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Week4e pptslides in text citation-synthesizing 2

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Week4e pptslides in text citation-synthesizing 2

  1. 1.  Synthesizing is an important and complex skill required in academic writing. It involves combining ideas from a range of sources in order to group and present common ideas or arguments.
  2. 2.  Synthesizing is similar to summarising and paraphrasing in that it involves rewriting other people’s ideas in your own words.  But, unlike summarizing and paraphrasing, it combines or draws together ideas from more than one text or source at a time.  It uses and cites multiple sources.
  3. 3.  Read more than one source of materials.  Make brief notes using keypoints/keywords. This makes it easier to compare and contrast relevant information.  Identify common ideas.
  4. 4.  Highlight and list similarities. eg. Write one sentence for each material referred to. Sentences should consist of central point and (or) brief summary of each work  Write the ideas in your own words.  Give credit to the authors of texts.
  5. 5. Synthesizing a similar idea: Contemporary second language writing theorists such as Grabe and Kaplan (1996), Kroll (2001) and Silva (1990) pointed out that a substantial number of studies on English as a second language (ESL) writing started to emerge in the 1960s.
  6. 6.  The previous slide shows the writer has read from three sources (Grabe and Kaplan (1996), Kroll (2001) and Silva (1990)) to present his point that a substantial number of studies on English as a second language (ESL) writing started to emerge in the 1960s.
  7. 7. Synthesizing another similar idea: Ary et al. (2002), Campbell and Stanley (1966), and Fraenkel and Wallen (2000), discussed the internal validity threats that can confound the effects on a dependent variable in a quasi-experiment.
  8. 8. Synthesizing contrasting ideas (i) Text 1: (Bond, 2002) -international language for business -used for international forums -second language in many countries Text 2 : (Robertson, 2003) -used in worldwide technology -computers is a key factor in spread of English -internationalization of education Common idea: English is the global world language
  9. 9. Synthesizing contrasting ideas (ii) Text 3: (Havir, 1999) -small no of speakers worldwide -importance of English linked to political power -more people speak Chinese worldwide Text 4: (Kerstjens, 2000) -minority of speakers in world -Chinese dominant especially in future -English will decline in future Common idea: English is not the global world language
  10. 10. Syntheses: Supporting the contention that English is the dominant world language, Bond (2002) and Robertson(2003) pointed out its importance as the medium of international communication in business, technology and other global forums. However, others argue that despite its apparent dominance, English is not the global language when the number of native speakers of other languages, e.g. Chinese, are considered (Havir, 1999; Kerstjens, 2000).

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