Wildlife<br />Ch. 3<br />
Wildlife are animals that have not been domesticated by humans.<br />
…human safety, property, etc.<br />Some threaten<br />
Some that “endanger moving vehicles” <br />
What are some other examples of wildlife?<br />
Eg<br />
Eat, wear or use<br />Wildlife fall into these categories:<br />
Kill for sport<br />Wildlife fall into these categories:<br />
Kill for sport<br />Some imported for canned hunts<br />Wildlife fall into these categories:<br />
Do labor or entertain people<br />Wildlife fall into these categories:<br />
Ones humans enjoy watching<br />Wildlife fall into these categories:<br />
Ones useful in scientific or medical experiments<br />Wildlife fall into these categories:<br />
Kept as pets<br />Wildlife fall into these categories:<br />
American Bison nearly extinct in 1800s – now thriving.  Then, bison burgers. <br />Some issues in the debate:<br />
Numerous studies refute this  MYTH.<br />If deer weren’t hunted they would starve.<br />
What do we learn from keeping wild animals in captivity?<br />Should wild animals be kept in captivity to entertain or edu...
Official hunting seasons were set up in the early 1700s and over the next 100 years we saw the emergence of state fish and...
Not always the same<br />Conservationists<br />Animal Welfarists<br />Conservationists help wild animals by preserving nat...
First federal wildlife law<br />Lacey Act of 1900 (p. 33)<br />Many funded conservation efforts with hunting fees.<br />Go...
State and Federal Laws<br />…provide strong financial incentives to increase the consumption of wildlife.<br />
Federal  Incentives<br />Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Act 			   (1937)<br />Created a fund raised through taxes on ...
Under New York State Environmental Conservation Law <br />(section 11-0523), people are not required to obtain a <br />per...
Federal Incentives	<br />State wildlife agencies are in competition with each other for federal funds, and the only way a ...
Government Agencies that Control Wildlife<br />Federal<br />
Manages <br />Manages<br />Millions of acres in national wildlife refuges and wetlands<br />Migratory bird conservation<br...
USFWS works with U.S. Customs & Border Protection and the USDA to monitor shipments of protected plants and animals.<br />
Wildlife Services of the USDA<br />Controls wildlife that can damage agriculture, property, natural resources and threaten...
Goals of Government Wildlife Regulation<br />Protecting human interests<br />Preserving endangered species<br />
Rabies<br />West Nile virus<br />Lyme disease<br />Bovine tuberculosis<br />Chlamydiosis (respiratory disease in tropical ...
CDC reports 7,258 cases of animal rabies in U.S.<br />Wild animals 93% of this figure<br />Rabies<br />
1-1.5 million  per year<br />$1.1 billion in repairs <br />Collision with Deer<br />
Wildlife Damage to Livestock - $71 million Primarily a problem in western states = open rangelands<br />
Wildlife problems reported by each state - 2001 <br />Table 3.2<br />
Relocation <br />Poisons<br />Sharpshooters<br />Contraceptives<br />Repellents<br />Example North Carolina and Canadian G...
Kinderhook, NY<br />Birds poisoned to curb dairy threat.<br />What you can do.<br />
Problem Horses<br />
The Wild Free-Roaming Horse and Burro Act of 1971 (Public Law 92-195) required the protection, management, and control of ...
This law states; The Secretary of the Interior shall manage wild free-roaming horses and burros in a manner that is design...
Since the passage of the act to 2007 approx. 235,00 wild horses and burros have been adopted to private individuals. Even ...
For the year 2005, the Bureau of Land Management's annual budget for the Wild Horse and Burro Program was approximately $4...
Table 3.4<br />Fact Sheet<br />Managed by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM)<br />
Applied to wild horses and burros over ten years old <br />Not likely adoption candidates<br />Could be sold at auctions w...
Bought back 52 of the horses<br />Save the Mustangs<br />“Wild Horses Sold by U.S. Agency Sent to Slaughter”<br />
Equine Advocates<br />Best Summary of this Issue<br />
Protecting Endangered & Threatened Species<br />Table 3.5<br />
Endangered Species Act<br />USFWS<br />Prohibits any person from taking a listen species.  Taking includes (p. 41)<br />Na...
Penalties<br />There are different degrees of violation with the law. The most punishable offenses are trafficking, and an...
1990s – reintroduced to western U.S. – moved from Canada<br />2000 – population recovered<br />Lawsuit<br />1967 – gray an...
The CITES appendices list thousands of animals from all over the world for which trade is prohibited.  Of major concern:  ...
Wildlife-Related Recreation<br />Table 3.7<br />
Hunting and fishing rates are important to the USFWS and state agencies because fees collected (licenses, tags, permits) f...
Hunting<br />Figure 3.9<br />
Where can I go hunting?<br />Federal law allows hunting and fishing on national wildlife refuges if it is determined that ...
Non-targeted species such as dogs and cats, rabbits, river otters, geese, ducks, hawks, owls, eagles, bears are captured i...
Hunting as a wildlife control and conservation method<br />
Canned Hunting<br />Legal in NY<br />
New York -Canned hunts of mammals are legal except that "big game non-native animals" cannot be tied, hobbled, staked or a...
Internet Hunting<br />Illegal in NY<br />Started in Texas http://live-shot.com/<br />
Wild Animal Commodities<br />p. 48<br />
Protect the Seals<br />
Valued for hides, bones, & penises in Asia.  Federal law allows the possession of captive-bred tigers, but only if this en...
ELEPHANTS – to be covered in Entertainment<br />
Oil and blubber<br />1928 – U.S. banned commercial whaling<br />1946 International Whale Commission – kind of a self regul...
But whaling was still allowed for “scientific purposes.”<br />Some internal battle within IWC as to what the role should b...
Sea Shepherd<br />
Wildlife
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  • Human interests include health, safety, property, and resources.
  • Wildlife

    1. 1. Wildlife<br />Ch. 3<br />
    2. 2. Wildlife are animals that have not been domesticated by humans.<br />
    3. 3. …human safety, property, etc.<br />Some threaten<br />
    4. 4. Some that “endanger moving vehicles” <br />
    5. 5. What are some other examples of wildlife?<br />
    6. 6. Eg<br />
    7. 7. Eat, wear or use<br />Wildlife fall into these categories:<br />
    8. 8. Kill for sport<br />Wildlife fall into these categories:<br />
    9. 9. Kill for sport<br />Some imported for canned hunts<br />Wildlife fall into these categories:<br />
    10. 10. Do labor or entertain people<br />Wildlife fall into these categories:<br />
    11. 11. Ones humans enjoy watching<br />Wildlife fall into these categories:<br />
    12. 12. Ones useful in scientific or medical experiments<br />Wildlife fall into these categories:<br />
    13. 13. Kept as pets<br />Wildlife fall into these categories:<br />
    14. 14. American Bison nearly extinct in 1800s – now thriving. Then, bison burgers. <br />Some issues in the debate:<br />
    15. 15. Numerous studies refute this MYTH.<br />If deer weren’t hunted they would starve.<br />
    16. 16. What do we learn from keeping wild animals in captivity?<br />Should wild animals be kept in captivity to entertain or educate humans?<br />
    17. 17. Official hunting seasons were set up in the early 1700s and over the next 100 years we saw the emergence of state fish and game departments, license requirements and hunting restrictions. <br />Colonists had to fight off animal predators – 1700s<br />
    18. 18. Not always the same<br />Conservationists<br />Animal Welfarists<br />Conservationists help wild animals by preserving natural habitat.<br />Many are hunters.<br />Ethical battle continues today<br />
    19. 19. First federal wildlife law<br />Lacey Act of 1900 (p. 33)<br />Many funded conservation efforts with hunting fees.<br />Government Enacts Regulation Laws<br />
    20. 20. State and Federal Laws<br />…provide strong financial incentives to increase the consumption of wildlife.<br />
    21. 21. Federal Incentives<br />Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Act (1937)<br />Created a fund raised through taxes on the sale of firearms and materials. To qualify for the money, states must use hunting revenues only for state fish and wildlife programs.<br /><ul><li>So if NY is to receive federal funding under this Act, NY cannot use license fees for any other purpose than administration of En Con’s Fish and Wildlife Division.</li></li></ul><li>New York<br />Minimum Hunting Age<br />Minors under the age of 12 may not obtain a hunting license or hunt wildlife.<br />
    22. 22. Under New York State Environmental Conservation Law <br />(section 11-0523), people are not required to obtain a <br />permit to trap on their own property, or on the property <br /> someone of else who has given them written <br />permissionto trap.  <br />Trapping on public lands or other private property requires <br />a wildlife control permit, which is obtained from <br />the Department of Environmental Protection. <br />
    23. 23. Federal Incentives <br />State wildlife agencies are in competition with each other for federal funds, and the only way a state can raise the ceiling on its potential federal funding is to increase the number of people it licenses to hunt.<br />This raises incentives to increase # of animals available to hunt.<br />
    24. 24. Government Agencies that Control Wildlife<br />Federal<br />
    25. 25. Manages <br />Manages<br />Millions of acres in national wildlife refuges and wetlands<br />Migratory bird conservation<br />National fish hatcheries, resource & field offices<br />Enforces many federal wildlife laws<br />USFWS (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service)<br />
    26. 26. USFWS works with U.S. Customs & Border Protection and the USDA to monitor shipments of protected plants and animals.<br />
    27. 27. Wildlife Services of the USDA<br />Controls wildlife that can damage agriculture, property, natural resources and threaten public safety<br />Other federal agencies<br />
    28. 28. Goals of Government Wildlife Regulation<br />Protecting human interests<br />Preserving endangered species<br />
    29. 29. Rabies<br />West Nile virus<br />Lyme disease<br />Bovine tuberculosis<br />Chlamydiosis (respiratory disease in tropical birds)<br />Histoplasmosis (lung disease)<br />Salmonellosis (intestinal illness)<br />Zoonotic Diseases & Wild Animals<br />
    30. 30. CDC reports 7,258 cases of animal rabies in U.S.<br />Wild animals 93% of this figure<br />Rabies<br />
    31. 31. 1-1.5 million per year<br />$1.1 billion in repairs <br />Collision with Deer<br />
    32. 32. Wildlife Damage to Livestock - $71 million Primarily a problem in western states = open rangelands<br />
    33. 33. Wildlife problems reported by each state - 2001 <br />Table 3.2<br />
    34. 34. Relocation <br />Poisons<br />Sharpshooters<br />Contraceptives<br />Repellents<br />Example North Carolina and Canadian Geese<br />Techniques recommended by Wildlife Service of USDA<br />In choosing a control technique, WS specialists consider the biological and legal status of the target species and potential nontarget species, local environmental conditions and possible environmental impacts, and the practicality of available control options.<br />Direct control methods to deal with “nuisance wildlife”<br />
    35. 35. Kinderhook, NY<br />Birds poisoned to curb dairy threat.<br />What you can do.<br />
    36. 36. Problem Horses<br />
    37. 37. The Wild Free-Roaming Horse and Burro Act of 1971 (Public Law 92-195) required the protection, management, and control of wild free-roaming horses and burros on public land. Congress declared that wild free-roaming horses and burros are living symbols of the historic and pioneer spirit of the west; they contribute to the diversity of life forms within the Nation and enrich the lives of the American people; and these horses and burros are fast disappearing from the American scene. It is the policy of Congress that wild free-roaming horses and burros shall be protected from capture, branding, harassment, or death; and to accomplish this they are to be considered in the area where they are presently found, as an integral part of the natural system of the public lands.<br />The Wild Free-Roaming Horse and Burro Act of 1971<br />
    38. 38. This law states; The Secretary of the Interior shall manage wild free-roaming horses and burros in a manner that is designed to achieve and maintain a thriving natural ecological balance on public lands. It also states, if an over population exists on a given area of the public lands and action is necessary to remove excess animals, he shall immediately remove excess animals from the range so as to achieve appropriate management levels. Such action shall be taken, in the following order and priority, until all excess animals have been removed so as to restore a thriving natural ecological balance to the range, and to protect the range from the deterioration associated with over-population.<br />The Wild Free-Roaming Horse and Burro Act of 1971<br />
    39. 39. Since the passage of the act to 2007 approx. 235,00 wild horses and burros have been adopted to private individuals. Even with this high number of adoptions, it has been decided that public lands can only sustain 28,849 wild horses and burros in total. At the end of 2003 the wild horse and burro population on the open range was 37,186. <br />The Wild Free-Roaming Horse and Burro Act of 1971<br />
    40. 40. For the year 2005, the Bureau of Land Management's annual budget for the Wild Horse and Burro Program was approximately $40 million dollars. Half of this money was allocated for the care and feeding of the animals in captivity.<br />Save the Mustangs video<br />The Wild Free-Roaming Horse and Burro Act of 1971<br />
    41. 41. Table 3.4<br />Fact Sheet<br />Managed by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM)<br />
    42. 42. Applied to wild horses and burros over ten years old <br />Not likely adoption candidates<br />Could be sold at auctions without limitation i.e., slaughter<br />2004 – Omnibus Appropriations Bill<br />
    43. 43. Bought back 52 of the horses<br />Save the Mustangs<br />“Wild Horses Sold by U.S. Agency Sent to Slaughter”<br />
    44. 44. Equine Advocates<br />Best Summary of this Issue<br />
    45. 45. Protecting Endangered & Threatened Species<br />Table 3.5<br />
    46. 46. Endangered Species Act<br />USFWS<br />Prohibits any person from taking a listen species. Taking includes (p. 41)<br />National Marine Fisheries Service<br />
    47. 47. Penalties<br />There are different degrees of violation with the law. The most punishable offenses are trafficking, and any act of knowingly "taking" (which includes harming, wounding, or killing) an endangered species.<br />The penalties for these violations can be a maximum fine of up to $50,000 or imprisonment for one year, or both, and civil penalties of up to $25,000 per violation, may be assessed. Lists of violations and exact fines are available through the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration web-site.<br />One provision of this law is that no penalty may be imposed if, by a preponderance of the evidence that the act was in self defense. The law also eliminates criminal penalties for accidentally killing listed species during farming and ranching activities.<br />In addition to fines or imprisonment, a license, permit, or other agreement issued by a Federal Agency that authorized an individual to import or export fish, wildlife, or plants may be revoked, suspended or modified. Any federal hunting or fishing permits that were issued to a person who violates the ESA can be canceled or suspended for up to a year.<br />Violations<br />
    48. 48. 1990s – reintroduced to western U.S. – moved from Canada<br />2000 – population recovered<br />Lawsuit<br />1967 – gray and red wolves endangered<br />
    49. 49. The CITES appendices list thousands of animals from all over the world for which trade is prohibited. Of major concern: Asian and African elephants and primates.<br />Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES)<br />
    50. 50. Wildlife-Related Recreation<br />Table 3.7<br />
    51. 51. Hunting and fishing rates are important to the USFWS and state agencies because fees collected (licenses, tags, permits) fund wildlife related programs.<br />See Table 3.8.<br />Participation COUNT$<br />
    52. 52. Hunting<br />Figure 3.9<br />
    53. 53. Where can I go hunting?<br />Federal law allows hunting and fishing on national wildlife refuges if it is determined that protected wildlife will not be jeopardized.<br />
    54. 54. Non-targeted species such as dogs and cats, rabbits, river otters, geese, ducks, hawks, owls, eagles, bears are captured in these body-gripping traps at – refuges.<br />Trapping is used as a control method on federal lands.<br />
    55. 55. Hunting as a wildlife control and conservation method<br />
    56. 56. Canned Hunting<br />Legal in NY<br />
    57. 57. New York -Canned hunts of mammals are legal except that "big game non-native animals" cannot be tied, hobbled, staked or attached to a stationary object or "confined in a box, pen, cage or similar container of 10 or less contiguous acres from which there is no means for such mammal to escape". <br />The animal also cannot be released in front of the person who will be shooting or spearing it. N.Y. Envt. Con. Laws §11-1904(1)(A)(1)-(3). <br />A bill that would have banned canned hunts in New York was passed by the state legislature but was vetoed by then Gov. George Pataki in 2003. 4 subsequent attempts to ban canned hunts in New York have also failed including a bill this past session. This bill would have amended the current law and make it illegal to hunt big game non-native animals that are "in a fenced or other area" from where there is no means of escape. It would have eliminated canned hunts of big game non-native mammals in New York state.<br />New York<br />
    58. 58. Internet Hunting<br />Illegal in NY<br />Started in Texas http://live-shot.com/<br />
    59. 59. Wild Animal Commodities<br />p. 48<br />
    60. 60. Protect the Seals<br />
    61. 61. Valued for hides, bones, & penises in Asia. Federal law allows the possession of captive-bred tigers, but only if this enhances the survival of the species. It is illegal to kill tigers for profit or sell their parts, meat or hide in interstate commerce. It is not illegal to donate the animals. <br />GUILTY PLEA<br />Endangered<br />
    62. 62. ELEPHANTS – to be covered in Entertainment<br />
    63. 63. Oil and blubber<br />1928 – U.S. banned commercial whaling<br />1946 International Whale Commission – kind of a self regulation<br />Northern Seas – 100s of years<br />
    64. 64. But whaling was still allowed for “scientific purposes.”<br />Some internal battle within IWC as to what the role should be – pro-conservation or pro-whaling<br />1986 – IWC banned commercial whaling<br />
    65. 65. Sea Shepherd<br />

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