of code. This process will work providing the data passed at each stage is valid. Try the following on the command line: !line = 'hello world how are you' !newline = !line.upcase().split().sort() q var !line !newline <STRING> 'hello world how are you' <ARRAY> [1] <STRING> 'ARE' [2] <STRING> 'HELLO' [3] <STRING> 'HOW' [4] <STRING> 'WORLD' [5] <STRING> 'YOU'
  38. 38. AVEVA Plant (12 Series) Programmable Macro Language - TM-1401 38 www.aveva.com 9.7 The !!CE Object A special GLOBAL PML variable !!CE always points to the current PDMS element and its attributes. Type q var !!CE onto the command line and compare it against typing q att. You will notice the returned attribute information is the same of the members list of the !!CE object. This means that the !!CE object can be used to assign the values of attributes to !variables For example, !BranchHeadBore = !!CE.Hbore assigns the HBORE attribute (taken from the current BRAN element) to the variable !BranchHeadBore making it real. If the !!CE object member is an object itself, that object will also have members so further information be obtained e.g. !HeadPosition = !!CE.Hpos.East East member from a POSITION object !Easting = !!CE.Href.Cpar[1] Cata parameter member (attribute) of a DBREF object If the !!CE object member is an object with built-in methods, these methods can also be called: !PosWRTValve = !!CE.Hpos.WRT(ZONE) POSITION object w.r.t the owning ZONE This process can also be reversed allowing the setting of attributes for the CE. This means that it is possible to record the current value of an attribute, modify and reassign back to the CE. For example, type out the following onto the command line: !Pos = !!CE.Pos q POS !Pos.Up = 2000 !!CE.Pos = !Pos q POS These lines will have moved the CE up by 2000. Try this example again with some other attributes. 9.8 PML2 Functions Functions are new style macros which are pre-loaded by PDMS and can be called directly. For example, to call the function called FuncName.pmlfnc, type !!FuncName() onto the command line. A function is defined within a .pmlfnc file stored within the PMLLIB file path. For an example of a function, type the following into a new file and save it as c:pmltrainingpmllibfunctionsNameCE.pmlfnc. define function !!NameCE() !ce = !!CE.fullname $p $!ce endfunction To run this function, type !!NameCE() onto the command line. You will notice the fullname is printed below it. This is an example of a NON-RETURN function with NO ARGUMENTS. If the function can be given arguments which are then assigned to variables with the function. If a variable is returned, this means that the function can be assigned to another variable or as part of a calculation. Type out the following, and save it as c:pmltrainingpmllibfunctionsArea.pmlfnc: define function !!Area(!Radius is REAL) is REAL !CircleArea = !Radius.Power(2) * 3.142 return !CircleArea endfunction As this function is an example of a RETURN function with an ARGUEMENT, it can be used as part of an expression. The returned value is based the functions argument and its type (REAL in this case):
  39. 39. AVEVA Plant (12 Series) Programmable Macro Language - TM-1401 39 www.aveva.com !Height = 64 !CylinderVolume = !!Area(2.3) * !Height q var !CylinderVolume As indicated by the !!, functions are global. This means that once defined, they can be called by any form or method within PDMS minimising repetitive code. Synonyms are disabled inside functions Exercise 5(a) – Convert the Hose reel macro into a function This exercise will cover how to update existing macros to make use of updated functionality. The macro that will be updated is c:pmltrainingmacrosex5.mac. Have a look at the file. It uses the READ method and this technique is no longer valid. How can the required values be passed to the macro? A function can be used to allow input values. Save the updated macro as a function called ex5a.pmlfnc in the directory c:pmltrainingpmllibfunctions To begin with, define a function with one argument: The name of the equipment. Apply suitable error handling to the function and check it works. After typing PML REHASH ALL, type !!ex5a(‘HoseWheel’) and a new hose wheel will be created. Look at the macro and you will see it uses the same hand wheel we have defined so far. The function uses the variable !WheelDia to alter the diameter of the hand wheel. Update the function by adding another argument, the diameter of the hand wheel. Test your function and see the impact of altering this variable.
  40. 40. AVEVA Plant (12 Series) Programmable Macro Language - TM-1401 40 www.aveva.com Exercise 5(b) – Adding arguments to the function Extend the function written in exercise 5a to accept two more arguments: • the width of the hosewheel • the diameter of the hose wheel. Rewrite parts of the functions so that hosewheel will change size based on these inputted numbers. How do the primitives in the hosewheel relate to these dimensions. Reduce the lines of code by introducing DO loops and PML2 syntax Save the updated function as a function called ex5b.pmlfnc in the directory c:pmltrainingpmllibfunctions Type show !!ex5plt to see an dimensioned plot file !!ex5b(|Hose-Reel-001|, 1000, 2000)
  41. 41. 41 www.aveva.com CHAPTER 10 10 Forms 10.1 Forms Are Global Objects Forms now look like GLOBAL OBJECTS, with Gadgets as their MEMBERS. Once loaded, the information held within a form can be accessed at anytime. To find out information about the form, it can be queried as if it was an object. For example, lets use the Graphics Settings form (Settings>Graphics…) Type Show !!gphsettings onto the command line to see the form in question or choose it from the menu Type q var !!gphsettings onto the command line. The information is a list of the members of the form. Compare this list against some of the gadget s on the form. As gadgets are members of forms, we can find information about these. The first gadget listed is called OK (representing the OK button on the form). Type q var !!gphsettings.ok. The information returned is information about the button. Specific information about the gadget can be queried directly e.g.: q var !!gphsettings.ok.tag q var !!gphsettings.ok.val q var !!gphsettings.ok.active To get the name of a shown form, type show !!pmlforms. This form can list shown forms 10.2 Dynamic loading of Objects, Forms and Functions When a PML object is used for the first time, it is loaded automatically. This applies to both FORMS and OBJECTS e.g.: !Person = object PRIMEMINISTER() show !!MyInputForm Once an object is loaded by PDMS, the definition is held by PDMS. This means that if the object is changed whilst it is loaded, the form will need to be reloaded. To reload a form type pml reload form or object followed by the object name e.g.: pml reload form !!MyInputForm pml reload object PRIMEMINISTER If a new file is created whilst PDMS is open, the file will not be mapped (even if it is saved in an appropriate file path). The remap files type pml rehash. This will remap all the files within the first file path in the PMLLIB variable. The remap all files in all the file paths, type pml rehash all
  42. 42. AVEVA Plant (12 Series) Programmable Macro Language - TM-1401 42 www.aveva.com 10.3 Form Definition... Forms are defined within .pmlfrm files and should be defined in the following way. A .pmlfrm file can contain the form setup definition and any methods created in association: setup form !!fname ... exit define method .init() ... Endmethod 10.3.1 Using the .net framework Form objects can now make use of the .net framework. This allows new features to be included on forms: • Docking forms (automatic resizing) • Anchoring gadgets (useful when resizing) • Multicolumn lists • Tabs on Forms • Menu Additions to existing applications: • Toolbar Additions to existing applications • DBAR Conversions Although it is now possible to dock forms, it does not apply to every form. There are some rules to consider when deciding if a form should dock: • Does the form need to remain open? • Is the form used heavily • If a form has an OK/Cancel button, it should not need docking • If a form has a menubar, it CANNOT be docked To declare a form as dockable, this has to be done on the top of the definition. By including dialog dock left, we are stating that the form is displayed, it shall already be docked to the left: setup form !!fnam dialog dock left To define a floating, dockable form, use the following line: setup form !!fnam dialog resizeable To define a form of a certain size in the centre of the screen, use the following line: setup form !!fnam document at xr 0.5 yr 0.5 size 100 100 If no additional details are included, the default form creation is a Dialog, non-resizeable, size adjusted automatically to fit contents form. For more examples, refer to the FORM object in the PDMS Software Customisation Reference Manual 10.3.2 Showing and hiding Forms Now forms can be found through the PMLLIB search path, there is no longer the need to load them individually. To show a form use show !!formname. This will load the form definition and show it in one go! Sometimes it is useful to have the form loaded with seeing it (e.g. to refer to stored information). A form can be loaded (but not shown) by typing loadform !!formname
  43. 43. AVEVA Plant (12 Series) Programmable Macro Language - TM-1401 43 www.aveva.com 10.3.3 Built-in methods for Forms Although is possible to define user-defined methods within user-defined forms (discussed later), all FORM objects have built-in methods available. Try on the following on the command line: !!gphsettings.show() q var !!gphsettings.shown() !!gphsettings.hide() q var !!gphsettings.shown() In this example, the .show() method is used to show the form, the .shown() method returns whether the form is shown and the .hide() method hides the form. For more examples, refer to the FORM object in the PDMS Software Customisation Reference Manual 10.4 Callbacks If an object has a CALLBACK member, it can be given a callback string. This means that if the user interacts with the object, an action can be performed. The callback can do one of three things: • show a form • execute a command directly • run a function or method A FORM object has some special callbacks which are used when the form completes certain actions (e.g. Shown, closed) Copy out the following into a new file and save it as Callback.pmlfrm. Put the file into the appropriate file path c:pmltrainingpmllibforms and remap the files. To see the form, type show !!Callback. Press the buttons look at the command line. setup form !!Callback !this.formTitle = |Callback Example| !this.initcall = |!this.init()| !this.okcall = |!this.okCall()| !this.cancelcall = |!this.cancelCall()| !this.quitcall = |!this.quitcall()| button .ok ' OK ' OK button .can 'Cancel' at x30 CANCEL exit define method .Callback() $p --Constructor Method-- endmethod define method .init() $p --Initialise Method-- endmethod define method .okcall() $p --OK Method-- endmethod define method .cancelcall() $p --Cancel Method-- endmethod
  44. 44. AVEVA Plant (12 Series) Programmable Macro Language - TM-1401 44 www.aveva.com define method .quitcall() $p --Quit Method-- endmethod At the top of the form, the callback members of the form where set user-defined methods within the form. • The CONSTRUCTOR method was called when the form loaded (notice, it has the same name as the form). • The INITCALL method is called everytime the form is shown (perfect for setting default values • The OKCALL method is called by any button gadget with the OK in its definition • The CANCELCALL method is called by any button gadget with CANCEL in its definition • The QUITCALL method is called by clicking the close button on the form. If no callbacks are defined for OKCALL, CANCELCALL and QUITCALL the default is to hide the form only 10.5 Form Gadgets There are many kinds of form gadgets, each an object that will have its own members and methods. When you are defining gadgets on a form, there are two common aims: • Define the area to be taken up on the form • Define the action to be taken if the gadget is selected It is the position and size of the gadget that determines the area taken up and its action is defined by its CALLBACK member. 10.5.1 Built-in members and methods for Gadgets As Gadgets are objects, there are a variety of useful members and built-in methods that can be used. Using the previous example (!!Callback), type the following onto the command line: To grey-out the OK button !!Callback.ok.Active = FALSE To hide the CANCEL button !!Callback.can.Visible = FALSE Apply a tooltip to the OK button !!Myform.ok.setToolTip(|This is an OK button|) For further information, PDMS Software Customisation Reference Manual
  45. 45. AVEVA Plant (12 Series) Programmable Macro Language - TM-1401 45 www.aveva.com 10.5.2 Gadget positioning Gadgets are positioned on a form from top left using the AT syntax. The AT syntax defines the origin of the gadget in relationing to the owning object (i.e. FORM or FRAME). . Gadgets can be positioned explicity or in relation to other gadgets. When referring to other gadgets, there 6 known positions on a gadget: XMIN, XCEN, XMAX, YMIN, YCEN and YMAX. These refer to fixed position in the x and y directions on the referenced gadget. A gadget can be thought of as an enclosing box that will enclose the geometry of the gadget (including its name tag if specified). To position a gadget at a known position use: at x 0 y 0 To position the above CANCEL button use Xmax and Ymin of OK use: at xmax.ok + 10 ymin.ok To position a DISMISS button in the bottom corner of a form use: at xmax form – size ymax form For more positioning syntax, refer page 2-59 in the PDMS Software Customisation Reference Manual The available syntax and its order can be derived by referring to the SYNTAX GRAPHS in the reference manual. These diagrams are available for most Gadgets and can be used when initially defining them. The picture below is an example of the Syntax Graph for gadget positioning (<fgprl> refers to another graph): Refer PDMS Software Customisation Reference Manual for more guidance on these graphs
  46. 46. AVEVA Plant (12 Series) Programmable Macro Language - TM-1401 46 www.aveva.com 10.5.2.1 Position Gadgets using the path command The path command can be used to define the logical position of subsequent gadgets. This method has been superseded by the previous method and has been included for information. After a gadget has been defined, the next gadget is positioned based on a PATH, HDIST or VDIST and HALIGN or VALIGN. As an example, see the picture below: Button .But1 $* default placement PATH down HALIGN centre VDIST 2 paragraph .Par2 width 3 height 2 $* auto-placed toggle .Tog3 $* auto-placed PATH right HDIST 3 VALIGN bottom List .Lis4 width 2 height 3 $* auto-placed PATH up HALIGN right Paragraph .Par5 width 3 height 3 $* auto-placed 10.5.3 Docking and Anchoring Gadgets After a gadget has been loaded its size and position are locked. To modify the position or size manually, the alterations have to be made in the file and the form reloaded. As forms can be resized, it is necessary for gadgets to move/resize so the layout of the form remains. There are two available syntax definitions that can help DOCK or ANCHOR. This syntax should be included when defining a gadget and can be included if <fgdock> or <fganch> are included in the gadgets syntax graph. The DOCK and ANCHOR are mutually exclusive so only one is defined per gadget ANCHOR controls the position of an edge of the gadget relative to the corresponding edge of its container. For example, if a DISMISS button is anchored to the Right + Bottom, it will remain in the bottom, right of the form if it is resized. DOCK forces gadget fill the available space in a certain direction. For example, if a list is docked to the left, it will maintain its width, but its height will change it fill its container. DOCK FILL is very useful for ensuring a gadget is the full size of its container. Copy out the following into a new file and save it as DockExample.pmlfrm. Put the file into the appropriate file path c:pmltrainingpmllibforms and remap the files. setup form !!DockExample dialog resizeable !this.formTitle = |Dock and Anchor| !buttpos = |xmax.f1 - size ymax.f1 - size| frame .f1 anchor ALL width 30 height 5 button .butt1 |Dock TOP| dock TOP button .butt2 |Anchor B+R| at $!buttpos anchor R+B exit exit
  47. 47. AVEVA Plant (12 Series) Programmable Macro Language - TM-1401 47 www.aveva.com Resize the form and observe the results. Once a gadget is declared as Anchored or Docking it will remain so. If a change is required, the form definition should be updated and the form reloaded. Refer PDMS Software Customisation Reference Manual for the Syntax Graphs. 10.6 Paragraph Gadgets Paragraph gadgets are simple named gadgets which allow a piece of TEXT or a PIXMAP to be displayed on a form. It is a passive gadget that cannot be selected by the user so has no callback. Paragraph gadgets are used display either instructions or pictures. Copy out the following into a new file and save it as ParaExample.pmlfrm. Put the file into the appropriate file path c:pmltrainingpmllibforms and remap the files. setup form !!ParaExample !this.formTitle = |Paragraphs| para .para1 text |Normal paragraph gadget| width 20 para .para2 at x 0 ymax.para1 backg 6 text |A cyan paragraph gadget| width 20 para .para3 at x 0 ymax.para2 pixmap width 154 height 50 para .para4 at x 0 ymax.para3 + 0.5 text || wid 20 hei 2 exit define method .ParaExample() -- Update the displayed text using CONSTRUCTOR method !this.para4.val = |Above was a PIXMAP, this is on two lines| -- Use built-in method to apply picture !this.para3.AddPixmap(|c:pmltrainingpmllibimagesaveva.png|) Endmethod Refer to the Reference Manual and Guide for more examples The last value of the last gadget was set during the CONSTRUCTOR method. empty paragraph gadgets can be created to reserve space with values set after creation.. 10.7 Button Gadgets Button gadgets are typically used to invoke an action or to display a child form. Its CALLBACK can call a LOCAL METHOD, GLOBAL FUNCTION or OBJECT METHOD. If a callback and a child form are both specified, the callback command will be run before the child form is displayed. Copy out the following into a new file and save it as ButtonExample.pmlfrm. Put the file into the appropriate file path c:pmltrainingpmllibforms and remap the files. setup form !!ButtonExample dialog resizeable !this.formTitle = |Buttons| button .butt1 |Normal| button .butt2 |Green| backg 5 button .butt3 |Deactive| button .butt4 |form| form !!ParaExample button .butt5 toggle backg 4 call |!this.check()| pixmap wid 31 hei 21 exit define method .ButtonExample() -- Deactivate butt3 in CONSTRUCTOR method !this.butt3.active = FALSE -- Use built in method to apply pictures !this.butt5.AddPixmap(|c:pmltrainingpmllibimagesoff.png|, |c:pmltrainingpmllibimageson.png|)
  48. 48. AVEVA Plant (12 Series) Programmable Macro Language - TM-1401 48 www.aveva.com endmethod define method .check() -- Return the toggle button value to the command line !check = !this.butt5.val $p $!check endmethod Refer to the Reference Manual and Guide for more examples As .butt5 was set as a toggle button, it has either a TRUE or FALSE state. This means that a toggle button holds a .val member which can be set or queried. 10.7.1 Linklabel The Linklabel, provides a purely textual button presentation, i.e. it has no enclosing box. It is often used to indicate a link to some application item, e.g. a hyperlink to a file, a link to an associated form. They do cause validation of any modified text fields of the form whenever they are pressed. The tag text is shown in a different colour to all other gadget's tag text. The link label gadget highlights by underlining when the mouse cursor passes over it. Pressing it causes a SELECT event to be raised and runs any associated call back. Linklabels have the following restrictions: • They don't support change of background colour. • They don't support 'pressed' and 'not pressed' value. • They can have popup menus, though this is not recommended. • They don't have Control Types e.g. OK, CANCEL etc. Copy out the following into a new file and save it as LinkLabelExample.pmlfrm. Put the file into the appropriate file path c:pmltrainingpmllibforms and remap the files setup form !!LinkLabelExample dialog resizeable !this.formTitle = |LinkLabel| button .butt1 |Paragraph Form| linklabel form !!ParaExample exit 10.8 Text Entry Gadgets A text input gadget provides the user a way of entering a single value into PDMS. A TEXT gadget is defined by: WIDTH – determines the displayed number of characters. An optional scroll width can also be specified TYPE – determines the type of the variable created when inputting a value. This is important when PML uses the variable. You may also supply a FORMAT object (explained below) to format the value entered (e.g. whole number) Copy out the following into a new file and save it as TextExample.pmlfrm. Put the file into the appropriate file path c:pmltrainingpmllibforms and remap the files.
  49. 49. AVEVA Plant (12 Series) Programmable Macro Language - TM-1401 49 www.aveva.com setup form !!TextExample !this.formTitle = |Text| path down text .txt1 |Val as String | width 10 is STRING text .txt2 |Only numbers | width 10 is REAL format !!REALFMT text .txt3 |Round numbers | width 10 is REAL format !!INTEGERFMT text .txt4 |For passwords | width 10 NOE is STRING text .txt5 |Limited scroll| width 10 scroll 1 is STRING text .txt6 |Not editable | width 10 is STRING exit define method .TextExample() -- Make Text 6 uneditable !this.txt6.val = |Cannot change!| !this.txt6.setEditable(FALSE) endmethod The benefit of making a text gadget uneditable (rather than deactivated) is so the user can select its contents. A deactive text box will be full greyed out and unselectable. Refer to the Reference Manual and Guide for more examples 10.9 Format Object A FORMAT object manages the information needed to convert a number (always in mm) to a STRING. It can also be used apply a format to a text gadget. A format objects are usually defined as global variables so that they are available across PDMS. For example, type the following onto the command line: !!OneDP = object FORMAT() !!OneDP.dp = 1 q var !!OneDp There are four standard FORMAT objects which are already defined in standard PDMS: !!DistanceFmt For distance units !!BoreFmt For Bore Units !!RealFmt To give a consistent level of decimal places on real numbers !!IntegerFmt To force real numbers to be integers(0 dp Rounded) To find out more information about these FORMAT object, query them as global variables on the command line q var !!BoreFmt For example the number of decimal places displayed using !!RealFmt could be set !!RealFmt.dp = 6 the default value is 2. These standard format objects are used within the forms of PDMS. Changing the definition of these objects will change the way standard product behaves.
  50. 50. AVEVA Plant (12 Series) Programmable Macro Language - TM-1401 50 www.aveva.com 10.10List Gadgets A LIST gadget presents and ARRAY of values to the user. This can be a SINGLE or MULTI- DIMENSIONAL ARRAY All the values in the gadget are set by assigning an ARRAY. ARRAY variables can be applied to a LIST at any time. The choice between MULTIPLE, COLUMN and SINGLE has to be made when the gadget is defined. The values within a COLUMN list (headings and values) are set by using built-in gadget methods. Copy out the following into a new file and save it as ListExample.pmlfrm. Put the file into the appropriate file path c:pmltrainingpmllibforms and remap the files setup form !!ListExample !this.formTitle = |Lists| !vshap = |width 15 height 6| list .lst1 |Single Array List| call |!this.value()| SINGLE ZEROSEL $!vshap list .lst2 |Multi-Select List| MULTI $!vshap list .lst3 |Appending List| call |!this.append()| $!vshap list .lst4 |Multi-column List| COLUMNS $!vshap exit define method .ListExample() -- Define values contained within the lists do !I from 1 to 5 !Dvalue[!I] = |Number| & !I !Rvalue[!I] = |<| & !I & |>| do !J from 1 to 2 !multi[!I][!J] = |col | & !J & |(| & !I & |)| enddo enddo !this.lst1.dtext = !Dvalue !this.lst1.rtext = !Rvalue !this.lst2.dtext = !Dvalue !single[1] = |Click to append values| !this.lst3.dtext = !single !this.lst4.setRows(!multi) !heading[1] = |One| !heading[2] = |Two| !this.lst4.setHeadings(!heading) endmethod define method .value() --Print the Dtext and Rtext values to the command line !dtext = !this.lst1.selection('Dtext') !rtext = !this.lst1.selection('Rtext') $p Selected Dtext is $!<dtext> (Rtext is $!<rtext> - hidden!) endmethod define method .append() -- Append value to List 3 !nextLine = !this.lst3.dtext.size() + 1 !val = |Appended | & !nextLine !this.lst3.add(!val) Endmethod
  51. 51. AVEVA Plant (12 Series) Programmable Macro Language - TM-1401 51 www.aveva.com Refer to the Reference Manual and Guide for more examples
  52. 52. AVEVA Plant (12 Series) Programmable Macro Language - TM-1401 52 www.aveva.com 10.11Frame Gadgets A FRAME is a cosmetic gadget which is used to surround a group of similar gadgets. This helps with organisation, positioning and user experience. A frame can also be declared as a TABSET or a RGROUP (explained later) and even a TOOLBAR (when defined for the main PDMS window). Copy out the following into a new file and save it as FrameExample.pmlfrm. Put the file into the appropriate file path c:pmltrainingpmllibforms and remap the files setup form !!FrameExample dialog resizeable !this.formTitle = |Frames| frame .tabset TABSET anchor ALL wid 15 hei 5 frame .f1 |Docked| at 0 0 dock FILL frame .fA |Dock All| dock FILL frame .fB |Dock Right| dock RIGHT wid 10 frame .fC |Dock Bottom| dock B hei 4 exit exit exit exit frame .f3 |Other| at 0 0 dock FILL !pos = |at xcen.fG - 0.5 * size ymax| frame .fG |Deactive| wid 15 hei 4 button .but1 |Try and click!| at 1 1 exit button .but |Show Frame| $!pos backg 8 call |!this.showF()| frame .fH |Hidden Frame| at xmin.fG ymax.but2 width.fG hei.fG exit exit exit exit define method .FrameExample() !this.fG.active = FALSE !this.fH.visible = FALSE endmethod define method .showF() if !this.but.val.eq(TRUE) then !this.fH.visible = TRUE !this.but.tag = |Hide Frame| else !this.fH.visible = FALSE !this.but.tag = |Show Frame| endif endmethod When creating a FRAME gadget, for every FRAME there must be an associated EXIT. If insufficient exits are provided, this will cause an error and the form will NOT LOAD. As the error occurred in side the FORM DEFINITION, the command line will still be in form definition mode and will not function as usual. To exit this mode, type EXIT on the command line until and ERROR is received. This will mean that form definition mode has been exited and normal commands will work again. It is good practise to provide 2 spaces when working inside a code block. This provides an easy way to spot missing exits.

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