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Country projectjustin

  1. 1. Country Project By Justin Coffey
  2. 2. Brunei
  3. 3. Country Description <ul><li>Official Name: Brunei Darussalam </li></ul><ul><li>Capital: Bandar Seri Begawan </li></ul><ul><li>Size: 2,226 sq miles </li></ul><ul><li>Climate: Tropical; hot, humid, rainy. </li></ul><ul><li>Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and Malaysia </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 407,000 as 2010 </li></ul>
  4. 4. Flag Description <ul><li>Yellow is the color of royalty and symbolizes the sultanate </li></ul><ul><li>White and Black bands indicate Brunei's chief ministers </li></ul><ul><li>Emblem has five major parts: </li></ul><ul><li>A swallowed-tailed flag. </li></ul><ul><li>The royal umbrella represents the monarchy. </li></ul><ul><li>The wings of four feathers symbolize justice, tranquility, prosperity, and peace. </li></ul><ul><li>The two upraised hands signify the government's pledge to preserve and promote the welfare of the people. </li></ul><ul><li>The crescent moon indicates Islam, the state religion. </li></ul><ul><li>The state motto &quot;Always render service with God's guidance&quot; appears in yellow Arabic script on the crescent; a ribbon below the crescent says &quot;Brunei, the Abode of Peace”. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Geographic Features <ul><li>Terrain: Flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east and hilly lowland in west. </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Resources: Petroleum, natural gas and timber. </li></ul><ul><li>Fauna: Asian elephants, orangutans, clouded leopards and proboscis monkeys. </li></ul><ul><li>Flora: Virgin Tropical rainforests, mangrove forests along the river estuaries and coastal coral reef gardens. </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Hazards: Typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding but all are rare. </li></ul><ul><li>Brunei is close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking Indian and Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia; almost an enclave of Malaysia </li></ul>
  6. 6. Geographic Features <ul><li>Points of Interest: Kuala Belalong Mini Park- has a pond for remote controlled boats. </li></ul><ul><li>Kuala Belalong Rainforest Field Studies Centre: The centre was established as a training and research base focusing on the study of Brunei's lowland tropical forests. A streamside complex of seven timber houses, the centre provides field research facilities catering to a range of enquiry levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Bukit Patoi Recreational Park: The park has many unusual cave and rock formations and is home to a variety of readily seen wildlife such as Borneo's native kijang (deer). </li></ul>
  7. 7. Geographic Features <ul><li>Vacation </li></ul><ul><li>Meragang Beach, sometimes called crocodile beach. There are no animal like crocodiles on the beach. While there you could catch a warm sea breeze or watch a brilliant sunset or see a double rainbow. Meragang Beach is near the Jalan Meragang junction. </li></ul><ul><li>Meragang Beach </li></ul>
  8. 8. History <ul><li>From the 14th to the 16th centuries Brunei was a powerful sultanate extending over Sabah, Sarawak and the lower Philippines. </li></ul><ul><li>By the 19th century, the Brunei Empire had been whittled away by wars, piracy and the colonial expansion of European powers. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1847, the sultan concluded a treaty with Great Britain and in 1888 Brunei officially became a British protectorate. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1906, the Residential System was established in Brunei and the British resident advised the sultan in all matters except Malay customs, traditions and Islamic religion. </li></ul>
  9. 9. History <ul><li>The 1959 Agreement established a written constitution which gave Brunei Darussalam a self-government. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1971, the agreement was amended and revised to assert full independence except defense and external affairs. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1967 Sultan Haji Sir Muda Omar Ali Saifuddien abdicated in favor of his son Pengiran Muda Mahkota Hassanal Bolkiah. </li></ul><ul><li>On January 1, 1984 Brunei gained full independence from the United Kingdom and the Sultan took office as Prime Minister, Finance Minister and Home Affairs Minister, having authority over a cabinet of six. </li></ul><ul><li>In October 1986, the cabinet was expanded to 11 members while the Sultan gave up his power over the finance and home affairs cabinets for control of the defense cabinet. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1988 the Ministry of Industry and Primary Resources were created and aimed at boosting Brunei’s development </li></ul>
  10. 10. History <ul><li>Current Event: The 17th annual Special Convention for Women was held at the International Convention Centre February 26th, 2011. Her Majesty Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Hajah Saleha attended this celebration with her Royal entourage to speak on the matter of how important women are and how they help the community. Dr Hjh Masnon who is the Raes of the Seri Begawan Religious Teachers University College greeted the entourage and spoke about how women have improved the community by being given higher education and higher positions in government. By being able to have better education and higher positions in government women can work to their full extent to serve their country and family. The highlight of the night was when Her majesty gave the Bakti Hijrah Women Special Award to three women named Datin Paduka Hjh Misli Hj Awang, Hjh Johana Hj Mohd Isa and Hjh Tiafnah Hj Metussin. The award is given in appreciation for the three women's active involvement and contribution to society, especially in religious ways. The ceremony ended with a dikir marhaban performed by the members of the Women's Council, the officers and staff of the Ministry of Religious Affairs and members of the Ministry of Health. Partway into the dance Her majesty and her Royal entourage joined in the dikir recital. After the recital Her majesty and her Royal entourage toured the exhibition booths of the Women Council Brunei Darussalam, Islamic Da'wah Centre from Ministry of Religious Affairs and the Ministry of Health. The Ministry of Health is used to inform people of diseases effecting women. There were some 5,000 government officials in attendance. In conclusion, I believe this is a awesome way to promote women's rights and inform the people of the strength of women in the community. Also, I think this is a good way to show that even government officials and royalty still like to have a good time. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Political <ul><li>Type of Government: Constitutional Sultanate </li></ul><ul><li>President, Prime Minister, Minister of Defense and Minister of Finance: Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah. He is assisted by the Privy Council, the Council of Succession, the Religious Council, the Council of Ministers and the Legislative Council. </li></ul><ul><li>Senior Minister: Prince Haji Al-muhtadee Billah Ibni </li></ul><ul><li>Minister of Finance II: Yang Berhormat Pehin Orang Kaya Laila Setia Dato Seri Setia Awang Haji Abdul Rahman bin Haji Ibrahim </li></ul><ul><li>Minister of Energy: Yang Berhormat Pehin Datu Singamanteri Colonel Dato Seri Paduka Haji Mohammad Yasmin bin Haji Umar </li></ul><ul><li>Deputy Ministers: Dato Paduka Haji Abdul Wahab and Dato Paduka Haji Ali </li></ul><ul><li>Suffrage: Universal, you must be 18 years of age for village elections </li></ul>
  12. 12. Economy <ul><li>Industries: Petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas and construction. </li></ul><ul><li>Exports: Crude oil, liquefied natural gas and petroleum products. </li></ul><ul><li>Imports: Machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food and chemicals. </li></ul><ul><li>Brunei has a small well-to-do economy that has a mixture of foreign and domestic entrepreneurship, government regulation, welfare measures, and village tradition. It’s account balance is $7.024 billion as of 2008 and its external debt is $.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Major Trade Partners: for exports: Japan 38.04%, Indonesia 25.95%, South Korea 14.17% and Australia 7.24% as of 2009. For imports Singapore 38.4%, Malaysia 18.7%, Japan 7.2%, China 5.42%, Thailand 5.19%, US 4.45%, UK 4.25% as of 2009 </li></ul>
  13. 13. Daily Life <ul><li>Brunei has a very high standard of living because of its small population, large gas and oil reserves and because Bruneians don’t have to pay taxes. The life expectancy for men is 76 years and 81 years for women. </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy: Total Population: 93%. Male: 95%, Female: 90% as of 2001. </li></ul><ul><li>Clothing: Muslim Bruneians follow traditional dressing. Women are dressed in bright colors and their clothes usually cover them from head to toe. Men also prefer formal dressing both in workplace and in social gathering. Bruneians are not allowed to wear high-end western clothes, tourists also must abide by this rule. Non-Muslim Bruneians wear shorts, jeans, skirts and other western clothes. </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Usage: Access is unrestricted to citizens and there are about 319,000 users as of June 2010 </li></ul>
  14. 14. Culture <ul><li>Traditions: Traditions follow Islamic law, people of other faiths are allowed to follow their own traditions. During the Islamic month of Ramadhan, Muslims fast from dawn to dusks. Also, during Ramadhan food habits of the Bruneians change, they follow some traditional way of cooking certain foods like rice, mutton, fish and sweets. </li></ul><ul><li>Language: Malay is the official language, other languages are English and Chinese </li></ul><ul><li>Customs: Bruneian people prefer to eat with there fingers rather than silverware. Beverages are accepted with the right hand and when refusing something it is polite to touch the plate with your right hand. Usually, at social gatherings people sit on the floor with legs tucked to one side. </li></ul><ul><li>Religions: Muslim (official) 67%, Buddhist 13%, Christian 10%, other (includes indigenous beliefs) 10% </li></ul>
  15. 15. Culture <ul><li>Foods: Rice, mutton, fish and sweets are the main Bruneian foods. </li></ul><ul><li>Music: Adai-adai is a song sung by fishermen while they work. Another song called the Alus Jua Dindangcis sung by the groom to try to flatter his wife and profess his undying love for her. Brunei’s national anthem is the &quot;Allah Peliharakan Sultan&quot; which translates to “God Bless His Majesty” </li></ul><ul><li>Dance: Jipin dance is performed by 6 men and 6 women and backed by traditional instruments like the dombak, rebana and gambus dan biola. The aduk-aduk is a ceremonial dance performed at special occasions such as the end of the harvest season. In this dance, the dancers wear a traditional warrior’s outfit of red and black clothing and move to the beat of the traditional Malay martial art known as silat. Numerous percussion instruments such as drums and coconut shells accompany this dance. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Festivities <ul><li>National Day: Brunei celebrates this joyous occasion on the 23rd of February and the people usually prepare themselves two months beforehand. Schoolchildren, private sector representatives and civil servants work hand-in-hand rehearsing their part in flash card displays and other colorful crowd formations. In addition mass prayers and reading of Surah Yaasin are held at mosques throughout the country. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers’ Day: Teachers' Day is celebrated on every 23rd September in recognition of the good deeds of the teachers to the community, religion and the country. It is celebrated in commemoration of the birthday of the late Sultan Haji Omar 'Ali Saifuddien Saadul Khairi Waddien, the 28th Sultan of Brunei for his contribution in the field of education including religious education. </li></ul><ul><li>Royal Brunei Armed Forces Day: 31st of May marks the commemoration of the Royal Brunei Armed Forces formation day. The occasion is celebrated with military parades, artillery displays, parachuting and exhibitions. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Conclusion <ul><li>The Brunei Music Society has been preserving classical music in Brunei since 1972. </li></ul><ul><li>The private press is either owned or controlled by the royal family, or exercises self-censorship on political and religious matters. </li></ul><ul><li>In Brunei drug trafficking and illegally importing controlled substances are serious offenses in Brunei and carry a mandatory death penalty </li></ul><ul><li>The same family has ruled Brunei for over 600 years. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1963, Brunei was the only Malay state to choose to remain a British dependency rather than join the Malaysian Federation. </li></ul><ul><li>The ruling royals have an immense amount of money. </li></ul><ul><li>Much of the country is undeveloped and unexploited outside of the capital. </li></ul><ul><li>Brunei is currently trying to diversify its economy which it relies heavily on imports. </li></ul>
  18. 18. What I learned <ul><li>I learned that even though Brunei people enjoy a lavish lifestyle and do not have to pay taxes they are restricted from freedom of speech in the press, radio and internet. I would rather have my voice heard rather than money, I am grateful to be able to express my feelings in school and public. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Works Cited <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  20. 20. Burundi
  21. 21. Country Description <ul><li>Official Name: Republic of Burundi </li></ul><ul><li>Capital: Bujumbura </li></ul><ul><li>Size: 10,740 sq miles </li></ul><ul><li>Climate: equatorial;, high plateau with considerable altitude variation (772 meters to 2,670 meters above sea level); average annual temperature varies with altitude from 23 to 17 degrees centigrade but is generally moderate as the average altitude is about 1,700 meters; average annual rainfall is about 150 cm; two wet seasons (February to May and September to November), and two dry seasons (June to August and December to January) </li></ul><ul><li>Location: Central Africa, east of Democratic Republic of the Congo. </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 8.5 million as of 2010 </li></ul>
  22. 22. Flag Description <ul><li>Green symbolizes hope and optimism. </li></ul><ul><li>White symbolizes purity and peace. </li></ul><ul><li>Red symbolizes the blood shed in the struggle for independence. </li></ul><ul><li>The three stars in the disk represent the three major ethnic groups, which are Hutu, Twa, and Tutsi. It also represents the three elements in the national motto which are unity, work and progress. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Geographic Features <ul><li>Terrain: Hilly and mountainous, dropping to a plateau in east with some plains. </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Resources: Nickel, uranium, rare earth oxides, peat, cobalt, copper, platinum, vanadium, arable land, hydropower, niobium, tantalum, gold, tin, tungsten, kaolin and limestone. </li></ul><ul><li>Fauna: Elephants, lions, crocodiles, hippopotamuses, wild boars, flying lemur, antelope. </li></ul><ul><li>Flora: Eucalyptus, figs, acacias and oil palms. </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Hazards: Flooding, landslides, and droughts. </li></ul><ul><li>Burundi is landlocked. The Kagera, which drains into Lake Victoria, is the most remote headstream of the White Nile. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Geographic Features <ul><li>Points of Interest: Burundi’s capital, Bujumbura. </li></ul><ul><li>The former capital Gitega has a traditional craft center and a museum. </li></ul><ul><li>In the Southeast the land of Mosso has an abundant wildlife. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Geographic Features <ul><li>Vacation </li></ul><ul><li>Lake Tanganyika, which is known for its beauty. </li></ul><ul><li>Second largest freshwater lake in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Second deepest freshwater lake in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>The lake was the scene of two famous battles during World War I. </li></ul><ul><li>Lake Tanganyika </li></ul>
  26. 26. History <ul><li>In the 1300s Hutu people settled in Burundi. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1400s Tutsi settlers established themselves as feudal rulers in Burundi. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1858, British explorers Richard Burton and John Speke visit Burundi. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1959, there is an influx of Tutsi refugees from Rwanda following ethnic violence in Burundi. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1962, Urundi is separated from Ruanda-Urundi and becomes Burundi and is given independence as a monarchy under King Mwambutsa IV. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1965, King Mwambutsa refuses to appoint a Hutu prime minister even though Hutus win a majority in parliamentary elections. There is an attempted coup by Hutu police led by Michel Micombero but is brutally suppressed. </li></ul>
  27. 27. History <ul><li>In 1966, Micombero stages a second coup. It is successful and he declares himself president. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1976, Micombero is deposed in a military coup and is replaced by Jean-Baptiste Bagaza as president. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1981, a new constitution makes Burundi a one party state. </li></ul><ul><li>In April of 1994, Plane carrying Ntaryamira and his Rwandan counterpart is shot down over the Rwandan capital Kigali, killing both and triggering genocide in Rwanda in which 800,000 are killed. </li></ul><ul><li>In April of 2009, Burundi's last rebel group, the Forces for National Liberation, lays down arms and officially transforms into a political party in a ceremony supervised by the African Union. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Civil War <ul><li>After only 100 days in office Burundi's first democratically elected president was assassinated in October of 1993. </li></ul><ul><li>This sparked ethnic violence between Hutu and Tutsi factions. </li></ul><ul><li>200,000 plus Burundians were killed during the conflict that spanned almost a dozen years. </li></ul><ul><li>Hundreds of thousands of Burundians were labeled missing or became refugees in neighboring countries. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2003, the Tutsi-dominated government and the Hutu rebels came to a power agreement. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2006, the new President Pierre Nkurunziz signed a ceasefire treaty with the last rebel group, but the country still faces many challenges. </li></ul>
  29. 29. History <ul><li>Ever since Burundi's civil war which started in 1993 and ended in 2005 the country has been trying to improve its living conditions for its people. People have been trying to fix the economy of Burundi ever since the war but aid workers say that the country needs to do more than fix the economy to bring it back to its former self. The terrible war took away the population's rights to basic services such as health, education and sanitation. The acting humanitarian coordinator for Burundi Jean-Charles Dei is quoted saying &quot;We cannot take short cuts when it comes to development; we need to absolutely address the basic needs of the population before we go beyond that&quot;. The health of Burundi is so bad that previously eradicated diseases are coming back and making many people sick. More than 60% of Burundi's population is food-insecure and the chronic malnutrition rate is over 50%. The worst food shortages in Burundi are in Bugesera, Kirundo, Muyinga, Moso, Ruyigi, Rutana, Cankuzo and Makamba. The harvest for 2011 will not decrease shortages because of La Niña floods, sadly 90% of the population relies on agriculture. In conclusion, I believe that Jean-Charles Dei is correct in that Burundi needs to focus on its food supply and health issues and nothing beyond that until the problem is solved.   </li></ul>
  30. 30. Political <ul><li>Type of Government: Republic </li></ul><ul><li>Government Leaders: President: Pierre Nkurunziza </li></ul><ul><li>Suffrage: Universal, must be 18 years old </li></ul><ul><li>The government and the last active rebel group signed a ceasefire in May 2008, but post-election tension in 2010 renewed fears of civil war. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Economy <ul><li>Industries: Light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, soap. Assembly of imported components, public works construction and food processing. </li></ul><ul><li>Exports: Coffee, tea, sugar, cotton and hides. </li></ul><ul><li>Imports: Capital goods, petroleum products and foodstuffs. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Status: Half the population lives below the poverty line. Burundi’s national debt is $1.2 billion. </li></ul><ul><li>Major Trade Partners: Exports: Germany 21.6%, Switzerland 14.86%, Belgium 9.32%, Sweden 8.94% and Pakistan 5.82% as of 2009. Imports: Saudi Arabia 16.87%, Belgium 11.17%, Uganda 8.62%, Kenya 7.57%, China 5.66%, France 5.35%, Germany 4.46%, India 4.24% and Tanzania 4.21% as of 2009. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Daily Life <ul><li>The standard of living is very low because there are rebellions throughout Burundi and Burundi went through a 12 year civil war. </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy: Total Population: 59.3%. Men: 67.3%, Women: 52.2% as of 2000. </li></ul><ul><li>Clothing: In the remote areas of Burundi men and women wear pagnes which are wraparounds. Men are seen wearing a cord round their waist while Burundian herders wear special kinds of pagnes. In the capital city of Burundians wear fashionable clothing. Men in this area prefer to wear suits with ties while women dress up in western dresses. The Burundian youths like to wear t-shirts and jeans. </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Usage: 157,800 users as of 2009. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Culture <ul><li>Traditions: Sorghum beer and banana beer which is called urwarwa are the traditional drinks of Burundi. Traditional snack foods are roundnut, sugarcane and fruits. Drinking coffee and tea is traditional in Burundi. </li></ul><ul><li>Customs: Serving dessert after a meal is not a custom in Burundi. Burundi foods are generally prepared over a wood fire. Eating red kidney beans are eaten once a day in Burundi. </li></ul><ul><li>Languages: Kirundi and French are the official languages, while Swahili is spoken along Lake Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area. </li></ul><ul><li>Religions: Christian 67% (Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 5%), indigenous beliefs 23%, Muslim 10% </li></ul>
  34. 34. Culture <ul><li>Foods: Plantains, beans, sweet potatoes, cabbage and tubers. Most Burundians enjoy eating ugali. Ugali is prepared by boiling cassava flour in water and making a paste of it. </li></ul><ul><li>Music and Dance: The Amani drummers are very famous in Burundi and are the conventional cultural drummer of Burundi. The dancer drummers of Kabanga are famous for their dance which is performed in various Burundi festivals. Also, The traditional dancers of &quot;Batimbo” are very famous all over the world for their performance with tambourines. The Burundi National anthem is &quot;Burundi Bwacu” which translates to “Our Beloved Burundi”. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Festivities <ul><li>The Sauti Za busara is one of the most important festivals of Burundi. </li></ul><ul><li>In early decades, the drummers used to perform to celebrate the victories of the Mwami or the kings </li></ul><ul><li>After the independence of Burundi, the drum tunes became the symbol of unity and were played in any cultural dance programs. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Conclusion <ul><li>Christmas, New Year's Day, Akaranga are the festivals of joy and happiness of the Burundians. </li></ul><ul><li>Burundi's media are subject to self-censorship and occasional government censorship. </li></ul><ul><li>The most important Burundi festival is Christmas. </li></ul><ul><li>Burundi gained its independence in 1961, but has been plagued by tension between the dominant Tutsi minority and the Hutu majority. </li></ul><ul><li>The dance and music festivals form a major part of the Burundi festivals. </li></ul><ul><li>The style conscious men and women of Bujumbura are known as the &quot;sapeurs”. </li></ul>
  37. 37. What I learned <ul><li>I learned that Burundi is a war tore country that has a new leader or president every other year. There are many rebel groups throughout Burundi that think that their leader should be the leader of Burundi. This gets in the way of developing Burundi’s economy, government and education. Progress cannot be made in any of these fields until the country meets a common group with its internal opposing forces. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Works Cited <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  39. 39. Federated States of Micronesia
  40. 40. Country Description <ul><li>Official Name: Federated States of Micronesia </li></ul><ul><li>Capital: Palikir </li></ul><ul><li>Size: 271 sq miles </li></ul><ul><li>Climate: tropical; heavy year-round rainfall, especially in the eastern islands; located on southern edge of the typhoon belt with occasionally severe damage. </li></ul><ul><li>Location: Oceania, island group in the North Pacific Ocean, about three-quarters of the way from Hawaii to Indonesia. </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 107,008 as of 2000. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Flag Description <ul><li>The flag is light blue with four white five-pointed stars centered. </li></ul><ul><li>The four white stars are arranged in a diamond pattern </li></ul><ul><li>The blue symbolizes the Pacific Ocean while the stars represent the four island groups of Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, and Yap </li></ul>
  42. 42. Geographic Features <ul><li>Terrain: Islands vary geologically from high mountainous islands to low, coral atolls. Volcanic outcroppings on Pohnpei, Kosrae, and Chuuk </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Resources: Timber, marine products, deep-seabed minerals and phosphate. </li></ul><ul><li>Fauna: Rare deer, monitor lizard, fruit bat, marlin, mahi-mahi, tuna, barracuda, sailfish and assorted bottom fish. </li></ul><ul><li>Flora: Hibiscus, Hong Kong orchid, ironwood, eucalyptus, Honduras mahogany, papaya, banana, coconut and plumeria trees </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Hazards: Typhoons from June to December </li></ul><ul><li>There are four major island groups totaling at 607 islands, but out of the 607 only 65 are inhabited. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Geographic Features <ul><li>Special Points of Interest </li></ul><ul><li>Sokehs Mountain: Here you can take a hike and climb up the mountain to see the beautiful Sokehs rock and Kolonia harbour. </li></ul><ul><li>Truk Lagoon: Here you can dive down and explore the wreckage of Japanese ships and tanks after World War II. </li></ul><ul><li>Truk Lagoon </li></ul>
  44. 44. Geographic Features <ul><li>Vacation </li></ul><ul><li>Lelu Ruins: One of the Sights of Kosrae </li></ul><ul><li>Considered one of the wonders of the Pacific </li></ul><ul><li>Once an ancient ruling empire complex of the entire Micronesian region </li></ul><ul><li>This historical site dates back to the 13th century </li></ul><ul><li>Kosrae's Sleeping Lady </li></ul>
  45. 45. History <ul><li>In 1525, Portuguese navigators in search of the Spice Islands came upon Yap and Ulithi. </li></ul><ul><li>Spain claimed sovereignty over the Caroline Islands until 1899 </li></ul><ul><li>In 1914 German administration ended when the Japanese navy took military possession of the Marshall, Caroline and Northern Mariana Islands. </li></ul><ul><li>On July 12, 1978, after the constitutional convention, the people of four of the former Districts of the Trust Territory, Truk (now Chuuk), Yap, Ponape (now Pohnpei) and Kusaie (now Kosrae) voted in a referendum to form a Federation under the Constitution of the Federated States of Micronesia </li></ul><ul><li>On September 17, 1991, the Federated States of Micronesia became a member of the United Nations. </li></ul>
  46. 46. History <ul><li>Current Event: On March 24 th , 2011 the President of the Federated States of Micronesia President Mori met with he new Australian Ambassador Martin Quinn in Deketik, Pohnpei at the FSM Maritime Wing facilities. They celebrated the 21st anniversary of the arrival of the first Pacific Patrol Boat in FSM. The Palikir was decorated for the event while the Federated States of Micronesia National police from the Maritime wing and the crew of the FSS Palikir paraded to the sound of bagpipes and drums in front of the crowd. In President Mori's speech he thanked the Federated States of Micronesia Government and the people for Australia's contribution of the three patrol boats that Federated States of Micronesia utilizes for surveillance, search and rescue, medical evacuation, and research missions, he also thanked the Federated States of Micronesia Congress for funding it. In Ambassador Quinn's speech he stated that this was a symbol of their good relations and friendship. Also, Former President John Haglelgam was able to make an appearance to tell the people that even though they were given the boats 21 years ago, they still look brand new. After the speeches a buffet and cake was served to all who attended. In conclusion, I believe that this is a good way to show other countries that people can greatly benefit from a healthy friendship. Also, I think it was very professional and kind that the President of the Federated States of Micronesia President Mori still thanks the new Australian Ambassador Martin Quinn 21 years after the boats were given to them.  </li></ul>
  47. 47. Political <ul><li>Type of Government: Constitutional government in free association with the Unites States. The Compact of Free Association entered into force on November 3 rd, 1986 and the Amended Compact entered into force in May of 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>Government Leaders: Chief of State/President: President Emanuel Mori. Vice President: Vice President Alik L. Alik. </li></ul><ul><li>Suffrage: Universal and you must be 18 years old. </li></ul>
  48. 48. Economy <ul><li>Industries: Tourism, construction, fish processing, specialized aquaculture and craft items (from shell, wood, and pearls). </li></ul><ul><li>Exports: Fish, garments, bananas, black peppers, sakau (kava), and betel nuts. </li></ul><ul><li>Imports: Food, manufactured goods, machinery and equipment and beverages. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Status: The Federated States of Micronesia’ economy future is very fragile because of the loss of United States assistance, which it relies heavily as of now. Also, it relies on Japanese assistance as well. The Federated States of Micronesia’s National Debt is $60.8 million. </li></ul><ul><li>Major Trade Partners: The United States of America and Japan </li></ul>
  49. 49. Daily Life <ul><li>Standard of Living: The Federated States of Micronesia’s standard of living is not very good because it cannot support itself economically so it relies heavily on the United States help and the people face a large scale of unemployment. </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy: Total Population: 89%, Male: 91%, Female: 88%. As of 1980. </li></ul><ul><li>Clothing: Men usually wear bright loincloths and Women wear only woven fibre or grass skirts. In some areas of The Federated States of Micronesia visitors must follow the rules of not wearing T-shirts, pants, baseball caps and other Western clothing. </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Usage: 17,000 users as of 2009. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Culture <ul><li>Traditions and Customs: The traditional music is carried forward from generation to generation. There are traditional extended family and clan systems found on each island. In Pohnpei pigs, yams, and sakau (a beverage, with psychoactive properties, made from piper methisticum root) are the most prestigious foods featured during feasts. </li></ul><ul><li>Language: English is the official and common language. Other languages are Chuukese, Kosrean, Pohnpeian, Yapese, Ulithian, Woleaian, Nukuoro, Kapingamarangi. </li></ul>
  51. 51. Culture <ul><li>Foods: Meat, fish, taro, breadfruit, yams, sweet potatoes, cassava, coconut, banana, papaya, pandanus, mango, and a variety of citrus. </li></ul><ul><li>Music and Dance: Music is considered the medium of communication. Some popular types of music are reggae, hip-hop and pop. Also, Choral hymns are very popular throughout the Federated States of Micronesia. Music varies from reggae, hip-hop and pop to pre-Christian chants. Choral hymns are usually performed during secular and church-related events. The Federated States of Micronesia National anthem is &quot;Patriots of Micronesia”. </li></ul>
  52. 52. Festivities <ul><li>Beijing University of Science & Technology Festival </li></ul><ul><li>The Festival was held from 25-26 May 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>The Federated States of Micronesia embassy participated in the opening ceremony of the 2009 Foreign Student's Culture Festival </li></ul><ul><li>The students did a good job representing The Federated States of Micronesia. </li></ul><ul><li>The Festival was held to promote tourisim in The Federated States of Micronesia </li></ul>
  53. 53. Conclusion <ul><li>The president of the Federated States of Micronesia is both the chief of state and head of government. </li></ul><ul><li>The social and symbolic significance of food is one of the most important aspects of life in the Federated States of Micronesia. </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing food is an expression of solidarity that validates kinship ties and defines a host of rights, duties, and obligations between people. </li></ul><ul><li>Music and dance is very important to the people of the Federated States of Micronesia, they use music and dance to express their history and culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Each of the four States of the Federated States of Micronesia exhibits its own distinct culture and tradition, but there are also common cultural and economic bonds that are centuries old. </li></ul>
  54. 54. What I learned <ul><li>I learned that even though the Federated States of Micronesia has may different islands with many different cultures and customs there is still a common unity between them. I think it is cool that they people still respect each others culture and learn how to blind two different cultures into one that is fair to both. I think other countries could learn a lot from the Federated States of Micronesia’s unity. </li></ul>
  55. 55. Works Cited <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  56. 56. Guinea-Bissau
  57. 57. Country Description <ul><li>Official Name: Republic of Guinea-Bissau </li></ul><ul><li>Capital: Bissau </li></ul><ul><li>Size: 13,948 sq miles </li></ul><ul><li>Climate: Tropical. Generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season from June to November with southwesterly winds. dry season from December to May with northeasterly harmattan winds. </li></ul><ul><li>Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea and Senegal </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 1.6 million as of 2010 </li></ul>
  58. 58. Flag Description <ul><li>The flag uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia </li></ul><ul><li>The flag’s design was heavily influenced by the Ghanaian flag. </li></ul><ul><li>Two equal horizontal bands of yellow and green with a vertical red band on the hoist side </li></ul><ul><li>there is a black five-pointed star centered in the red band. </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow symbolizes the sun. </li></ul><ul><li>Green symbolizes hope </li></ul><ul><li>Red symbolizes blood shed during the struggle for independence. </li></ul><ul><li>The black star symbolizes African unity </li></ul>
  59. 59. Geographic Features <ul><li>Terrain: Mostly low coastal plain rising to savanna in east. </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Resources: Fish, timber, phosphates, bauxite, clay, granite, limestone, unexploited deposits of petroleum. </li></ul><ul><li>Fauna: Several species of antelope, buffalo, monkeys and snakes </li></ul><ul><li>Flora: Thick jungle in the interior plains. Rice and mangrove fields along the coastal plains and swamps. Savannas in the north. </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Hazards: Hot, dry, dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility during dry season. Brush fires </li></ul>
  60. 60. Geographic Features <ul><li>Points of Interest: Lagoa de Cufada: Has many fresh water lakes, lagoons and forests. The outer fringes of the park grow banana and cashew nuts. The small numbers of people who live within the site thrive on traditional fishing and rice production. Also, crocodiles and hippopotamus are seen living in the park. </li></ul>
  61. 61. Geographic Features <ul><li>Vacation </li></ul><ul><li>One of the Bijagos Islands in Guinea-Bissau. </li></ul><ul><li>Name of the main town </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 9,244 as of 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>The island is known for its wildlife and is heavily forested. </li></ul><ul><li>It is linked by a ferry to Bissau and has an airtrip. </li></ul><ul><li>Bubaque </li></ul>
  62. 62. History <ul><li>In the Pre-15 th century, Guinea-Bissau came under the influence of the Mali Empire and became a tributary kingdom known as Gabu. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1446 and 1447, the first Portuguese arrive and the Guinea-Bissau area becomes important in the slave-trade. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1879, Guinea-Bissau became a separate colony. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1951, Guinea-Bissau was declared a province of Portugal. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1956, Amilcar Cabral established the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde </li></ul><ul><li>Between 1963 and 1974, the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde starts a war of independence </li></ul>
  63. 63. History <ul><li>In 1973, Amilcar Cabral is assassinated and Guinea-Bissau is given its current name. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1974, Portugal granted Guinea-Bissau independence with Amilcar Cabral's brother Luis Cabral, as president. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1980, Joao Bernardo Vieira takes over government. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1994, Vieira was chosen as president in Guinea-Bissau's first free election </li></ul><ul><li>In July of 2009, Malam Bacai Sanha, won presidential election. </li></ul>
  64. 64. Civil War <ul><li>Broke out in 1998 after many failed attempts to oust Joao Bernardo 'Nino' Vieira as president. </li></ul><ul><li>Vieira finally stepped down in May of 1999. </li></ul><ul><li>Kumba Yala was made president in February 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>In September 2003, Yala was ousted as president in a bloodless coup and businessman Henrique Rosa was sworn in as interim president. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2005, Vieira was re-elected president promising to pursue economic development and national reconciliation. </li></ul><ul><li>In March of 2009 Vieira was assassinated. </li></ul><ul><li>In June of 2009 Malam Bacai Sanha was elected in an emergency election. </li></ul>
  65. 65. History <ul><li>Current Event: President of Guinea-Bissau Malam Bacai Sanha stated that on Wednesday &quot;Guinea-Bissau will further expand cooperation with China while receiving a delegation of the Communist Party of China&quot;. Malam Bacai Sanha said that Guinea-Bissau greatly appreciates the continued support from China and that both countries will benefit from each other. Guinea-Bissau will adhere to the one-China policy, which is to continue to expand bilateral cooperation and exchanges. Chinese senior official Wang said that both countries have always supported each other and that their friendly relationship is deep-rooted and fruitful. China is willing to further increase their interactions with Guinea-Bissau because of their great relationship. In conclusion, I think this is a great way to set an example for countries on how two different countries can benefit from one another's cooperation. Their cooperation shows that any two countries can work together to equally benefit each other.   </li></ul>
  66. 66. Political <ul><li>Type of Government: Republic </li></ul><ul><li>Government Leaders: President: Malam Bacai Sanha. Prime Minister: Carlos Gomes Junior </li></ul><ul><li>Suffrage: Universal, must be 18 years old. </li></ul>
  67. 67. Economy <ul><li>Industries: Agricultural products processing, beer and soft drinks. </li></ul><ul><li>Exports: Fish, shrimp, cashew nuts, peanuts, palm kernels and sawn lumber. </li></ul><ul><li>Imports: Foodstuffs, machinery and transport equipment and petroleum products </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Status: One of the poorest countries in the world. Depends mainly on farming and fishing, but trafficking narcotics is probably the most rewarding trade </li></ul><ul><li>Major Trade Partners: Imports: Portugal (17.33%), Senegal (13.66%), Netherlands (9.27%), India (9.11%), Thailand (5.2%), Brazil (4.49%) as of 2009. Exports: India (62.21%), Nigeria (31.28%), Portugal (1.48%) as of 2009. </li></ul>
  68. 68. Daily Life <ul><li>Standard of Living: Very low, because of the civil war and drug trafficking. </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy: Total Population: 42.4%, Male: 58.1%, Female: 27.4%, as of 2003. </li></ul><ul><li>Clothing: Men usually wear T-shirts with shorts while women wear either a skirt with a T-shirt or shorts with a T-shirt </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Usage: 37,100 users as of 2009. </li></ul>
  69. 69. Culture <ul><li>Traditions: Masks are made that represent animals such as sharks, sawfish, hippos and bulls. </li></ul><ul><li>Customs: Food is normally prepared with palm oil and peanut sauces and variety of vegetables. The people of Guinea-Bissau love to drink a sweet green tea, known as “warga”. Also, non-Muslims like drinking cashew wine or palm wine. </li></ul><ul><li>Languages: Portuguese is the official language. Other langauges are Crioulo, African languages </li></ul><ul><li>Religions: Muslim (50%), indigenous beliefs (40%), Christian (10%). </li></ul>
  70. 70. Culture <ul><li>Foods: Fresh fish, fruits, vegetables, grains, curd, whey, peppers, chilies, beef, goat, deer, monkey, beaver, chicken and pork. </li></ul><ul><li>Music and Dance: The Music of Guinea -Bissau is usually connected with the polyrhythmic Gumbe genre. The main musical instrument of Guinea-Bissau is the calabash. It is used in extremely swift and rhythmically complex dance music. Guinea-Bissau’s National anthem is &quot;Esta e a Nossa Patria Bem Amada” which translates to “This Is Our Beloved Country”. </li></ul>
  71. 71. Festival <ul><li>Happened on May 23, 2009. </li></ul><ul><li>The first BIG UP GB featured hip hop artists from Guinea-Bissau and their neighboring nations. </li></ul><ul><li>The program includes hip hop musicians with a focus on social and political issues in Guinea-Bissau. </li></ul>
  72. 72. Conclusion <ul><li>Guinea-Bissau has become transshipment point for Latin American drugs. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the poorest countries in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Several senior military figures are alleged to be involved in the trafficking of narcotics </li></ul><ul><li>Guinea-Bissau is a major hub for cocaine smuggled from Latin America to Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>Country is dependent on primary crops like cashews. </li></ul>
  73. 73. What I Learned <ul><li>I learned that Guinea-Bissau was once a model for African development, but since its many coups occurred and because of the drug trafficking it has fallen from grace as a developed country and has become known as one of the poorest countries. </li></ul>
  74. 74. Works Cited <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  75. 75. Montserrat
  76. 76. Country Description <ul><li>Official Name: Montserrat </li></ul><ul><li>Capital: Plymouth (abandoned), St John's (de facto), Little Bay (planned) </li></ul><ul><li>Size: 39 sq miles </li></ul><ul><li>Climate: Tropical, little daily or seasonal temperature variation. </li></ul><ul><li>Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, southeast of Puerto Rico. </li></ul><ul><li>Population 4,483 but 8,000 refugees left Montserrat after volcanic activity in July of 1995 </li></ul>
  77. 77. Flag Description <ul><li>Blue with the flag of the United Kingdom in the upper left corner and the Montserratian coat of arms centered in the outer half of the flag </li></ul><ul><li>The arms feature a woman named Erin in a green dress. </li></ul><ul><li>She is the female personification of Ireland, standing beside a yellow harp and embracing a large dark cross with her right arm </li></ul><ul><li>Erin and the harp are symbols of Ireland reflecting the territory's Irish ancestry </li></ul><ul><li>Blue represents awareness, trustworthiness, determination, and righteousness </li></ul>
  78. 78. Geographic Features <ul><li>Terrain: Volcanic island, mostly mountainous, with small coastal lowland. </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Resources: Negligible </li></ul><ul><li>Fauna: Terrestrial frog, Montserrat bird called the Icterus oberi, agoutis, bats and lizards. </li></ul><ul><li>Flora: Fern groves, cacti, sage bushes and acacias. </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Hazards: Severe hurricanes from June to November and volcanic eruptions the Soufriere Hills volcano has erupted continuously since 1995. </li></ul><ul><li>Montserrat is part of the Leeward Islands chain. </li></ul>
  79. 79. Geographic Features <ul><li>Points of interest: Blakes Football Field: Opened in 2002, has a lovely view of the ocean and mountains. It does not have dressing rooms or stands. </li></ul><ul><li>Carr’s Bay Historical Site: Has remnants of a fort and cannons. You can see a model version of the War Memorial and Clock Tower that was destroyed in Plymouth. Also, you might see the large iguana that lives in the rocks. </li></ul><ul><li>The Montserrat Philatelic Bureau: You can buy stamps here, they have a wide variety. Shares the same building with the Montserrat National Trust. </li></ul>
  80. 80. Geographic Features <ul><li>Vacation </li></ul><ul><li>The hosts of the vacation are David and Clover Lea and their family. </li></ul><ul><li>You have 4 options to choose from: the “Heavenly Suite”, the “Villa”, the “Mango Cottage”, and the Backpacker’s Special”. </li></ul><ul><li>All of the lodges are self catering </li></ul><ul><li>Montserrat </li></ul>
  81. 81. History <ul><li>In 1632 English and Irish colonists from St. Kitts settled on Montserrat. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1662, the first African slaves arrived, </li></ul><ul><li>Throughout most of the 18 th century France and Britain fought for control of Montserrat. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1783, Britain finally gained control. </li></ul><ul><li>In the mid 19 th century Montserrat’s sugar plantation economy was converted into small farm landholdings. </li></ul><ul><li>On July 18 th 1995 Soufriere Hills Volcano erupted and destroyed most of the island while two thirds of the population left. </li></ul><ul><li>Ever since then, Montserrat has suffered from volcanic activity, the last volcanic eruption happened in July of 2003 </li></ul>
  82. 82. History <ul><li>Current Event: On March 5 th , the government of Montserrat announced that St Vincent Grenadines Air has been approved to operate daily scheduled commercial air transport services between Montserrat and Antigua. Two daily return flights with guaranteed seat provisions will begin on Tuesday March 15, just in time for the busy St Patrick’s Festival. The one-way airfare per passenger will be $74 plus tax. </li></ul>
  83. 83. Political <ul><li>Type of Government: Self-governing British overseas territory. </li></ul><ul><li>Government Leaders: Head of State Queen Elizabeth II, represented by Governor Peter Waterworth. Chief Minister: Reuben Meade </li></ul><ul><li>Suffrage: universal, you must be 18 years of age. </li></ul>
  84. 84. Economy <ul><li>Industries: Tourism, rum, textiles and electronic appliances. </li></ul><ul><li>Exports: Electronic components, plastic bags, clothes, hot peppers, limes, live plants and cattle. </li></ul><ul><li>Imports: Machinery, transportation equipment, foodstuffs, manufactured goods, fuels, lubricants, and related materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Status: Montserrat economy revolves around volcanic activity, its economic status is very dependent on the United Kingdom. Its external debt is $8.9 million. </li></ul><ul><li>Major Trade Partners: none. </li></ul>
  85. 85. Daily Life <ul><li>Standard of living: Montserrat’s standard of living is not very good because most of the country is uninhabitable, about 8,000 refugees left in July of 1995 and there is no more land for returning refugees. The life expectancy for men is 76 years while for women it is 80 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy: Total population: 97%. Male: 97%, Female: 97% as of 1970. </li></ul><ul><li>Clothing: Government officials normally wear suits with ties and dresses. Men and women wear t-shirts, jeans, shorts and dresses. </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Usage: 1,200 users as of 2009. </li></ul>
  86. 86. Culture <ul><li>Traditions and Customs: Many traditions and customs of Montserrat are linked to its Irish heritage. At funerals alcohol is consumed and stories are told of the deceased. Many Montserrat people decorate their homes with lights, tinsel and baubles. </li></ul><ul><li>Language: Major language is English. </li></ul><ul><li>Religions: Anglican, Methodist, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal, Seventh-Day Adventist, other Christian denominations. Montserrat’s major religion is Christianity. </li></ul>
  87. 87. Culture <ul><li>Food: Native-grown breadfruit, mango, sour sop, pawpaw, and cashews are the main Montserratian foods. </li></ul><ul><li>Music and Dance: Montserrat’s music is heavily influenced by its Irish background. The jumbie dance is said to be the &quot;purest manifestation of folk religion on Montserrat”. It is performed by 4 couples, people switch out for each other until there is only one person left and this person is said to be possessed by the “jumbie”. Montserrat’s National Anthem is the “God Save the Queen” because it is owned by the United Kingdom </li></ul>
  88. 88. Festivities <ul><li>The Montserrat December Festival is the biggest celebration of the year. The festival begins in December and ends on January 1 st with a street parade. This celebration is strictly African and includes such instruments as the triangle, fife and two goatskin, deep-barreled drums called kettles. </li></ul>
  89. 89. Conclusion <ul><li>To the the British Montserrat is known as the &quot;Emerald Isle of the Caribbean”. </li></ul><ul><li>Christopher Columbus gave Montserrat its name. </li></ul><ul><li>Half of Montserrat is said to be uninhabitable for another decade. </li></ul><ul><li>Montserrat’s radio station only broadcasts in FM because it lost its AM transmitter during volcanic activity in the late 1990s. </li></ul><ul><li>Montserrat’s Census Day is May 12, 2011. </li></ul>
  90. 90. What I learned <ul><li>I learned that some people really do love where they live and will stay there to help rebuild. Some civilizations continue to last because of the people that live there and care for it. I also learned that some people may leave for a time but will want to return to help others rebuild, either that or they might not have anywhere else to go. </li></ul>
  91. 91. Works Cited <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  92. 92. Niue
  93. 93. Country Description <ul><li>Official Name: Niue </li></ul><ul><li>Capital: Alofi </li></ul><ul><li>Size: 100 sq miles </li></ul><ul><li>Climate: Tropical. Modified by southeast trade winds. </li></ul><ul><li>Location: Oceania, island in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Tonga. </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 1,761 as of 2004 </li></ul>
  94. 94. Flag Description <ul><li>The flag is yellow with the flag of the United Kingdom in the upper left side. </li></ul><ul><li>The flag of the United Kingdom bears five yellow five-pointed stars. A large star on a blue disk in the center and a smaller star on each arm of the bold red cross. </li></ul><ul><li>The larger star stands for Niue while the smaller stars recall the Southern Cross constellation on the New Zealand flag and symbolize links with that country. </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow represents the bright sunshine of Niue and the warmth and friendship between Niue and New Zealand. </li></ul>
  95. 95. Geographic Features <ul><li>Terrain: Steep limestone cliffs along coast, central plateau. </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Resources: Fish and arable land. </li></ul><ul><li>Fauna: Pigs, dogs and rats. </li></ul><ul><li>Flora: Coconuts, yams, cassava, limes, honey, taro, passion fruit and sweet potatoes. </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Hazards: Typhoons </li></ul>
  96. 96. Geographic Features <ul><li>Points of Interest: Alofi Bay: It stretches Makapu Point to Halagigie Point. </li></ul><ul><li>Avatele Bay: Similar to Alofi Bay. </li></ul><ul><li>Alofi: The country’s capital. </li></ul>
  97. 97. Geographic Features <ul><li>Vacation </li></ul><ul><li>Located at the Northwest part of Niue near the village of Hikutavake. </li></ul><ul><li>Best time to visit is around noon due to the high walls on both sides of the chasm. </li></ul><ul><li>The Sun can only penetrate around this time and can get quite cold in the shade specially if there is a breeze blowing. </li></ul><ul><li>Some people are crazy enough to jump off the top of the chasm into the pool of water. </li></ul><ul><li>There are some rock platforms where you can sit down in the water to refresh and appreciate the beauty of the Chasm. </li></ul><ul><li>Matapa Chasm </li></ul>
  98. 98. History <ul><li>On June 20 th ,1774 Captain James Cook discovered Niue. He named it “Savage Island” because of the warlike people. </li></ul><ul><li>On October 26 th , 1846, Peniamina and Fakafitifonua came back from Samoa and land at Mutalau in the north. </li></ul><ul><li>From 1940 to 1945, world War II did not demand Niuean lives after the disastrous experience with WWI. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1972, the Hanan Airport became operational This opened flights to Niue from Auckland. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1974, Niue became self-governing. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1989, Cyclone Ofa struck and caused much damage to Niue. </li></ul>
  99. 99. History <ul><li>Current Event: In April Niue is celebrating it's 2nd Niue Culture and Arts Festival, it begins April 23rd and ends April 30th 2011. This festival is going to present the culture of the Niueans while letting Niue people celebrate their heritage. The festival contains traditional and contemporary Niue music, dance, poetry, drama, food, traditional sports. Also, the festival is aimed at boosting the popularity and the economy of Niue. The first ever Niue Culture and Arts Festival was held in April 2009 in Niue, about 150 Niueans attended from Wellington, Christchurch, Australia and Auckland. Any band may join the celebration, they just have to make reservations prior to the festival. In conclusion, I think this is a great way to boost Niue's economy and popularity while having a fun time. The celebration welcomes all who attends with respect and would love to have you in their Festival. </li></ul>
  100. 100. Political <ul><li>Type of Government: Self-governing parliamentary democracy. </li></ul><ul><li>Government Leaders: Chief of State: Queen Elizabeth II, represented by Governor General of New Zealand Anand Satyanand. The United Kingdom and New Zealand are represented by New Zealand High Commissioner John Bryan. Head of Government: Premier Toke Talag. </li></ul><ul><li>Suffrage: Universal, must be 18 years old. </li></ul>
  101. 101. Economy <ul><li>Industries: Handicrafts and food processing. </li></ul><ul><li>Exports: Canned coconut cream, copra, honey, vanilla, passion fruit products, pawpaws, root crops, limes, footballs, stamps and handicrafts. </li></ul><ul><li>Imports: Food, live animals, manufactured goods, machinery, fuels, lubricants, chemicals and drugs. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Status: Suffers from typical Pacific island problems like geographic isolation, few resources, and a small population. Niue’s National debt is $418,000 as of 2002. Niue’s economy is supported by New Zealand. </li></ul><ul><li>Major Trade Partners: New Zealand, Australia, Japan and Fiji Islands. </li></ul>
  102. 102. Daily Life <ul><li>Standard of Living: is pretty good because if Niue ever has economic difficulties New Zealand is obliged under the island's constitution to provide &quot;necessary economic and administrative assistance&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy: Total Population 95%. </li></ul><ul><li>Clothing: Men usually wear hats to protect themselves from the hot sun, they also wear shorts and T-shirts to stay cool. Women wear sun dresses or a tank top with shorts. Men and women dress up in tribal clothing while celebrating old time festivals. </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Usage: 1,100 as of 2009. </li></ul>
  103. 103. Culture <ul><li>Traditions and Customs: Much Niue’s traditions are influenced by New Zealand. A boy does not get his hair cut until he becomes a teenager and there is a ceremony for cutting the hair. Also, there is a ear piercing ceremony for girls. Women weavers are highly respected in Niue. Sunday is a day of rest for the Niuean people. </li></ul><ul><li>Languages: English is the official language. Niuean a Polynesian language closely related to Tongan and Samoan is spoken. </li></ul><ul><li>Religions: Ekalesia Niue (Niuean Church - a Protestant church closely related to the London Missionary Society) (61.1%), Latter-Day Saints (8.8%), Roman Catholic (7.2%), Jehovah's Witnesses (2.4%), Seventh-Day Adventist (1.4%), other (8.4%), unspecified (8.7%), none (1.9%) as of 2001. </li></ul>
  104. 104. Culture <ul><li>Food: Paw Paw, limes, lemons, cocnuts, bananas, taro, pok meat, fish, coconut crab, uga, shells, poke loku, lu and pitako kapia. </li></ul><ul><li>Music and Dance: Church choirs are very famous and perform on religious occasions. Also, singers are famous in Niue. Niue’s National anthem is &quot;Ko e Iki he Lagi”, which translates to “The Lord in Heaven”. </li></ul>
  105. 105. Festival <ul><li>Niuan boys do not cut their hair until they become a teenager. </li></ul><ul><li>The hair is cared for by sisters, mothers and aunts until the boy has his hair cut. </li></ul><ul><li>The women tend the hair one last time before it is cut. </li></ul>
  106. 106. Conclusion <ul><li>Niue is greatly supported economically by New Zealand. </li></ul><ul><li>New Zealand heavily influences Niue culture, traditions and religions. </li></ul><ul><li>Niue encourages its New Zealand neighbors to leave their land. </li></ul><ul><li>Niue’s arts are not very developed. </li></ul><ul><li>Weaving is the most important art in Niue. </li></ul>
  107. 107. What I Learned <ul><li>I learned that the people of Niue take great care of their hair. They take great pride in caring for a boy’s hair until he becomes a teenager. Also, I learned that even though the people of Niue appreciate New Zealand’s support Niue people would like them to return to their own country and let Niue develop as a country by themselves. I think that is is pretty interesting that there are ceremonies for getting your ears pierced and cutting your hair. When I cut my hair I think nothing of it but the people of Niue have a ceremony for it. </li></ul>
  108. 108. Works Cited <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  109. 109. Sao Tome and Principe
  110. 110. Country Description <ul><li>Official Name: Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe </li></ul><ul><li>Capital: Sao Tome </li></ul><ul><li>Size: 386 sq miles </li></ul><ul><li>Climate: tropical. Hot and humid, with one rainy season from October to May </li></ul><ul><li>Location: Western Africa, islands in the Gulf of Guinea, straddling the Equator, west of Gabon. </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 165,400 as of 2010 </li></ul>
  111. 111. Flag Description <ul><li>The flag has three horizontal bands of green, yellow and green with two black five-pointed stars placed side by side in the center of the yellow band and a red isosceles triangle based on the left side. </li></ul><ul><li>Green stands for the country's rich vegetation, red symbolizes the struggle for independence and yellow symbolizes cocoa, one of the country's main agricultural products. </li></ul><ul><li>The two stars symbolize the two main islands </li></ul><ul><li>The flag uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia </li></ul>
  112. 112. Geographic Features <ul><li>Terrain: Volcanic and mountainous </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Resources: fish and hydropower </li></ul><ul><li>Fauna: Mona monkey, black rat, and African civet, green turtle, the leatherback, the olive riddley, the hawksbill, the caouanne, African Gray Parrot, Dorhn's thrush-babbler, Sao Tome giant sunbirds, dwarf olive ibis, thrush, Principe white-eye, Sao Tome short tail, giant weaver, Maroon pigeon and the Sao Tome fiscal shrike. </li></ul><ul><li>Flora: : Coffee, cocoa, ferns, orchids and giant begonia. </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Hazards: N/A </li></ul>
  113. 113. Geographic Features <ul><li>Points of Interest: Agostinho Neto: The largest plantation in the country. </li></ul><ul><li>Agua Izé: Visitors can tour the plantation by train. </li></ul><ul><li>Boca de Inferno: The name translates to “Hell’s Mouth”, it is a sea water fountain several meters high. </li></ul><ul><li>Porto Alegre: Ancient fishing town. </li></ul><ul><li>Pico de Principe: The island's summit which stands at 3128 feet. </li></ul>
  114. 114. Geographic Features <ul><li>Vacation </li></ul><ul><li>It is the highest mountain in Sao Tome and Principe. </li></ul><ul><li>The mountain is 6,640 ft. </li></ul><ul><li>People can only access the mountain on foot. </li></ul><ul><li>The mountain is a massive shield volcano </li></ul><ul><li>The mountain is forested. </li></ul><ul><li>Pico de São Tomé </li></ul>
  115. 115. History <ul><li>In the 16 th century, Sao Tome and Principe was colonized by the Portuguese and they brought in slaves to work sugar plantations. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1800’s, Cocoa was introduced to Sao Tome and Principe and it developed into one of world's main cocoa producers. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1951, Sao Tome and Principe became an overseas province of Portugal. </li></ul><ul><li>On 12 July of 1975, Sao Tome and Principe gained Independence. Manuel Pinto da Costa was made president and Miguel Trovoada was made prime minister. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1979, Trovoada was arrested and accused of being involved in a coup attempt. Later he is released and goes into exile in 1981. </li></ul>
  116. 116. History <ul><li>In 1990, a new constitution is made and allows opposition parties, provides for multi-party elections and restricts president to two five-year terms. Trovoada returned from exile. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1991, the first multi-part elections were held. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1996, Miguel Trovoada was made present. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1998, Guilherme Posser da Costa was made prime minster </li></ul><ul><li>In Decemeber of 2009, Nigeria and Sao Tome and Principe agreed to set up a joint maritime military commission to protect offshore crude oil fields. </li></ul>
  117. 117. History <ul><li>Current Event: Sao Tome and Principe used to be one of the most important cocoa exporters in the world. But today, many plantations don't produce at all, and only a few still make a profit. The People of Sao Tome and Principe say crops are ok but they are trying to reinvent themselves and are trying to find a new way to make profit from their crops again. </li></ul>
  118. 118. Political <ul><li>Type of Government: Republic </li></ul><ul><li>Government Leaders: President Fradique Bandiera Melo De Menezes, Prime Minster: Joaquim Rafael Branco </li></ul><ul><li>Suffrage: Universal, must be 18 years old </li></ul>
  119. 119. Economy <ul><li>Industries: Light construction, textiles, soap, beer, fish processing and timber </li></ul><ul><li>Exports: Cocoa (80%), copra, coffee and palm oil </li></ul><ul><li>Imports: Machinery and electrical equipment, food products and petroleum products. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Status: Very dependent on cocoa production, because of drought and mismanagement cocoa production has declined. </li></ul><ul><li>Major Trade Partners: Exports: UK (32.99%), Netherlands (26.93%), Belgium (21.04%), Portugal (4.31%) as of 2009. Imports: Portugal (58.9%), Brazil (6.68%), US (4.71%), Japan (4.49%) as of 2009. </li></ul>
  120. 120. Daily Life <ul><li>Standard of Living: The people of Sao Tome and Principe are trying to reduce dependence on donors and cocoa exports by exploiting offshore oil. </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy: Total Population: 84.9%, Male: 92.2%, Female: 77.9%. </li></ul><ul><li>Clothing: At higher elevations men and women tend to sweaters. Men wear basic shirts and shorts while women wear sun dresses, skirts and shorts with a shirt </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Usage: 26,700 as of 2009 </li></ul>
  121. 121. Culture <ul><li>Traditions and Customs: Vegetables are cooked with red palm oil. Palm oil stews are the traditional food. People generally eat a hot meal cooked before sunset and breakfast consists of reheated food from the night before or tea and bread. A mother’s first-born is called bilibega while the last-born is referred to as codabega. </li></ul><ul><li>Language: Official Language is Portuguese. </li></ul><ul><li>Religions: Catholic (70.3%), Evangelical (3.4%), New Apostolic (2%), Adventist (1.8%), other (3.1%), none (19.4%) as of 2001 </li></ul>
  122. 122. Culture <ul><li>Food: Tropical root crops, rice, bread plantains, bananas, fish, fruit bats and monkey meat. </li></ul><ul><li>Music and Dance: “Dexa”, “Ússua” and “Socopé” are the genres of music in Sao Tome and Principe. Dance versions are the Portuguese Ballroom dancing, “Tchiloli” and “danço-congo”, which is a type of dance opera. Sao Tome and Principe’s National anthem is &quot;Independencia total” which translates to “Total Independence”. </li></ul>
  123. 123. Festivities <ul><li>Religious festivals are organized around the patron saints of towns and parishes. </li></ul><ul><li>People may travel from other parts of the island to attend. </li></ul>
  124. 124. Conclusion <ul><li>Corn is eaten as a snack food in Sao Tome and Principe. </li></ul><ul><li>When a person has died, the family members light candles in the room of the deceased. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually the Sao Tome and Principe people bury the dead without the presence of a priest. </li></ul><ul><li>A deceased adult who has not given birth or fathered a child is buried with a flower on the coffin. </li></ul><ul><li>The most important Catholic rituals are baptism and the wake, followed by a funeral mass. Other sacraments are rarely observed. </li></ul>
  125. 125. What I learned <ul><li>I learned that the people of Sao Tome and Principe take great respect in burying their dead. They respect the deceased and their belongings long after the person has died. </li></ul>
  126. 126. Works Cited <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>