Why Strata Title?Why Strata Title?
Emphasis since mid-60’s on development
of multi-storey buildings in response to
To enable individual flats or office units to
be sold as conveniently as lots on land.
Strata: Horizontal SubdivisionStrata: Horizontal Subdivision
The idea of Strata
Title is based on
subdivision of a
building, or of
airspace, instead of
subdivision of land.
The Concept of Strata TitleThe Concept of Strata Title
The land and building(s)
on it are divided into
‘parcels’ and ‘common
Each parcel is an
individual apartment for
which a separate strata
title is issued to the
Each parcel may include a
parking lot or storeroom
which not be located
within the same boundary
as the parcel i.e.
‘‘Parcel’ v ‘Common property’Parcel’ v ‘Common property’
All parts of the
building and land
that do not form
part of an individual
apartment make up
property’ for which
a separate title is
issued and held by
Legislative HistoryLegislative History
Before 1985, NLC
had provisions for
buildings and the
Titles Act 1985 is
modeled after New
(Strata Titles) Act
1961 and Singapore
Land Titles (Strata)
Strata Titles Act 1985 (Act 318)Strata Titles Act 1985 (Act 318)
An Act to facilitate the subdivision of
buildings or land into parcels and the
disposition of titles and purposes
Applies in Peninsular Malaysia and FT
Has been amended 4 times. Latest in
s.5-To be read and applied with NLC.
‘parcel’ ‘common property’
One of the individual
units comprised in a
which is held under a
separate strata title.
If subdivided land,
one of the individual
units of land parcel.
So much of the lot as
is not comprised in
any parcel (including
Any parcel shown in
the strata plan as an
which is used or
intended to be used
in conjunction with a
A parking bay may
either be an
accessory parcel or
depending on the
strata plan and sale
The 2007 amendment now allows subdivision
of land also to be issued with strata title.
Requirement – there must be a building on
the land of not more than 4 storey high. This
is to cater for the Gated Community type of
development and ‘townhouses’.
‘land parcel’: a unit which is comprised
therein a subdivided land on which there is a
completed building of not more than 4 storey
which is held under strata title.
Application for Strata TitleApplication for Strata Title
1) There must be at least one building
with two or more storey. If a building
is one storey, may subdivide into land
2) The land on which the building stands
must be alienated land.
3) The land must be one lot held under
Who should apply?Who should apply?
The proprietor of the land who has sold or
agreed to sell any parcel in such building.
Lee Wai Kin v Yulek S/BLee Wai Kin v Yulek S/B 
Pf. purchased a flat in a block of buildings
developed by the Dfs.
He had paid the purchase price and went
Strata title to the flat had not been issued
to the Pf.
Df had been demanding various sums of
money from the Pf. For expenses to be
incurred for applying for such title.
Lee Wai Kin’sLee Wai Kin’s case:case:
Pf. applied to court to determine several
In view of s.8(1) STA, it was incumbent
upon the Df. (as proprietor of land) to
apply for Strata Title to the flat on behalf
of the Pf..
Pf. to pay the costs. Amount is the
prescribed fee to be paid u-s.10(1)(a).
When to apply? (Mandatory)When to apply? (Mandatory)
If sale and purchase agreement signed
BEFORE completion of building, must
apply for ST 6 months after building is
If sale and purchase agreement signed
AFTER completion of building, must apply
for ST 6 months after the date of the first
Can the period to apply beCan the period to apply be
Under s.8(6), the Director of Lands and
Mines may extend the period once not
exceeding 3 months.
Consequence of not applying?Consequence of not applying?
Not making an application within the
prescribed period is an offence.
Punishable with FINE of between
RM10,000 to RM100,000.
For every day the offence continues –
RM100-RM1000 for each day.
Syed Azman v Lian Seng (KL)Syed Azman v Lian Seng (KL)
Construction Co. S/BConstruction Co. S/B 
Pf had purchased the 3rd
floor of a
proposed 5 storey building.
Building completed in 1973 and Pf paid
the full purchase price u-the agreement.
Until the date of hearing, the strata title
had not yet been delivered to the Pf.
Pf claimed specific performance i.e.
immediate delivery of the strata title
pursuant to the agreement.
Syed Azman’sSyed Azman’s case:case:
Df. argued, inter-alia, they were incapable
of specifically performing the terms of the
agreement as the 6 months period
specified in s.8(2) STA had expired and no
extension of such period had been made
before its expiry.
HELD: (Lim Beng Choon, J.)HELD: (Lim Beng Choon, J.)
Df’s contractually and statutorily bound to
apply for separate title for the property
purchased by the Pf.
Upon payment of the fine stipulated u-STA,
the Df as proprietor, could therefore apply to
the Director for subdivision of the building
and the Director could still deal with the
application even after expiry of the 6 months
Court ordered the Df. to do the needful
within 1 month of the judgment.
See s. 69 STASee s. 69 STA
Where the approved strata plan shows
that some portion of the development (i.e.
a carpark, storeroom, etc) are to be taken
to be ‘accessory parcel’, then neither the
developer nor the parcel owner may deal
with such accessory parcel or any interest
therein separately from the parcel.
Doreen Tan Ying Ying v Chong TetDoreen Tan Ying Ying v Chong Tet
OnOn  1 MLJ 504 1 MLJ 504
Pf. Hd purchased 2 apartments from a
Subsequently, she purchased the disputed
parking bay from the same co.
Pf. later sold one of the apartments to the
Found out that Df. Had been using the
disputed parking bay.
Doreen Tan’sDoreen Tan’s case:case:
Pf. sought an injunction to restrain the Df.
from using the said parking bay.
Contended that she sold the apartment
excluding the parking bay.
Pf’s application dismissed.
Developer was not entitled in law to sell
the parking bay as a separate entity as it
was an accessory parcel attached to the
John Dennis De Silva v Crescent CourtJohn Dennis De Silva v Crescent Court
Management CorporationManagement Corporation  3 MLJ 3 MLJ
Pf=owner and resident of condo unit at
Parked his car at bay 106.
25/9/04-Pf’s car bearing the sticker of
Crescent Court was denied entry and right
to park at bay 106 on the ground that he
had not paid his monthly maintenance
John Dennis’sJohn Dennis’s case:case:
Pf. sought interim injunction to restrain the
Df from preventing the Pf from entering the
condo complex in his car and preventing the
Pf from parking.
Df averred that the parking bay was allocated
to the Pf, not purchased by the Pf.
Pf brought evidence that he had contributed
money to construct a roof over the parking
bay and therefore he had proprietary interest
in the parking bay.
From the Strata Plan, the parking bays
were common property.
The Pf had a proprietary interest in the
parking bay as all owners of Crescent
Court ‘owned’ the common property.
The act of the Df in preventing entry was
ultra vires ss. 52,53,53A and 75 STA.
Plaza Pekeliling Management Corp. vPlaza Pekeliling Management Corp. v
IGB Corp. Bhd. & Anor.IGB Corp. Bhd. & Anor.  1 MLJU 1 MLJU
216 (HC)216 (HC)
Justice Abd Malik Ishak:
“common property meant that there was
no title to it because if there was title,
then it was not a common property”
In this case, AHU Rooms, toilets, risers,
roof top and carparks had been issued
with strata titles, thus were not
considered ‘common property’.
Management CorporationManagement Corporation
Established upon opening of a Strata
Register for the said strata scheme. (see
Consists of all parcel proprietors.
Is a body corporate that can sue and be
U-s.42 STA, the MC is the proprietor of
common property and holds the IDT for
the common property.
Roles and Responsibilities:Roles and Responsibilities:
Responsible for maintenance and
management of common property in the
scheme – lifts, corridors, swimming pool,
Responsibilities of MC
(see s.43, s.44(6), Third Schedule of STA,
s.43(1) STAs.43(1) STA
1) To manage and
prop. and keep
it in the state
of good and
2) To insure and
keep insured te
building or land
agst fire and such
3) To comply with
any notices or
orders made by
nuisance on the
4) To comply with
orders given in
respect of the
parcels if the
to do so within
5) To prepare and
strata roll for
s.44(6) STAs.44(6) STA
6) To keep a record of the by-laws for
the time being in force and to lodge a
certified true copy with the
Commissioner of Buildings (COB)
7) To enter in the strata roll any intended
change without delay.
8) To maintain in a state of good and
serviceable repair the fixtures and
fittings (including lifts) existing.
9) To establish and maintain suitable
lawns and gardens on the common
10) To maintain
on the lot.
11) To produce all
effected by the
receipts to the
s. 54s. 54
12)To display the name and address of
the MC as shown in the book of the strata
register at the main entrance for the lot
and to provide the post box.
Rights (s.35 STA) see also s.36Rights (s.35 STA) see also s.36
Other than rights of a proprietor under
the NLC, parcel proprietors hv the
1) Right of support by the common
property and other parcels.
2) Right of service – rights to passage
and provision of water, sewage,
drainage, gas, electricity, garbage,
Parcel proprietors have the following
1) Ensure regular payment of the
2) To attend the AGM;
3) Comply with any directive by the
authority relating to his parcel.
Management Fund (s. 45)Management Fund (s. 45)
To meet administrative expenses incurred
for the purpose of controlling, managing
and administering the common property.
Amount to be contributed by the parcel
proprietors is determined at the AGM.
Non-payment of ManagementNon-payment of Management
Fund by Parcel OwnersFund by Parcel Owners
S. 55A of the Building and Common
Property (Maintenance and Management)
Act 2007 provides this to be an offence
where upon conviction can be fined not
more than RM5000 and additional RM50
per day for any delay in the contribution