Causes & Complications Of Multiple Births


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This slideshow presentation was one of my Year 9 science assignments. It explains multiple births and the complications that can evolve.

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Causes & Complications Of Multiple Births

  1. 1. Causes & Complications of Multiple Births<br />Matthew Holland<br />Lewis Pointing<br />Billy Hade<br />
  2. 2. Multiple Birth Facts<br />Chance of having…<br />Twins: 1:80<br />Triplets: 1:6400<br />Conjoined or Siamese: 1:50000 chance, about half are still-born. <br />Multiple births have a<br />higher mortality rate.<br />
  3. 3. Naturally Occurring Ways of Increasing the Chance of Multiple Births<br />Heredity<br />A family history of multiple pregnancy increases the chances of having twins.<br />Older Age<br />Women over 30 have a greater chance of a multiple birth. <br />Multiple births more common due to today&apos;s increase in the number of births later in women&apos;s lives.<br />High Parity<br />Having one or more previous multiple pregnancies increases the chances of having multiples.<br />Race<br />African-American women are more likely to have twins than any other race.<br />Caucasian women, especially those over age 35, have the highest rate of higher-order multiple births (triplets, quadruplets etc.).<br />
  4. 4. Unnatural Methods in Increasing the Chance of Multiple Births<br />Help produce many eggs, which if fertilized, can<br />result in multiple births.<br />Allows multiple eggs to be fertilised & then returned to the uterus to develop.<br />
  5. 5. How Multiple Births Occurs: Fraternal Twinning<br />
  6. 6. How Multiple Births Occurs: Identical Twinning<br />
  7. 7. Identical Vs. Fraternal Twinning<br />
  8. 8. Medical Complications<br />Preterm Labour<br />Nearly half of all twins or higher-order multiples are premature births (born before 37 weeks)<br /> The higher the number of fetuses in the pregnancy=greater risk of early birth<br />Premature babies: born before body & organs have not fully matured<br />They are small & may need help breathing, eating, fighting infection, & staying warm<br />
  9. 9. Medical Complications<br />Birth Defects<br />Multiple birth babies have about twice the risk of congenital abnormalities including neural tube defects and heart abnormalities.<br />Miscarriage<br />More likely in multiple pregnancies<br />More than one fetus is diagnosed, but vanishes (or is miscarried), usually in the first trimester (three months)<br />Sometimes accompanied by bleeding. The risk of pregnancy loss is increased in later trimesters as well.<br />
  10. 10. Medical Complications<br />Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome<br />Condition of the placenta<br />Only develops with identical twins that share a placenta<br />Blood vessels are connected within the placenta and divert blood from one fetus to the other <br />Occurs in about 1 in 7 twins <br /> with a shared placenta<br />
  11. 11. Medical Complications<br />Abnormal Amounts of Amniotic Fluid<br />More common in multiple pregnancies, especially for twins that share a placenta<br />Caesarean Delivery<br />Abnormal fetal positions increases chances of caesarean birth<br />Postpartum Haemorrhage<br />In many multiple pregnancies; the large placental area places mother at risk of bleeding after delivery.<br />
  12. 12. Non-Medicinal Complications<br /><ul><li>Many mothers of multiple births find breast-feeding their babies difficult. Different diets and lifestyles are required to produce enough breast-milk for the multiple babies.
  13. 13. Severe lack of sleep is a common problem with a single child, but with multiple births, many parents require respite programs to help with the difficult situation.</li>