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Week4d pptslides writing with coherence


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Week4d pptslides writing with coherence

  1. 1. LANGUAGE FOCUS : Writing with coherence
  2. 2. COHERENCE  means “sticking together ” ; connecting sentences  Every sentence in a paragraph relates to a single idea There are four ways to write coherent paragraphs: 1. Repeat key words or use clear pronouns. 2. Use parallel structure 3. Use transitional markers 4. Use a transitional sentence ( Winkler,C.A & Metherell,J.R., 2012) LANGUAGE FOCUS: Writing with coherence
  3. 3. 1. REPEAT KEY WORDS OR USE CLEAR PRONOUNS Example : The villain in science fiction movies is always the personification of evil. One way this concentration of evil is achieved is by surrounding the villain with numerous henchmen. Without henchmen, the villain would appear much less powerful. To accentuate his villainy, he surrounds himself with the ruthless storm troopers, evil robots, slime monsters. With these associates by the villain’s side, the eventual triumph of the hero over the villain takes place against a backdrop of overwhelming odds. *Repetition of the word villain and the use of the pronouns he, himself, his which refer to villain , provide a common thread connecting all five sentences. LANGUAGE FOCUS: Writing with coherence
  4. 4. 2. USE PARALLEL STRUCTURE Example : Fleas of various species can jump 150 times their own length, can survive months without feeding , can accelerate 50 times faster than the space shuttle, can withstand enormous pressure, and can remain frozen for a year and then revive. * The repetition of certain words, phrases, or clauses in a paragraph can give sentences a cohering rhythm and harmony, as the repetition of can and a verb does in the above example. LANGUAGE FOCUS: Writing with coherence
  5. 5. 3. USE TRANSIONAL MARKERS  Words and phrases called transitional markers helps to establish clear connections between ideas and ensure that sentences and paragraph flow together smoothly, making them easier to read. LANGUAGE FOCUS: Writing with unity and coherence TRANSIONAL MARKERS i) COORDINATING CONJUCTION iii) CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS ii) SUBORDINATING CONJUNTION
  6. 6. LANGUAGE FOCUS: Writing with unity and coherence i) COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS To show addition: and To show choice : or , nor To show consequences : so To show contrast: but, yet To show cause : for Use a related group of paired coordinating conjunctions, called correlative conjunctions , to strengthen these relationships: To show choice : either/or, neither/nor, whether/or  To show addition : both/and, not only/but also, not only/but
  7. 7. Example of an excerpt using transitional marker ( coordinating conjunction) It is possible to diagnose AD(H)D later in life, but only if the symptoms began before age 7. Also, symptoms should cause problems in two or more settings, for example at both work and home. Furthermore, AD(H)D can only be diagnosed if the symptoms make it hard for the person to learn how to function well socially, academically, and at work (DSM-IV, p. 78). Symptoms might not show up if the person is under "very strict control," is in a new place, or is doing "especially interesting" activities, or is working with only one other person (p. 79). LANGUAGE FOCUS: Writing with unity and coherence
  8. 8. LANGUAGE FOCUS: Writing with unity and coherence Ii ) SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS To show condition: if, even if, unless, provided that To show contrast: though, although , even though, as if, even as To show cause: because, since To show time: when, whenever, while, as, before, after, since, once, until To show place: where, whenever To show purpose: so that, in order that, that
  9. 9. Example of an excerpt using transitional markers ( subordinating conjunctions)  In retrospect, the conclusions of Terrace et al. seem to have been premature. Although some early ape language studies had not been rigorously controlled to eliminate cuing, even as early as the 1970s R. A. Gardner and B. T. Gardner were conducting double-blind experiments that prevented any possibility of cuing (Fouts, 1997, p. 99). Since 1979, researchers have diligently guarded against cuing. ( Shaw, K. , Apes and Language) LANGUAGE FOCUS: Writing with unity and coherence
  10. 10. LANGUAGE FOCUS: Writing with unity and coherence iii) CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS: To show contrast: however, nevertheless , nonetheless, still To show cause and effect: accordingly , consequently, thus,  before To show addition: also, besides, furthermore, moreover, similarly To show time: afterward, subsequently, then To show emphasis: indeed To show condition: otherwise
  11. 11. Example of a paragraph using transitional markers ( Conjunctive adverbs)  The third section of both surveys included an additional question in relation to the reasons for students committing academic misconduct. Students were asked to nominate from a list of twenty-one reasons for instance why they committed academic misconduct if they had admitted to it in section two, while staff were asked to indicate (from the same list) the reasons that students had given them when caught engaging in academic misconduct. Then, they were…….However, it was……. LANGUAGE FOCUS: Writing with unity and coherence
  12. 12. 4. USE A TRANSITIONAL SENTENCE  To make the transition from one paragraph to the next is to open the second paragraph with a straddling sentence. This is a sentence that stands with one foot on the paragraph that is just ending and the other on the one that is just beginning. LANGUAGE FOCUS: Writing with unity and coherence
  13. 13. LANGUAGE FOCUS: Writing with unity and coherence EXAMPLE : Anyone with an interest in biography soon become interested in Boswell’s Life of Johnson. It stands next to other biographies as Shakespeare stands beside other playwrights: towering above them all. For more than two centuries it has been continuously in print, and in that time it has won innumerable admirers. No other biography has given so much pleasure; no other biography has created such vivid central character. It has become a truism that, as a result of Boswell’s extraordinary book, Samuel Johnson is better known to us than any other man in history. Straddle As well as being a famous and much loved book, Sentence the life of Johnson is a work that raises fundamental questions about the nature of biography itself. Is it possible for a biographer to fully understand what it is like to be another human being? However careful and diligent the writer, can biography be accurate, that is, faithful to life? Everybody knows “Dr. Johnson,” or so we think, but is the man we know from the pages of Boswell’s book the same Johnson who strode the streets of London 250 years ago? Is the biography science or art? History or fiction? Boswell’s Presumptuous Task, Adam Sisman
  14. 14.  Sources: Rosen, L.J. ( 2010). The Academis Writer’s Handbook. Longman, Pearson Wrinkler, A.C. & Metherell, J.R. ( 2012). Writing the Research Paper A handbook. USA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning. Azar, B.S. (1992). Fundamentals of English Grammar. New Jersey, USA: Prentice Hall. LANGUAGE FOCUS: Writing with unity and coherence
  15. 15. THE END LANGUAGE FOCUS: Writing with unity and coherence