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Week4b pptslides apa referencing


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Week4b pptslides apa referencing

  1. 1. 1 REPORTING SOURCES FOR LITERATURE REVIEW The APA Style Of Referencing References : The Purdue University Writing Lab Postgraduate Thesis Dissertation Manual, International Islamic University Malaysia
  2. 2. 2 What is APA ? American Psychological Association. (2001). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.  For the latest and official APA “Electronic Reference Formats" document :  Go to OWL website:
  3. 3. 3 Warning : This part takes an eye for detail. In your research academic writing, proper documentation should be a priority!
  4. 4. 4 APA Style: Two Main Concerns  The Reference Page /List  Parenthetical Citations
  5. 5. Why Use APA Format? 1. Allows readers to cross-reference your sources easily 2. Provides consistent format within a discipline 3. Gives you credibility as a writer 4. Protects yourself from plagiarism
  6. 6. 6 1. Cross-Referencing Your Sources Cross-referencing allows readers to locate the publication information of source material. This is of great value for researchers who may want to locate your sources for their own research projects.
  7. 7. 7 2. Using a Consistent Format  Using a consistent format helps your reader understand your arguments and the sources they’re built on.  It also helps you keep track of your sources as you build your arguments.
  8. 8. 8 3. Establishing Credibility The proper use of APA style shows the credibility of writers; such writers show accountability to their source material.
  9. 9. 9 4. Avoiding Plagiarism Proper citation of your sources in APA style can help you avoid plagiarism, which is a serious offense. It may result in anything from failure of the assignment to expulsion from the university.
  10. 10. The Reference Page /List  Your reference list should appear on a new page, at the end of your paper.  It is a list of every source that you make reference to in your essay (each retrievable source cited in the essay must appear on the reference list, and vice versa).  It provides the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any sources cited in your essay.  All texts should be double-spaced just like the essay.
  11. 11. The Reference Page /List Most citations should contain the following basic information:  Author’s name  Title of work  Publication information 11
  12. 12. 12 A sample of a reference page/list References Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and loss. New York, NY: Basic Book. Festinger, L., Riecken, H., & Schacher, S. (2000). When prophecy fails. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Johnson, J.E., & Yule, A. (1994). Play and early childhood development. New York, NY: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.
  13. 13. A sample of a reference page/list 13 References Klein, J. (1998, October 5). Dizzy days. The New Yorker, 40-45. Shay, J. (1994). Achilles in Vietnam: Combat trauma and the undoing of character. New York, NY: Touchstone. Shaykh Abd. Rahman Ibn Abd. Latif. (1972). Masahi ulama najd. Al-Riyad: Dar-al-Yamamah.
  14. 14. 14 The reference list (APA STYLE) POINTS TO REMEMBER:  Entries must be arranged in alphabetical order.  Typing must be double-spaced.  Entries should have a hanging indent after the first line (one-half inch from left margin).  Entries must not be categorized.  Entries must not be numbered.  Only the first word of the title of the book, the word after a colon and proper names should be capitalized.  Titles of books and names of journals, magazines and newspapers should be typed in italics. Don’t underline.  Use colon to separate the place of publication and the publisher.
  15. 15. 15 The reference list (APA STYLE)  Use full stop at the end of every entry and after every part of the entry for example after year, after title, etc.  Write the surnames in full but use only the initials for first and middle names.  Write muslim names in full.  Alphabetize group authors, such as associations or government agencies, by the first significant word of the name.
  16. 16. Cont….  If the work is signed “anonymous” the entry begins with the word anonymous spelled out, and the entry is alphabetized as if anonymous were a true name.  If there is no author, the title moves to the author’s position, and the entry is alphabetized by the first significant word of the title.  Treat legal reference like entries with no author; that is, alphabetize legal references by the first significant item in the entry. 16
  18. 18. 18 BOOKS – SINGLE (1) AUTHOR Last name first, followed by author’s initial. For location, always list the city and the state using the 2 letter postal abbreviation without periods (New York, NY:) Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and loss. New York, NY: Basic Book. Shaykh Abd. Rahman Ibn Abd. Latif. (1972). Masahi ulama najd. Al-Riyad: Dar-al- Yamamah.
  19. 19. 19 BOOKS - 2 AUTHORS List by their last names and initials, use the symbol (&) instead of “and”. Johnson, J.E., & Yule, A. (1994). Play and early childhood development. New York, NY: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.
  20. 20. 20 BOOKS - 3 to 7 AUTHORS List by last names and initials; commas to separate author names, while the last author name is preceded again by the symbol. Kernis, M. H., Cornell, D. P., Sun, C. R., Berry, A., & Harlow, T. (1993). There's more to self-esteem than whether it is high or low: The importance of stability of self- esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 1190-1204.
  21. 21. 21 BOOKS – MORE THAN 7 AUTHORS Harris, M., Karper, E., Stacks, G., Hoffman, D., DeNiro, R., Cruz, P., Thomas, S.T., … Rubin, L.H. (2006). Writing labs and the Hollywood connection. Journal of Film and Writing,44(3), 213-245.
  22. 22. 22 BOOKS - EDITED COLLECTION Higgins, J. (Ed). (1989). Psychology. New York, NY: Norton. Duncan, G.J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.). (1997). Consequences of growing up poor. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
  23. 23. 23 BOOKS –A SPECIFIC EDITION Brocket, O. (1967). History of the theatre (5th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
  24. 24. 24 BOOKS- SECOND WORK BY THE SAME AUTHOR Brown, R. (1985). Words and things. New York, NY: Macmillan. Brown, R. (1997). Social psychology. New York, NY: Macmillan. Note: list the entries by the year (earliest comes first).
  25. 25. 25 BOOKS- SECOND WORK BY THE SAME AUTHOR IN THE SAME YEAR Berndt, T. J. (1981a). Age changes and changes over time in prosocial intentions and behavior between friends. Developmental Psychology, 17, 408-416. Berndt, T. J. (1981b). Effects of friendship on prosocial intentions and behavior. Child Development, 52, 636-643.
  26. 26. 26 BOOKS - UNKNOWN AUTHOR Experimental psychology. (1988). New York, NY: Holt Publication.
  27. 27. 27 CORPORATE AND GOVERNMENT AUTHORSHIP International Islamic University Malaysia. (1992). Islamization of knowledge. Malaysia: Research Centre Publishing. National Institute of Mental Health. (1990). Clinical training in serious mental illness. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
  28. 28. 28 RELIGIOUS SOURCES Al-Quran, Surah Al-Baqarah: 152-153.
  29. 29. 29 THESIS Ahmad Zaini Zahid. (1991). A study of sleep of sleep deprivation and its effects on teenagers. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Nebraska).
  30. 30. 30 ELECTRONIC SOURCES (WEB PUBLICATIONS) Author, A.A. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of online periodical, volume number. Retrieved from Chou, L. (1999). Technology and education. Retrieved from http://www.ilt.columbia.html. New child vaccine gets funding boost. (2000). Retrieved from http://news/health
  31. 31. 31 JOURNAL, E-JOURNAL AND NEWSPAPER ARTICLES Faisal Othman. ( 1996, October 6). Islam and development. The Star, p. 12. Parker-Pope, T. (2008). Psychiatry handbook linked to drug industry. The New York Times. Retrieved from Sawyer, J. (1996). Measurement and prediction. Psychological Bulletin (3), p. 178-200.
  32. 32. 32 JOURNAL, E-JOURNAL AND NEWSPAPER ARTICLES - NO AUTHOR Clinton puts human face on health-care plan. (1993, September 16). The New York Times, p. 11. Cultivation of positive emotions to optimize health and well-being. (2000). Prevention and treatment (3), 2000. Retrieved from
  33. 33. 33 LEGAL CASES Faridah Dato’ Talib v Mohd Habibullah. (1990). 1 MLJ 74. Ngieng Shiat Yen v Phang Wai Ann. (1995). 3 MLJ 130.
  34. 34. 34 ACTS Mental Health System Act, (1988)
  35. 35. 35 Rubenstein, J.P. (1997). The effects of television violence on small children. In B.F. Kane (Ed.) Television and juvenile psychological development. New York: American Psychological Society. ITEMS IN ANTHOLOGY
  36. 36. 36 TELEVISION AND RADIO PROGRAMMES Keillor, G. (Producer), & Smith, L. (Director). (2 Oct., 1993). A prairie home companion (Radio Program). St. Louis: KMOX
  37. 37. 37 ONLINE LECTURE NOTES AND PRESENTATION SLIDES Provide the file format in brackets after the lecture title. Hallam, A. Duality in consumer theory (PDF document). Retrieved from lecture notes online web site: http://www.econ.istate/classes/hallam Roberts, K.F. (1998). Federal regulations in the environment (Power Point slides). Retrieved from