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Habitat report 2007: A Safe City is a Just City


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Report from the Habitat Conference 2007: A Safe City
is a Just City in Oslo, Norway

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Habitat report 2007: A Safe City is a Just City

  1. 1. HabitatReport2007 Habitat Norway
  2. 2. Habitat Report 2007Reporting the conference on the World Habitat Day in OsloSeptember 29th and October 1st 2007Edited by Anders EseLimited distribution byHabitat Norwayc/o Polyteknisk ForeningRosenkrantzgate 70159 OsloHabitat Norway is a Norwegian non governmental organisation with the overall aim to promote theinterest and awareness of settlement issues around the world. The organisation is a member ofHabitat International Coalition.Please visit www.habitat-norge.orgWe thank the following who made this conference possible;NORAD Norwegian Agency for Development CooperationKRD Ministry of Local Government and Regional DevelopmentThe Norwegian State’s Housing BankROM art + architectureFront page: Villa 21-24, Buenos Aires, Argentina
  3. 3. ContentsIntroduction p 05A Safe City is a Just City p 06Anna Tibaijuka, UN-HABITATIs a Safe City a Just City? p 11Prof. Sven Erik Svendsen, NTNUSaftey as a Pretext for Injustice in the Case of Jerusalem p 17Øystein Grønning, migrant a+uCities - Hopes and Challenges p 25Erik Berg, Senior Advisor, Ministry of Foreign AffairsUrban Futures p 31Prof. Emeritus Nabeel Hamdi, Oxford Brookes UniversityVillas Miserias - Securing a Safe and Salubrious Community p 37Eli Grønn, migant a+uVillas Miserias - Workshop Results p 54Anders Ese, Co-Chairman, Habitat NorwayConcluding remarks p 68Dr. Ingun B Amundsen, Co-Chairman, Habitat NorwayList of participants p 70On the contributors p 74About Habitat Norway p 76
  4. 4. A Safe Cityis a Just City
  5. 5. IntroductionThe United Nations has designated the residents. Rich or poor, everyone has a rightfirst Monday in October every year as to the city, to a decent living environment, toWorld Habitat Day to reflect on the state clean water, sanitation, transport, electricityof human settlements and the basic and other services. How we manage this isright to adequate shelter for all. It is arguably one of the greatest challenges facingalso intended to remind the world of its humanity.collective responsibility for the future ofthe human habitat. Another significant threat to urban safety today is forced eviction and insecurity ofThe theme of this year’s World Habitat tenure. Incidents of forced eviction areDay on Monday 1 October 2007 is A safe regularly reported from all parts of the is a just city. The United Nations They are often linked to bulldozing of squatterchose this year’s theme in order to raise settlements and slums in developing countries,awareness and encourage reflection on as well as to processes of gentrification,the mounting threats to urban safety beautification and urban redevelopment inand social justice, particularly urban both developed and developing country cities.crime and violence, forced eviction and Forced evictions have been highly publicizedinsecurity of tenure, as well as natural in recent years, partly because freedom fromand human-made disasters. forced eviction has become recognized as a fundamental human right within internationalOne of the most significant causes of fear and human rights law.insecurity in many cities today is crime andviolence. Between 1990 and 2000, incidents of Disasters, natural and human-made, are yetviolent crime per 100,000 persons increased another current threat to urban safety. Recentfrom 6 to 8.8. Recent studies show that over evidence suggests that natural and human-the past five years, 60 per cent of all urban made disasters are increasing in frequencyresidents in the world have been victims of the world over, and that this trend is partlycrime, with 70 per cent in Latin America and linked to climate change. From 1975 tothe Caribbean. Clearly, crime, whether violent 2005, the number of disasters in the worldor not, is a growing and serious threat to increased from 100 to 400 per year. Hurricaneurban safety all over the world. Katrina, the Asian Tsunami and the Pakistan Earthquake are some of the recent disastersAs the world becomes increasingly urban, it that exposed our woeful lack of essential that policy­ akers understand the mpower of the city as a catalyst for national Combined, these three threats to urban safetydevelopment. Cities have to be able to currently pose a huge challenge to bothprovide inclusive living conditions for all their national and city governments. 5
  6. 6. The Executive Director’s MessageOn the Occasion of World Habitat DayThe subject that brings us here today is public transport are typical examples of thesomething that touches us all. Crime and underlying factors conducive to crime. Whilefear of crime is growing unacceptably fast crime remains a key conventional dimension ofat a time half of humanity is now living urban safety, today safety is about increasingin towns and cities. There is no doubt choices so that everyone can move freelytoo, that today most crime and violence without threat, harassment, sexual assault,occurs in cities. And this is the reason, as rape, or intimidation.I said in my special statement for WorldHabitat Day 2007, we decided to choose I do not have to tell you that crime is badthe theme, A safe city is a just city, to for business and bad for development.mark the occasion. In an unacceptably high number of cities around the world, soaring crime levels, andAs we witness the fastest growth of urban even perceptions of high crime, threaten topopulations yet known, we are now at outweigh other advantages they may offer. Forthe dawn of a new urban era. With half of slum residents, who usually do not enjoy thehumanity already living it towns and cities, benefits of any form of security, violence andit is projected that by 2030, that figure will crime loom ever ready to shatter their lives.rise to two-thirds. Another feature of our new As violent men capture the streets, the choicesurban age is that the global number of slum for women are considerably diminished. Theydwellers is now set this year to top the 1 simply do not want to take a chance usingbillion mark. a public toilet, collecting water, or walking through a criminal male danger zone on thePromoting urban safety at this turning point way home, to school or the history is not primarily about policingand relying on the penal system for crime Persistent crime and fear of crime underminesprevention; it is about the design and planning public trust in the authorities. And thus inof public space for women and men, and its many cities, local neighborhoods turn toimpact on social urban development. While alternative protection – private companies,conventional methods have focused more vigilante groups, and gated zones. Worse still,on the laws, community policing, or security they turn away from young people, and tarnishpersonnel to guard communities, less attention them with the blame for these problems,has been focused on the other missing link of instead of engaging them. Urban dangerpublic safety – urban design and governance comes from many complex factors. Theseof cities. Poorly lit or dark streets and poor include lack of opportunity, widening inequity, 6
  7. 7. territorial segregation, economic polarisation, The situation I have just outlined is largelypoor urban planning, and social exclusion. the reason why UN-HABITAT, as the agencyLikewise, drugs, guns, organized crime, and for the built environment, launched its Saferpoor crime prevention. And so, unfortunately, Cities Programme in 1996 to create a cultureit is all too obvious that recent international of prevention anchored in helping localterror attacks increasingly target cities. authorities, the criminal justice system, the private sector, urban planners, and civil societyIn many countries, safety, security and justice partners address urban safety. As UN-HABITATare outside the purview of local authorities and and governments that oversee the agency’sare highly centralized. Enhancing the role of work programme hone a new strategic planlocal government as well as local communities for 2008-2013, there is general agreement onand in particular the youth of these four points:communities, is recognized as an important Firstly, that governance at the local levelfirst step to improvements in many aspects must continue looking at crime prevention.of safety, security and justice. At the third Local crime prevention strategies must besession of UN-HABITAT’s World Urban Forum incorporated in urban development planning,in Vancouver in June last year, one of our and this must have full political backing.keynote speakers, Ms. Katherine Sierra, Vice- Secondly, that bridging the gap between urbanPresident and Network Head, Infrastructure, interventions and crime prevention can beat the World Bank, recalled that 30 years ago, achieved by incorporating prevention policiessafety and security would not have even been into slum upgrading and housing policies.mentioned as a building block for an urban Thirdly, that public spaces in cities have to bestrategy. In remarks that constitute a most apt better managed. Derelict public urban spacesexplanation of the theme of World Habitat Day are a dramatic indicator of the failure ofthis year, she said, and I quote: planning and governance. Fourthly, that civil society, especially youth and“A key policy challenge is how to balance women, must be fully engaged in any crimesafety and security within a political or social prevention strategy.system and a regulatory environment that isconducive to economic growth. Safety, law Experience shows that local policies, targetedenforcement, and the justice system are thus to key problems and root causes, can be verykey public goods. The legislative and justice effective against violence and, along with enforcement entities,become key institutions.” 7
  8. 8. Given the many differences in culture, I sense a strong emerging view in this newgeography, wealth, political systems and size urban era that the political will is now growing,of cities, there will always be problems. But in at both the national and local level in manythe modern world we do have solutions. And I countries, to make our cities safe and justwish to conclude these remarks by informing places for that the situation is not altogether gloomy.
  9. 9. Anna TibaijukaUnder-Secretary-Generalof the United Nations and Executive DirectorUN-HABITAT
  10. 10. Key Speakers
  11. 11. Is a Safe City a Just City?According to the UN-Habitat in Nairobi, However - every time the president gotwho is - so to speak - in charge of the prominent visitors or arranged one of theseHabitat Day, the objective is to reflect on huge regional conferences, the police orthe state of human settlements and on army cleared the pavements for unwantedthe basic right to adequate shelter for all. elements normally on early morning aheadThis year’s choice of theme - A safe city of the arrangements. They just gatheredis a just city - is topical and is selected these people – pavement sleepers, hawkers,in order to raise awareness and to beggars or simply somebody who was earlyencourage reflection and discussion on out of bed just to buy a newspaper – in campsthe increasing threats to urban safety somewhere in the city outskirts. They were notand social justice, particularly from urban arrested but allowed to leave as soon as theycrime and violence, forced eviction and could prove their identity; with a certain levelinsecurity of tenure, as well as natural of bureaucracy it took normally the same timeand man-made disasters. to get out of the camp as to arrange a regional conference. So in that way it worked nicely.If I right away should try to answer the But did the capital become a safer city duringquestion heading this presentation - if the these days? Probably yes – especially if yousafe city is a just city? – it will obviously anticipate that some terrorists would hidebe: IT DEPENDS ON, or it is in other among the hawkers and pavements sleepers.words circumstantial. But did it become a more just city? ProbablyIn many ways one could say that as a not.slogan the heading is problematic – andthat it probably needs more than a brief This example shows that there is for thetalk to be properly dealt with. authorities in charge of safety – for visitors and inhabitants – a problematic issue to face:Let me give you an example to show what I how do you secure the urban populationmean: without renouncing their rights?Some years back I lived for a while in an Asiancapital; it was a fairly safe city – and I can -say this because on workdays I mainly movedabout on foot – as a pedestrian from where Normally we consider that democratic nationalI stayed to the place of work in the morning and local frameworks provide safer urbanand back again in the evening. In order to get environments, but we know that on one handbetter acquainted with the city I tried to select cities in totalitarian states are often verydifferent routes every day - early mornings safe, and on the other if we try to compareand sunsets are in addition very pleasant two big cities: Johannesburg and Mumbai wetimes for walking in that part of the world. would probably find that the first one is a very 11
  12. 12. unsafe city – almost both day and night – and responses were something that should worrycertainly for visitors, while Mumbai seems like people in other places – and not us.a pleasant and friendly place to be in – at leastthat’s my impression. They are both large At that time – to be a little nostalgic - youentities in democratic states with – in many could walk in to most buildings in the cityways - well functioning local municipalities. – corporate or public; now this is almostSo it must be something else that makes the impossible without an appointment or a code.difference; architects may claim that it has At that time you could visit the parliamentsomething to do with the physical environment only by mentioning any MPs name to theand with planning and design, while political receptionist; you hardly left any electronicscientists would like to explain such differences traces and you could move about anonymouslywith structural organization, anthropologist – which used to be one definition of city life.with cultural background and so on.Most likely it is a complex combination of Now we have cameras watching us wherevermany factors. we go, private security people have to a large degree replaced the police and are in many- places following your movements closely and it is almost impossible to get into anywhereOne of the most significant causes of fear without an appointment – apart from shopsand insecurity in many cities today is the and restaurants.combination of crime and violence. In the10 years between 1990 and 2000, incidents -of violent crime in cities increased by 1/3according to the UN-Habitat. Recent studies The situation for the citizens has changedshow that over the past five years, 60 per cent dramatically when it comes to free movement.of all urban residents in the world have been May be the city has become more safe, but itvictims of crime, with 70 per cent in Latin has certainly not become more pleasant - orAmerica and the Caribbean. Clearly, crime, more just. Most people tend to say that is thewhether violent or not, is a growing and is price we have to pay, and very few alternativea serious threat to urban safety all over the propositions are unfortunately put on the tableworld. – also by professionals like us. And – and this is important - it is no reasons I remember when the book Defensible space why it should not change even more by Oscar Newman was published some 35 dramatically in years to come, and that wouldKarl Otto Ellefsen regarded as interesting but a years ago it was mean – if we do not come up with alternatives. bit exotic; in the sense that the topic it raised: We could be mowing into nightmare-like urban safety in the city and related urban design conditions as described by George Orwell 12
  13. 13. – also in our towns and cities, that so far is contribution to a safer and a more just city?regarded as relatively safe. So far I can only see that it has been planning of gated communities and design ofBy the way, I take it that you have heard fashionable fences keeping certain part of theabout the urban researcher at the Humbolt population out of certain parts of the in Berlin that recently was arrestedand taken to the police station for questioning, Globally a significant threat to urban safetybecause he in a published study had used today is forced eviction and insecurity ofthe world “gentrification” – he was accused tenure. Incidents of forced eviction areaccording to the anti-terror laws and was told still regularly reported from all parts ofwhen he was released to be careful with his the world. I must remind you that one ofvocabulary in the future. the recommendations from the first global urban encounter – Habitat I - in VancouverMay be we have to change the old slogan in 1976 was that governments should stopabout: “stadtluft macht frei” to “if you want to forced evictions. 30 years later they stillbe free stay away from the city”? take place and often linked to bulldozing of squatter settlements and slums in developing- countries, often in order to carry out processes of gentrification, beautification and urbanThe list of factors influencing the development redevelopment.of cities set up by UN-Habitat includes inaddition to urban safety and social justice and -urban crime and violence:- forced eviction Disasters are also included as one threat- insecurity of tenure, and to urban safety. Recent evidence suggests- natural and man-made disasters that natural and human-made disasters are increasing in frequency globally, and thatThe last items might seem a little bit distant this trend is partly linked to climatic change.currently – a little bit like how we looked at From 1975 to 2005, the number of disastersNewmans book; if however our concern is: in in the world increased from 100 to 400 perwhat direction are we moving? – they might year. Hurricane Katrina, the Asian Tsunamibe relevant even in our situation. and the Pakistan Earthquake are some of the recent disasters that exposed our lack ofAlso with a bearing on professional activities preparedness.– which on this occasion means to planners,architects and urban designers, we should Such disasters are normally characterised asdiscuss what could be a professional natural or human made. To day it is a question Erik Solheim 13
  14. 14. if they are in one way or another all human development. Cities have to be able tomade – at least the effect - has increased by provide inclusive living conditions for all theirhuman interventions – or lack of them. residents. Rich or poor, everyone has a right to the city, to a decent living environment, to- clean water, sanitation, transport, electricity and other services. How we manage thisThe most crucial challenge now seems to me is arguably one of the greatest challengesto be how the ongoing discussion on climate currently facing humanity.and environment also could include the urbandimension. Certainly in this country this May be this conference could play a small rolediscussion is now mainly dominated by the in moving our policy-makers attention a littlegreen lobby. By introducing the city in the bit towards the urban sector.discussion we could play an important role,because to convince both the public and thegovernment that in the future many more ofthe traditional groups in focus for Norwegian Sven Erik Svendsendevelopment cooperation - like the poor, like Professor in Housingwomen and children will live in the city is NTNUcrucial. The city is not only important becausemost people are living there but also becauseit has considerable environmental impact onthe national and global environment.Risk reduction is in this connection animportant professional challenge – it maycome as an surprise and disappointment tothose of you who have attended the triennale– which this arrangement is a part of. It isprobably in the reduction of risk that architectsand designers can contribute in a meaningfulway to disaster preparedness.-As the world becomes more urban, it isimportant that policy­ akers understand mthe power of the cities potential for national 14
  15. 15. Sven Erik Svendsen
  16. 16. Øystein Grønning
  17. 17. Saftey as a Pretext for Injusticein the Case of JerusalemCan the Urban Fabric help bridge a Conflict?The theme for the UN World Habitat Day Security as a Pretext2007 was “A Safe City is a Just City”. Security in the case of Jerusalem andOne question immediately arises: Safe Palestine, thus, must be seen in the contextfor whom? Just for whom? Everyone of Israel’s illegal occupation, annexation andwants safety and security for themselves. colonization. Safe and just are anything butThe question is; how far are people, neutral words. Security can be perceived as agroups, authorities willing to extend pretext for goals other than safety and justice.“themselves”? Particularly when the If one looks at “security” as an element, oneconcept of “we” is exclusive and “they” can seeare on the unwanted side, safe and - security as a strategic elementsecure becomes questionable issues. - security as a rhetoric element, and - security as a partial element.In the conflict between Israel and Palestine,“safety” is a core element. “Security” is the 1. Strategically, the Israeli goals are to gainword often used in the rhetoric around the exclusive spatial control over the territorymilitary occupation. The reason given for of Jerusalem, and the pursuit is to achieveever-more severe actions against Palestinian an exclusive ethnic-religious demographicpopulation and territory is the need for composition. Tactically, this means a take-overIsraeli security. Palestinian unrest, natural of land and property, and the encroachment offor any people under occupation, is treated what is more and more becoming Palestinianas unjustifiable and random, not as part of a enclaves in a sea of Zionist settlement.conflict with an opponent that has rights. Political observers see these tactics as blatant examples of ethnic cleansing. However, theJerusalem is the capital of the Palestinian Palestinians seem to prevail, they are notstate, and seen by all Palestinians as the core easily pushed off their lands.of their nation concept. Israel also considersJerusalem its capital, but the city is not The Israeli colony structure around Jerusalemrecognized by the world as such. The world reveals the strategic plan for encroachmentsees the Israeli annexation of East Jerusalem and isolation of Palestinian East Jerusalemas a violation of International Law. The UN from the rest of the Palestinian nation. Thehas repeatedly condemned the annexation, separation wall supports this structure andincluding the construction of Israeli colonies on underlines the strategy, by cutting the Westoccupied lands. The world has its embassies in Bank in two and further subdividing it intoTel Aviv, not Jerusalem. separate and smaller enclaves. 17
  18. 18. Map 1 18
  19. 19. Map 2 19
  20. 20. Maps 1 and 2: the Wall in Jerusalem (copyright 2005 land-grabs, home destruction, land destructionPALDIS Jerusalem) and the Colony Structure around etc. The Separation Wall, judged illegal by theJerusalem (copyright 2004 Negotiation Support Haag Courts, in this rhetoric becomes a tool ofUnit, NAD PLO). Palestinian areas in yellow, Israeli safety and justice.colonies and colony areas in blue.The maps illustrate the goal: territorial controlof Jerusalem, isolation of East Jerusalemfrom the West Bank. The maps do not allowPalestinian territorial contiguity. The territorialstrategies of Israel are contradictory to anynotion of a Palestinian sovereign state.This is the image of Apartheid, with theone important exception that in Israel, theunwanted people (Christian and MuslimPalestinians) are excluded from entry into theterritory of the Masters. Dr. Menachem Klein, aprominent Israeli political scientist at the Bar-Ilan University, in 2003 named these policies“Spartheid”.12. Rhetorically, resistance is systematicallyportrayed as terrorism, whether directed Illustration 1: Palestinians demonstrating againstagainst civilian or non-civilian targets. the Wall ( to International Law, resistance tooccupation is legal, albeit the means are not 3. Partial safety is the order of the day.always so. By labeling all resistance terrorism, Security is not offered to the occupied, inIsrael and international Zionism aims at clear violation of Geneva Convention, whichdisqualifying Palestinian rights by and large. explicitly states that the occupying forcesIsrael thus portrays itself and the Jewish are obliged to tend to the security of civiliansIsraeli population as victims in need of safety. under occupation. The absence of civilian rule in East Jerusalem has lead to an absence ofSecurity then becomes a pretext for the civil order resulting in lawlessness, insecurity,isolation and exclusion of the entire Palestinian drugs pushing, gang rule, etc.population, and a tool for the effectuation of1. Lebanon newspaper Daily Star, October 25, 2003: The strategy, again, seems to be to make“Israel’s Jerusalem policy: Sparta and apartheid” life so miserable that a Christian-Muslim 20
  21. 21. exodus will be the result. But although young Spatial violence is a well-known Palestinianprofessionals, particularly Christians, are fact of life. Examples are plentiful: annexationleaving Jerusalem in growing numbers, no of land and property, the colony structure, themassive eviction seems within reach, and “security” wall, the construction of separateIsraeli strategies remain unsuccessful. This roads for the Israeli colonists crisscrossingmight explain why Israeli politicians during the the West Bank, etc. This violence means ruinlast half-year or so have started talking about to so many, visual images of one’s misery asJerusalem actually being a divided city, and a people, and a daily reminder that the Westabout leaving parts of Palestinian Jerusalem to doesn’t care, and allies are in no position tothe Palestinians to govern. react.The Provision of Security:Violence as a Way of LifeIsraeli Security rests on violence: spatial,structural and physical violence. Illustration 3: Home demolition, Jerusalem ( Structural violence is connected to the application of law and order: denial of tax exemptions for Palestinian business and property owners when f. inst. tourism fails,Illustration 2: Security fence, West Bank: division partiality in supplying loans, denial of buildingof Palestinian agricultural land, destruction of permits and destruction of homes “illegally”landscapes ( built, and other instances of apartheid policies. 21
  22. 22. Law and order is also imposed as harassment: Is there a Way to Circumvent theID’s checked on the street, bullying at check- Stalemate?points, denial of access to hospitals for births,operations and first aid, denial of access to The situation does not invite optimism.Christian and Muslim Holy Sites, etc. For more than 40 years the occupation, annexation and colonization of Palestinian territory has been going on with the world as passive bystanders. Israel seems uninfluenced by UN resolutions, and finds encouragement in the lack of ability to enforce International Law in their case. This is a stalemate situation on several levels. The international community will not intervene. In reality, it has turned its back on the Palestinians. Meanwhile, the Christian and Muslim population will not leave Palestine. Geopolitically, this stalemate leads to growing regional unrest and mistrust of the West. If not resolved, the conflict must be expected to lead to more instability, more conflict on a local, regional and geo-political level, and more anti-Semitism.2 In the Palestinian stalemate, Jerusalem Palestinians are split between rage, resignationIllustration 4: East Jerusalem: ID control of and Realpolitik. There is no leadership sincePalestinian youth who wants to use his right to the death of Feisal Husseini and the Israelivote in the 1996 Palestinian parliamentary election, destruction of Orient House.3 Business is badoutside entrance to election hall. Background shows and getting worse. Homes are observers. Photo by author. 2. Former US President Jimmy Carter at the Geneva AccordPhysical Violence is the blunt, common ceremony in Geneva, Dec. 1st 2003: “There is no doubt that lack of real effort to resolve the Palestinian issue is aexertion of brute power: arrests, beatings primary source of anti-American sentiment throughout theand torture, general public armament of Middle East and a major incentive for terrorist activity.”the master population, de facto executionsin raids, random killings of civilians during 3. Husseini was recognized as the de facto leader of themilitary attacks on targeted persons, groups East Jerusalem community, acting as a kind of local author-and sites, etc. ity in the Orient House with staff, archives etc. 22
  23. 23. Municipal services, a duty of the Israeli creating a ring around central Jerusalemauthorities to whom the East Jerusalem with no weapons on the inside, and with apopulation pays taxes, are a disgrace. perimeter controlled by professional guards with no stake in the conflict. The system isIn this stalemate of great frustration, well known and has been employed at summerthe questions are how to circumvent the and winter Olympics for a while now. It isstalemate, circumvent an unlawful occupation, not even particularly difficult to establish.annexation and colonization when the All it takes, is for Israel to respect theirinternational community in reality does not own demand for security, and agree to ancare, because it takes no action? What means international security presence in we have? This is no place to describe the system inThe following is an attempt at circumvention. detail. That is done elsewhere. In the contextIt is based on providing security for all by of this article, we merely outline a solution 23
  24. 24. and point to plausible scenarios for the are municipal services. The tough will benear future. This is done in describing three to get the two peoples to reach out acrosssteps of measures and results by redefining the divisions created by decades of harshsecurity, starting reconstruction, and bridging occupation and resistance. They are culturalgaps. The political issue of whose state and and recreational meeting grounds, commonwhose territory is left for later. If the core projects, venues for both and all, the activeconflict issues are kept at the front with no involvement of the international community atinternational will to intervene against Israel’s non-governmental levels, non-partisan actionunlawful politics, the stalemate will remain, groups, etc etc.and the conflict will escalate until we arelooking at a war with international proportions. When violence is taken out of the equation and the bomb defused, explore the urban fabric!Short Term measures: Redefine security It can be used for resistance, but also holdsTake Israeli rhetoric at face value, take wonderful promises of normality.weapons out of the equation, on both sides,provide real security for both sides. Define aperimeter and abolish weapons on the inside, Øystein Grønning,quarter by quarter, house by house, room byroom. Defend the perimeter by checking all M. Arch. MNAL, Urbanist.entries for weapons. Partner, Migrant AS architecture+urbanismThe result is an end of military rule , an easingof tensions, the return of (tourism) business,return of contacts between the two sides, etc.The Wall will, as time goes by, prove obsoletebecause security is given with less harshmeans.Medium Term measures: ReconstructionAllow development, enable Palestinian society,provide security for investment.The result is the return of economic securityto the separate societies of East and WestJerusalem, where one does not dominate theother.Long Term measures: Bridge the gapsCreate common grounds. The obvious ones Illustration 5: aerial view of the Old City ofare trade and transportation. Likely ones Jerusalem. Photo by author. 24
  25. 25. Erik Berg
  26. 26. Cities - Hopes and ChallengesThe Norwegian Government’s Role in Urban DevelopmentDear Colleagues,Let me first start by giving Habitat 2007 over half the world’s population will beNorway credit for the work done city dwellers. Migration, urbanization, andin preparing this conference. Our growing slums in risk areas increase the“development politicians” in the Ministry probability of humanitarian disasters.of Foreign Affairs sincerely regret that Changing disasters: We are witnessing athey, despite last year’s participation, are tendency of complex crisis situations unfoldingunable to attend the Habitat day 2007 in countries where governments have littledue to prior commitments. None the control or lack administrative capacities. Suchless, our politicians see the work being combinations give rise to vicious circles anddone in the field of urban development as go some way to explain the increase in theessential. number of vulnerable states.This growing recognition of urban challenges The recognition of the link between povertyin the Ministry of Foreign Affairs is apparent and urbanization in the Ministry of Foreignin several ways. This fall a Parliamentary Affairs will also become evident in the policyWhitepaper on Norwegian Policy for the document compiled by the Ministry of Localprevention of humanitarian catastrophes will Government and Regional Development,be launched. It deliberates the link between the Norwegian Agency for Internationalgrowing levels of conflict and an increase in Development and the Ministry of Foreignnatural disasters. The paper’s conclusion is Affairs, that has been further developedclear: we have to alter the way in which we through both internal and external hearings.organize Norwegian as well as international aid The process towards this policy paper hasif we are to meet the challenges we are facing been fruitful in itself on account of twoefficiently. Three of these challenges are: participatory seminars. These have resulted in an informal, urban network with closeChanging climate: 2007 may be the warmest to 40 members. The document itself isyear on a global level since systematic being finalized by the Foreign Ministry andmeasurements of temperatures started will be distributed in the near future (The150 years ago. According to the IPCC, document “Byer – Håp og utfordringer. Omenvironmental- and climate changes can byutvikling og internasjonalt samarbeid” ispotentially lead to an increase of 150 million now available from the Foreign Ministry alsorefugees worldwide by 2050. in English translation– ed.). It is a response toChanging habitat patterns: In the course of demands concerning a clear and goal oriented 27
  27. 27. approach to urban issues as a part of a new the Norwegian government since 2003. Todaydevelopment approach recently called for our government plays a vital role in definingby media (Aftenposten 28.06.07) and civil how the UN’s smallest program can be able tosociety. meet one of the greatest challenges facing the world.With this document Norway becomes one ofthe first countries in the world that launches The theme for this year’s Habitat day is urbanan urban development policy. The policy safety and security. There are three majornotably encourages multilateral efforts as treats to the safety and security of cities:a part of a cross-sectoral comprehensive urban crime and violence, insecurity- bothperspective: the urban challenges we are tenure and forced evictions - and naturalfacing would gradually become part of all and human-made disasters. Over the past 5Norwegian development work. Comparatively, years – according to UN statistics - 60% of allNorway’s advantage is our broad academic urban residents in developing countries havebase with institutions working with been victims of crime. Turning to security ofdevelopment issues in the South for the tenure and forced evictions the same statisticslast 50 years. Another advantage is the estimate that at least 2 million people aredemocratic, process oriented approach that we forcibly evicted every year. The most insecurehave adopted and developed in terms of urban urban residents are the world’s 1 billionplanning. Our contribution to development in poor people living in slums. With regard tothe South will be modest on a global scale, disasters, which are increasing globally, databut as an active representative in international shows that between 1974 and 2003, 6367fora we can play our part as an important natural disasters occurred globally causingcatalyst for large scale involvement from the death of 2 million people and affectingmultilateral finance institutions and other 5.1 billion people. A total of 182 milliondonor countries. people were made homeless, while economic damage amounted to US 1.38 trillion. TheThe urban sector has throughout the era of aggregate impact of small scale hazards oninternational development aid been grossly urban dwellers can also be considerable. Forunderfunded – and still is. In the period example traffic accidents kill over 1.2 millionbetween 1970 and 2000 it has been estimated people annually worldwide. There has been athat only 4% of all transfers have been 50 per cent rise in extreme weather incidentstowards the urban sector (IIED). Norway has associated with climate change from theover the last few years increased its economic 1950s to the 1990s and major cities located insupport to the sector, notably to UN-Habitat coastal areas are particularly vulnerable to seaand Cities Alliance. UN-Habitat alone has level rise.received a 5-fold increase in their funding from 28
  28. 28. An important socio-economic determinantof vulnerability to the three threats to urbansafety and security - addressed in the newNorwegian policy document - is poverty. Theurban poor are more exposed to crime, forcedevictions and natural hazards than the rich.They are more vulnerable to disasters thanthe rich because they are often located onsites prone to floods, landslides and pollution.The urban poor also has limited access toassets, thus reducing their ability to respondto hazards or manage risks for instancethrough insurance. Because the poor arepolitically powerless, it is unlikely that they willreceive the necessary social services followingdisasters.To conclude, I hope that this conferencewill focus on the need for policy responsesthat place people, poverty reduction andcommunity participation at the centre.Thank you for your attention!Erik BergSenior AdvisorMinistry of Foreign Affairs 29
  29. 29. Nabeel Hamdi
  30. 30. Urban FuturesVulnerability and violence - what agenda for urban planningAbstract“Cities in the developing world will account to place which makes engagement tofor 95% of urban expansion in the next two community tricky – because you don’t knowdecades, and by 2030 four billion people will where you belong or which values you in cities – 1.4 billion in slums.” The cultivation of community and new forms ofThose 1.4 billion, one way or another will partnership in urban planning in ways that arebe poor or otherwise vulnerable and it is in pluralist and networked is a key to reducingrecognition of this that reducing vulnerability is vulnerability as is the cultivation of choice,a key to tackling issues of poverty and at the when it comes to place and identity.centre of ensuring safe and fair cities.This presentation will outline an agendafor action designed to integrate issues of Nabeel Hamdi,vulnerability, exclusion and violence into Professor Emeritusdecisions on urban planning. The causes Oxford Brookes University, UKof vulnerability will be outlined as will thecomplicity of planning in condoning/promotingexclusion. The presentation will arguethat social and economic vulnerability andexclusion, and the search for identity in citiesoften find expression in violence. Violenceundermines the assets of the poor and willoften polarise social groups with profoundimpact on urban form. (withdrawl frompublic space, gated communities, symbolicappropriation of space, etc).The presentation will go on to give definitionto the transformative process of community incities (and with it the insecurity that derivesfrom uncertain or multiple loyalties, values,identities). It will argue the weakness of place The following pages are notes from Mr. Hamdi’sbased community undermines a commitment presentation for the conference. 31
  31. 31. 32
  32. 32. 33
  33. 33. Villa 31, Buenos Aires
  34. 34. Securing a Safe andSalubrious CommunityAn introduction to a workshop
  35. 35. Villa 21-24A Presentation of a Villas Miserias25% of Latin American urban households burrows called Barrios. Several of theseare living below the locally defined Barrios contain informal settlements calledpoverty lines. Villas Miserias. These informal settlements29% of cities in the developing world can be found all across the Capital Federal,have areas considered as inaccessible or but most are concentrated within the southerndangerous to the police. parts of the city. Villa 21-24 is situated in theIn Latin America and the Caribbean, this Barrio Barracas, demarked in black.figure is 48 %.UN-HABITAT’s State of the World’s CitiesArgentina and Buenos AiresOfficial language: SpanishCapital: Buenos AiresType of rule: Democratic republicPresident: Cristina KirchnerArea: 2 766 890 km2Population: 37 812 817Density: 13,67/km2South America is a continent of socialdifferences. For a long time Argentina hada relatively large middle class populationcompared to other South American countries,but this changed after the economic crisis of2001. A large part of the country’s industrywas bankrupted and work vanished. Thenumber of poor increased, and the class dividedeepened.In 2000 there were 12,6 million people livingin Buenos Aires, and it was by that point theworlds 10th largest city. By 2015, UN Habitatpredicts that the population will have risen to14, 1 million.Buenos Aires is divided into more than 50 37
  36. 36. Barrio Barracas and Villa 21 - 24 A Brief History of ArgentinaBarrio Barracas Argentina was a Spanish Colony between 1516Area: 7,6 km2 and 1816. The country’s independence was,Population: 77 474 (2001) however, not a peaceful one, and up until theVilla 21 - 24 Second World War Argentina was marred byArea: 0,6 km2 internal struggle. Swaying between liberal andPopulation: about 30 000 conservative political parties, as well as between politicians and the military, orderThe name Barracas derives from the word was restored with the inauguration of Juan”barraca” meaning barracs or shed. In the Peron in 1946. He was president up until20th Century immigrants – especially 1955, and returned to power in 73, only toItalians, populated Barracas. It was a thriving die the following year. His third wife, Isabelcommunity consisting mostly of working class Perón, resumed office but was overthrown byfamilies. After 1950 many of Barracas factories the military junta in 1976. After the Falklandwere closed down. War of 82 the military junta was considerably weakened, resulting in a democratic victoryVilla 21-24, which is nestled on the border during the elections of 1983. The economicbetween Barracas and Nueva Pompeya has collapse of 2001 marked the end of presidentabout 30 000 inhabitants, making it the home Menem’s rule.of almost half of the population of Barracas.The population is a blend of Argentineans, Source: and Paraguayans. The area lackstechnical infrastructure such as paved roads,water and gas supply. Electricity is provided tomost homesteads through informal links.Villa 21-24 is run by a Mutual (Flor de Ceibo).The Mutual is in many ways an electedorganization representing the communitywhen communicating with the authorities. TheVilla contains a number of chapels, and thepresence of the church is strong. There arealtogether 9 comedores serving free food, inaddition to several voluntary organizations Facing page: Aerial of Villa 21 - 24. The area is(compromising around 250 volunteer workers) around 400 meters wide and 1500engaged in the challenges facing the Villa. meters long. It is cut off by railway lines to the North, the river Riachuelo to theVilla 21-24 can be reached by a 15-minute South, an industrial area to the East and adrive from the city centre of Buenos Aires. residential area to the West. 38
  37. 37. A Brief History of Villa 21-24 Arial photograph from 1965. The areaVilla 21-24 is situated between a residential has been settled on the eastern parts.area to the west and an industrial area ( the east. On its northern boundaries lies arailway station, while to the south the Arial photograph from 1978, duringriver Riachuelo, one of the world’s most the rule of the military junta. In thispolluted rivers, flows past. The Villa period the area was divided into plotscompromises 65 hectares of land. It stretches that were numbered. Previously the1,5 km from north to south, and 0,43 area was divided into three sectionskm west to east. called Tierra Amarilla (north of Iriarte), Sagrado Corazón (between Iriarte andAround 1880 the area was allocated as an Osvaldo Cruz) and Tres Rosas (southindustrial area for the railroads. It was of Osvaldo Cruz). After the divisionknown as “la Playa Brian” at the time of into plots the area was called Villa 21-construction by the British. 24. The image shows a rapid increaseThe area was located in close proximity to the in the population since the centre as well as havingconnections to several railway lines. Railway Satellite photograph from 2005carts and tracks were manufactured and (Google Earth). Only in the two yearsrepaired there. Production receded in the that have passed since this image was1960s, resulting in the occupation and taken, the population in the area hassettlement of the area. increased. The area circled in north of Iriarte is today completely filled upVilla 21-24 is today an informal settlement with housing. Some houses havelocated on government land. The appeared in the open field east of thepopulation growth has been steadily railway line, but these will most likelyincreasing, marked by two separate periods of be removed as the owner of the plotrapid growth. (Jorge Fossati, IdV). Starting out has removed any previous attempts toas an area of temporary settlement, settle the area by use of the police.there is now a whole generation of permanent The same is true for the open plot inresidents who have lived their whole the northwestern corner of Villa 21-24.lives in the Villa. ComparisonsArial photograph from 1940 from What will the future bring for Villa 21-24?before the area was occupied. Instituto de Vivienda are employing( development strategies for such areas. Barri A
  38. 38. A Brief History of Villa 21-24Villa 21-24 is situated between a residentialarea to the west and an industrial area to theeast. On its northern boundaries lies a railwaystation, while to the south the river Riachuelo,one of the world’s most polluted rivers, flowspast. The Villa compromises 65 hectares ofland. It stretches 1,5 km from north to south,and 0,43 km west to east.Around 1880 the area was allocated as anindustrial area for the railroads. It was knownas “la Playa Brian” at the time of constructionby the British. The area was located inclose proximity to the city centre as well ashaving connections to several railway lines.Railway carts and tracks were manufacturedand repaired there. Production receded inthe 1960s, resulting in the occupation andsettlement of the area.Villa 21-24 is today an informal settlementlocated on government land. The populationgrowth has been steadily increasing, markedby two separate periods of rapid growth.(Jorge Fossati, IdV). Starting out as an areaof temporary settlement, there is now a wholegeneration of permanent residents who havelived their whole lives in the Villa. Arial photograph from 1940 From before the area was occupied. ( 40
  39. 39. Arial photograph from 1978 During the rule of the military junta. In this period the area was divided into plots that were numbered. Previously the area was divided into three sections called Tierra Amarilla (north of Iriarte), Sagrado CorazónArial photograph from 1965 (between Iriarte and Osvaldo Cruz) and TresThe area has been settled on the eastern Rosas (south of Osvaldo Cruz). After theparts. ( division into plots the area was called Villa 21- 24. The image shows a rapid increase in the population since the 1960s. 41
  40. 40. Soldati, Barrio Gral M.N Salvio, Villa Zabaleta, Villa 11 - 14 and Villa Oyitas in Matanza outside the Capital Federal are examples on how these strategies work. Villa 21-24 is today categorized as a Villa, which means it is an informal part of the city the Instituto de Vivienda (IdV) have not planned for or are not able to control. Normally such areas are temporarily transformed into NHTs – Nucleo Habitacional Transitiorio. Zabaleta, an area bordering to Villa 21-24 is one such example. NHT is a temporary developmental step towards creating a Barrio – the final phase in IdVs development strategy. The Villas are perceived as a problem by the authorities and parts of the population in the formal city. People in the Villas are stigmatized, and are seen as criminals, drug addicts or just lazy or inept to work. Physically the Villa is recognizable by its lack of infrastructure and its unsafe and inadequate structures built from recycled and/or cheapSatellite photograph from 2005 building materials. This results in a great(Google Earth) Only in the two years that variation in color, materials, sizes and technicalhave passed since this image was taken, the solutions. Plot sizes also vary considerably.population in the area has increased. The area In contrast to the Villa, the NHT is plannedcircled in north of Iriarte is today completely and regulated by the authorities. The NHT isfilled up with housing. Some houses have considered a temporary phase between Villaappeared in the open field east of the railway and Barrio. People residing here suffer someline, but these will most likely be removed of the same bigotry residents in the Villasas the owner of the plot has removed any are exposed to. But the NTH has a far betterprevious attempts to settle the area by use of infrastructure, although not satisfactory whenthe police. The same is true for the open plot compared to the formal solutions. Plots in thein the northwestern corner of Villa 21-24. NTH are uniform and regular, as are street 42
  41. 41. widths, housing, and materials. Nonetheless,the physical structures of the NHTs areunstable and have all the qualities of a quickfix.Barrio Soldati (see photo below) is a typicalsocial housing project, planned and built bythe authorities. Also here, some people findthemselves stigmatized. These barrios haveadequate infrastructure as well as similarhousing units and building materials. Thereis little or no variation, and the structuresare often set up rapidly at minimum cost.The development strategies employed by theIdV can seem inadequate. The strategies donot consider the potential the Villas harbor,but instead focus on the problems. The strategies bereave the Villa of its identity and undermine the already existing networks and structures developed by and for the residents themselves. Still, there are severe problems connected to a Villa, and these have to be taken seriously. 43
  42. 42. Observations“Behind the blue church, with an entrance from Padre Pepe’s plot, they are in the process of buildingan orphanage. The work has halted half way through, due to lack of funds. Architect Sr. Sespede tellsme that he has worked in the area for 10 years, but that he cannot work with orphans. “They areoften forced into prostitution”, he tells me: ’my own children are the same age.’”“Sr Sespede tells me he doesn’t want to work with urbanism, but rather he focuses on singleprojects. The reason for this, he continues, is that urbanism involves large scale change anddealings with the authorities. This leads either to nothing happening, or that corruption or otherproblems get in the way of the project.”“When we were teaching we were collected two blocks outside the Villa, either by students, or bypeople working for the organization. We were escorted back after the day was done. The reasonfor this was fear of criminal acts.”“Several of the pupils were originally from Paraguay. Lucia often told me that it is theParaguayans that create the most trouble in the Villa. I found it strange that she had suchprejudice even though she worked in the area three times a week. I encountered the sameattitude several times throughout the Villa.”
  43. 43. 45
  44. 44. Interview at theInstitutio de ViviendaWalter Mosquera and Jorge Fossati work at Mosquera does not believe social housingthe IdV focusing on informal settlements in projects to be the solution for the Villas. HeBuenos Aires. He says that the Mutuale in points out that infrastructure and interactionVilla 21-24, Flor de Ceibo, is especially strong between the city and its surrounds is vital.and that the authorities are not able to enter Housing units according to family size is alsowithout the consent of the Mutuale. Institutio an important factor. He says that the buildingsde Vivienda have not had access to Villa 21-24 should consider identity, and that buildingsince 2000. projects need to respect the inhabitants to a larger degree than they do today.The residents of Villa Zabaleta, which islocated on the other side of Calle Zabaleta, Jorge Fossati says there are two populationdo not wish to be a part of Villa 21-24 or their groups in the Villas. Argentineans makeMutuale. This area is a Nucleo Habitacional up 30 – 40%. In most cases, he believes,Transitorio, and is as such different both these are second-generation immigrants.formally and historically. According to Children of immigrants born in ArgentinaMosquera and the IdV statistics from 2001, are automatically granted Argentineanthere are 3 050 housing units in Villa 21-24 citizenship. Being children or young adults,consisting of 3 500 families and a total of 13 the Argentinean part of the Villa population500 people. Today IdV stipulate the population therefore has a low age be around 18 000. The Catholic Church,however, estimate that there are 32 000 The other population group is immigrants.people residing in Villa 21-24. Compromising 60-70%, they come from Bolivia, Peru, and Paraguay. The reason for theWalter does not know how old the Villa is, immigration, Fossati explains, is mainly due tobut says that there have been two periods the fact that Argentina has a free health andof notable growth. The first period was in education system, and that money is easier to1984, just after the democratic reform in the come by here than most other For the most part the people settlingin the Villa at the time were Argentineans Residents within the Villa who lives closer tofrom the countryside. The second growth the main streets, has pluming. No one in theperiod started in 2001, marked by the end Villa is connected to the gas mains. They haveof President Menem’s rule and extreme external gas tanks for cooking and heatingunemployment. Since then the population has water. The houses are also illegally connectedgrown steadily, partly due to people moving in, to the power grid.but also due to internal growth. 46
  45. 45. Interview with JulioJulio has lived in Villa 21-25 for 25 years and of the fact. The best part about living in Villais a self-made film director. He lives with his 21-24 he says is: “the street, this part ofwife Maria Esther, and together they have town, the people around here, the way they12 children. Julio is a former Cartonero – a are,” and continues: “life here has more flavor.garbage collector. A lot of people from the Every minute something happens.”Villas work in this profession. Their main taskis to manage the household waste from formal He believes the future in Villa 21-24 will beresidences and sell it to recycling stations. hard. Mostly because of the possibility thatJulio later started a performance group in they will have to live in way they do notVilla 21-24. They had no experience, but want to. They will raze the area, he believes,made up for it in passion, he says. He has creating 7 by 8 meter plots of equal size. Twonow made several films from the community meters of garden in front and two in the back.using local actors and actresses. He has wonseveral awards for his work, and also traveled Today Julio and his family have twice thisto Morocco to receive one such award. Today amount. “The government might own theJulio works as a drama teacher at a local land,” he states: “but I own the house.” He isschool in addition to making his films. He says entitled to selling his house even though hethat if things are going to change in the Villa, does not own the land. If the authorities clearthe change has to come from inside: “Culture the area, Julio will be in a very vulnerablecannot be implemented from outside,” he position. “The worst is being forced to domuses: “it needs to be created there and then, something you don’t want to take part in,” heif it is to have any impact.” says, looking out at the self-built community around him.Julio´s house is a two-storey building. Theyhave a large bathroom with a flushing toilet, a We visited Julio’s son’s house in Villa Zabaleta,dining room combined with a kitchen, a garage an area regulated by the authorities. Julio’sand four bedrooms. In addition they have a daughter in law was at home and their youngsmall roof top garden. The kitchen is painted daughter was asleep. The family had beenin yellow and blue, the colors of Boca Juniors, forced to move to the social housing projectone of the two largest soccer teams in Buenos she says. She didn’t want to, but they wereAires. The walls are hung with plenty of family forced. Julio thinks their new home won’tphotos. last the year. It will prove too expensive to maintain, and they will have to sell andJulio has lived in Villa 21-24 for 25 years and relocate.has all his roots there. Before that he livedin other Villas. He says that this is his home. Julio still wants the government to get moreHe does not want to move or change houses. involved. He sees the solution in Villa 21-24He has built everything himself and is proud as twofold. First, the availability and access 49
  46. 46. to loans to buy materials has to be secured. ones with real power in Villa 21-24 are,Second, an upgrading of the infrastructure is according to Julio, Padre Pepe and Guillermoneeded. Better streets, more police, hospitals Bizae.etc. He mentions there is a hospital eightblocks away, but that it is impossible to get a Guillermo Bizae is the de facto president ofbed. Villa 21-24. He is the head of the Mutuale. All the Villas in Buenos Aires have such aHe and his wife are of Argentinean descend, Mutuale, and every decision in relation toand thus part of the minority in the area. planning, building and communicating with theThere are quite a number of Paraguayans authorities passes through the Mutuale.and Bolivians staying in Villa 21-24. Still,Juan almost only has Argentinean friends Padre Pepe is the leader of the catholicand contacts. He says getting to know the Church in Villa 21 – 24, Señora de Caacupe,Paraguayans is hard. He also believes that another powerful actor. Neither the Mutualemost second-generation immigrants consider nor the Church involves themselves in thethemselves Argentineans, and don’t want to drug problems in the area. Drug relatedreturn to their home countries. Julio is proud problems are prolific, the most common drugto be an Argentinean and is a Peronist ( a being Paco, a waste product from cocainesupporter of the political movement after Juan production.Peron.) “The worst thing about living in the Villa isTaking a walk outside, we come across the the insecurity,” says Julio. He worries for hisrailway line and a passing train. The buildings daughters, but says that as long as he is aclosest to the track are only 1 meter away well-known and respected man, they keep outfrom the carts as they rush by. Julio tells me of harm’s way. Still, Julio keeps a shotgun in athere have been two accidents recently, both closet in the kitchen, a couple of meters frominvolving children. “But people here take good the front of their kids and animals,” he continues.Two police officers were busy closing the roadmanually when the train came through. Itdoes so 2-3 times every day. Eli Grønn ArchitectWe walked on through narrow alleys. Julio migrant a+usays he and his family never venture to thesouthern parts of the Villa, or down to theriver. The police are there, but their presenceis not of the positive kind, he explains. The 50
  47. 47. Workshop results
  48. 48. About the workshopLast year’s Habitat Day in Oslo saw a lot – had taken the trip to ROM art + architecture,of young participants joining the confer- Saturday the 29th of September, and set to theence at the Oslo School of Architecture. tasks with fervor.This influx of new blood into our field ishighly encouraging, and is important to The workshop was run by professors Nabeelmaintain. To spur student interest for this Hamdi and Ed Robbins, who shared from theiryear’s Habitat Day event as well, a work- joint wealth of experience. The case chosenshop with Nabeel Hamdi, one of Europe’s was largely based on a diploma work at NTNUleading action planners, was organised. by Eli Grønn, on one of the Villas Miserias in Buenos Aires, Argentina: a “miserable place”In the field of urban poverty, there are com- where poverty, insecurity and crime are allplex issues to be dealt with – issues that may major problems.seem daunting to those that are inexperi-enced, and may prove to be a hindrance in The workshop was planned in three stages,respect to recruitment. The workshop was but given the allotted time, it was shortened toorganised to familiarise students and others fit into one day. Neither the processes nor thewith some of the central issues in the field, results, therefore, are finished in any respectwith especial attention to community based – but are rather a glimpse into the plethora ofaction planning methods. Given the theme of problematic issues regarding urban poverty.this year’s Habitat Day, “A Safe City is a Just As one of the participants mused at the endCity”, the choice of a community based work- of the day – he just felt more frustrated aftershop case is both interesting and apt. negotiating the tasks of the workshop than he did before. This, alas, can be taken as proofAlthough the workshop was created for the that the workshop did indeed simulate all toobenefit of the participants, a case was chosen well “real life” events.that would allow for realistic simulation of “reallife” events - although few of the participantswere familiar with the site from before. This,however, can be said to be a common problemfacing those working in the field.22 people – students from The University inOslo, The Oslo School of Architecture andDesign, Bergen School of Architecture, TheNorwegian University of Science and Technol-ogy, as well as a few from other walks of life 54
  50. 50. HIGH INTENSITY LOW INTENSITYGreen structures Internal paths 57
  51. 51. Few public functions Intensity of public functions 58
  52. 52. Open spaces Transportation New township, Cape Flats 59
  53. 53. Part 1DiscussionsAfter an introduction to the workshop case,this first part of the workshop was initiatedby a separation of the participants into threegroups. These were community based groupsthat represent some of the challenges present-ed in the case. Group 1 was to be a local com-munity group, group 2 represented garbagecollectors, while the third group was made upof immigrants from the countryside. The main Local community grouptask in this part of the workshop was to let theparticipants identify with each of the groupsthey represented, and clarify the following:- Who are we?- What do we need?- What are our dreams?These questions were discussed and answerswritten down in the groups respectively. Afterthese deliberations, the participants gath-ered for role play, where the three commu-nity groups presented themselves for each Garbage collectorsother, and pointed out their needs, wishes anddemands. In this way a series of issues andquestions were presented and clarified. Immigrants from the countryside 60
  54. 54. 61
  55. 55. Part 2Occupying the siteIn this second part of the workshop the groups becoming apparent that conflicts of interestwere asked to “stake their claims” on site. A might crop up between the respective commu-large map of the area, in 1:500 was laid out nity groups.on the floor, and the participants developed“their” parts of the site according to the re- The collective discussions that took place onspective community group’s identities. basis of the visual material on the map gave room for a few arguments concerning key dif-Some design work ensued, and the two- and ferences between the groups, and enabled thethree dimensional shapes that appeared on workshop to proceed in a constructive direc-the map gave each of the community groups tion in terms of identifying, looking into, andmore presence, and a visual basis for discus- hopefully solving some of these problems.sions. Viewing the map from above, it was 62
  56. 56. Part 3Suggest, disagree, and agreeThe groups were asked to suggest proposals that would benefit their group and the community asa whole on three different levels; general suggestions, infrastructure, and plots. Suggestions thegroups could not agree upon are marked in grey. The remaining suggestions were proposals every-one felt they could work with. The purpose of such an activity is to allow community groups to focuson topics they can agree upon, rather than those they disagree about.General Suggestions l Organize plots so that families and relatives can live next to each other l Ensure accessibility l Possibility for holding animals l Keep the open plot a recreational area l In addition to housing, land should be available for agriculture l All to have access to an open plot of land l Big road – big plots, small road – small plots l Keep existing density l Create a community area on part of the open plot l Divide into three different plot sizesInfrastructure l Roads wide enough for fire trucks l Lighting for streets and public spaces l New railway station l Walkways between subplots l Keep road edges unbuilt for commercial activity l Access to water supplies l Open for shops and manufacturing along streetsPlots l Spaces for production l Common spaces within housing squares with direct access from street l Places to sit and relax l Common barbeque/cooking areas in shared open spaces l A network of smaller shared spaces catering for different activities l Shared spaces located along main roads and connecting streets l Spaces for keeping animals l Community centre l 6-10 houses create a neighborhood l Make public space by widening road and walkways 66
  57. 57. 65
  58. 58. Part 4Design guidelines andimplementations on siteBased on the points agreed upon in part 3,the participants were once again divided intogroups. This time, their skills as planners werecalled upon. Using the map, and the visualbasis from part 2 of the workshop, improve-ments on site were implemented using thebasic design guidelines from part 3. The resultwas a meshwork of planned spaces that, al-though based on the same design principals,expressed very different physical results. Also,a number of interesting discussions ensued,for example concerning the construction of“high rise” buildings in such an area, the needfor open plots, and issues regarding feelingprotected in contrast to feeling monitored.Overall, the discussions showed how a work-shop like this can have as much value forarchitects and planners, as for communitygroups on site. Usually, in real terms, thistype of workshop will span the better partof a week, albeit with much larger groupsof peoples, and perhaps with a greater fo-cus on diplomacy. In this case, the workshopwas more of an insight into action planning.Unfortunately, the workshop was cut short atthe end of the day. The remaining topics wererelated to policy and governance – topics thatarguably are of great importance when dealingwith safety and urban poverty.Anders EseCo-ChairmanHabitat Norway 66
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  60. 60. Concluding RemarksThe poetic theme of UN Habitat last year, grounds. Money may work wonders, he said,“Cities magnets of hope”, has been replaced as confidence can be created through tradewith a growing awareness of the risk factors and market activities.facing urban populations. In 2007, the centraltheme read that “A safe city is a just city”. Representing the Foreign Ministry, Erik BergOne of our key-speakers at the conference, presented the policy paper “Cities – hopesSven Erik Svendsen added a question mark and challenges - on urban development andto this quote in order to encourage raised international cooperation”. The policy paperawareness and continued reflection on the encourages multilateral efforts and cross-topic. He went on to ask how best to secure sectoral approaches. Norwegian developmenturban populations without renouncing their programs are increasingly taking this intorights. There are a number of important issues account by targeting many of the urbanfacing urban dwellers such as forced evictions, challenges we are currently facing. One ofinsecurity of tenure, increasing incidents of the many topics discussed in the paper isviolent crime as well as natural and man- poverty and the vulnerability of the urban poormade disasters. The responses depend on the to crime, forced evictions, natural hazards,circumstances and the answers are complex. It pollution and diseases. Throughout the era ofis also important to note that having a greater international development, the urban sectornumber of safe cities does not necessarily has been and still is, grossly under-funded.make these cities more pleasant living spaces. The fact that the Norwegian government is launching this paper, was thus highlyØystein Grønning substantiated this point acclaimed at the conference.when he explained how Israel builds andestablishes safety in their zones, and how This year Habitat Norway wanted tothey in this process create further injustice expand the scope of the conference onfor the Palestinian populations. The Israeli’s the Habitat Day. We wanted to shift thesecurity rests on violence in spatial, structural form of communication from a style basedand physical terms. Grønning thus highlighted mainly on presentations to including a morethe necessity of building confidence rather active dialogue on development issues inthan security. However, how does one break the context of a workshop. The conferencepatterns of conflict when there is a complete was thus supplemented by a workshop thatlack of confidence between the participating provided training on community-based actionactors? His suggestion was to bridge gaps planning methods. This one day exerciseof both the visible and invisible sort and to attracted mainly students who made up thecreate common links using methods such as majority of the participants; the discussiontrade, transportation and cultural meeting was complemented by the presence of a few professionals like me. The workshop gave rise 68
  61. 61. to a number of interesting discussions that requested. Conflict awareness and problemhighlighted many of the central issues on the solving were central to the exercise. Varioustopic “A safe city is a just city”. proposals were mapped, conflicts became apparent and the catalyst properties of certainIn order to guide this process, we were actions were explored. What did we learn?fortunate enough to be able to present the The workshop opened up for new ways ofrenowned action planner, Nabeel Hamdi thinking, and it became apparent that whenfrom Oxford Brookes University. At Oxford the advantages of a proposal are clear, itBrookes, Hamdi founded the master course on is always easier to reach a consensus. It isdevelopment practice, and he is currently the recommended to include something similarprofessor of housing and urban development. next year - the workshop was a vehicle forThe workshop included a simulation of learning and understanding.common problems encountered within thefield. Eli Grønn gave us a vivid and authenticintroduction to some of the challengesexperienced by urban populations. Using the Dr. Ingun B Amundsenexample of the Villas Miserias in Buenos Aires, Co-ChairmanArgentina, she elucidated the grave issueslinked to insecurity and poverty that people Habitat Norwayface in this kind of context.The workshop exercise consisted of role playswhere the participants were subdivided intothree groups. Two groups represented thelocal community and their different points ofview whilst the third group took on the role ofthe “outsider” coming into the community. Thescenario focused on methods of communityinvolvement and empowerment in the projectidentification process. This was done inorder to move away from the conventionalscenario where planners and architects aresimply seen as the providers but where theydo not take into account local experiences,views and needs. We were advised to avoidusing standard models, despite the fact thatthese “blueprint” solutions are often being 69
  62. 62. List of participants 01.10.07Amundsen Ingun B Insam/Habitat NorgeAndersen Aasa G Andersens E&DBerdal AnnikaBerg Jørn Are AHOBinz Annikken a9k1@yahoo.comDale Gunnar siv.ark@gunnar-dale.noEllefsen Karl Otto AHOEse Anders Rodeo/Habitat NorgeEse Mari WesterdalsGjefle Karsten Norsk FormGrønn Eli migrant a+uHaffner Benjamin bh@lmr-arkitektur.noHalseth Lisbeth LPO arkitektur & design asHansen Bror BASHarboe Lisbet AHOHelland Mona KRDHellevang Christian KSHennissen Grete Kristin NTNUHilde Kristin JahrHillestad Anita anita@anitahillestad.orgHjelle Christian christianhjelle@yahoo.noHolm Lars Skanska NorgeHolst HelgaJinghua Lisbeth lee.ljh@gmail.comKiøsterud Tore NOVAKjøsnes Kathrine FN-Sambandet 70
  63. 63. Knutslien Sarah Norsk FormLange Tore NBBLLangslet Marit migrant a+uLauvland Gro AHOLeren Trine Kvaal NTNULyngner Ivar Rodeo arkitekterMinasian Henrik Der Galleri ROMNaganathan Sara saba@broadpark.noNygaard Per KRDRiska Minna SpacegroupRuden Anne HusbankenRydland Asbjørn Habitat NorgeRønhovde Tomas vinglo81@gmail.comSandbakken Camilla Kirkens NødhjelpSchønheyder Caroline T. UIOSem-Olsen Ina Bakka BASStedje Hilde InformalStork Karel Stork Prosjekt ASStrandbygaard MikkelSunde Henning Rodeo arkitekterSvela Audhild InformalTrae Marit NTNUTøllefsen Liz Eva BASWilhelmsen Marit FN-SambandetÅgotsdatter Hanne 71