Vancouver Referencing from instruction class


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  • 11:00 In depth – not in class – disease groups – 4 ppl – each research aspect of disease – need to combine invid notes into one paper - tell how to organize indiv and group papers – explain plagiarism – what it is- when to cite – how to paraphrase – Acute Resp Distress Syndrome ARDS– atrial fibrillation
  • Vancouver Referencing from instruction class

    1. 1.  Consider main point of final paper  List topics which must be covered (aspects of the disease)  Label all information by topic  Determine most logical order  Create outline for the paper  Compose the paper using outline and notes Organizing the paper:
    2. 2. The Project  Working in groups  Write a paper  Each person within the group is responsible for a section of the paper
    3. 3. The Project  Taking notes:  If typing notes on the computer, label each note –with author, page number, and subtopic.  Put your response to the information in a different font. OR  Use the index card method:  Use 3 x 5 cards – one piece of information per card.
    4. 4.  Cause #1 --------------------  Cause #1 --------------------  Cause #1 --------------------  Smith 65 Main causes Write your response to the information on the back of the card.
    5. 5. The Project  All of the information from a particular source you have used will be assigned a number when the final paper (with information from all the group members) is written.  Make note of which source a particular piece of information came from – that will be needed for the final paper.
    6. 6. Recommendations Each person may:  label his/her references from the text with a different color  1,2,3,4 1,2,3,4 1,2,3,4 1,2,3,4  use initials to indicate which group member the information came from  CK1, CK2, CK3, CK4  use his/her name  Cindy1, Cindy2, Cindy3  use a letter from the alphabet  A1, A2, A3, A4 B1,B2,B3,B4
    7. 7. Recommendations  If two students are both using the same article:  Label the articles a specific color – and when you cite that particular article use that specific color for the internal citation
    8. 8. Using the information from the outside sources:  Remember: Every piece of information that is taken from an outside source must be cited or referenced, unless it is considered common knowledge.  Common knowledge depends upon the audience: specialized vs. general audience example:  Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome - ARDS
    9. 9. Cite outside information.  Summaries – a more concise version of the original information  highlights the main points in your own words.
    10. 10.  Paraphrases – same information contained in the original source - put in your own words  Use thesaurus for synonyms example:  “Collaborate” – highlight the word – right click on it – select “synonyms”
    11. 11.  Quotations – exact wording from the outside source  Limit use of quotes.  Only use quotes when the information can not easily be reworded – or if it is reworded, the impact or effect of the writing will be lost.
    12. 12.  (If you do use a direct quote, be sure it goes smoothly from your words to the words of the outside source so that it is understood who said those words and in what context.)
    13. 13.  Rather than just saying “The author Davidson said” and then going into the quote, introduce Davidson’s words.  Use a signal phrase which identifies exactly who made the statement and in what context. For example: The well-known researcher Charles Davidson argues that “-------.”
    14. 14.  Plagiarism is taking another’s words, writing style, or ideas and presenting them as if they are your own.  Be aware that if information is taken from an outside source – even if a reference is provided, - if the wording is too close to the original, that is a form of plagiarism, as the author’s writing style has been taken.  See the HVCC plagiarism policy, at, for more information.
    15. 15.  Vancouver style - commonly used in the medical and scientific fields  A research paper documented in Vancouver style should contain:  a reference list  identifies the references cited in the paper with publication information  appears at the end of the paper with the entries listed numerically and in the same order that they have been cited in the text and  a bibliography  lists sources which were not cited in the text but are relevant to the subject  arranged alphabetically by the author’s name or the title, if no author’s name is provided
    16. 16. Providing references within the text of your essay:  a number is assigned to each reference as it is cited  original number assigned to the reference or source is reused each time the reference is cited in the text, regardless of its previous position in the paper.  references are identified by numbers, provided directly after the name of the author cited, or at the end of the quote or information from the author which has been paraphrased  the numbers can be in round or square brackets, or as superscripts.  (Check with your instructor to see which style to use.)
    17. 17. General Guidelines for Citing Sources  journal title abbreviations are used – not the full title of the journal  to find the journal abbreviations: go to PubMed; select the Journal Database and type in the title of the journal – click “go”  once the title appears look next to that and the title abbreviation should be there
    18. 18. General Guidelines for Citing Sources  months of publication are abbreviated to the first 3 letters  use the last name of the author and the first and middle initials. There are no periods in between the initials.  the first letter of the first word and any proper names in a book title are capitalized  “ed.” is used to indicate the edition of a book  tables should each be given a brief title  illustrations and figures in the text should be numbered in consecutive order
    19. 19.  Journal articles: Russell FD, Coppell AL, Davenport AP. In vitro enzymatic processing of radiolabelled big ET-1 in human kidney as a food ingredient. Biochem Pharmacol 1998 Mar 1;55(5):697-701. (Note: In vitro enzymatic processing of radiolabelled big ET-1 in human kidney as a food ingredient = name of the article; Biochem Pharmacol = title of the journal; 1998 Mar 1 = publication year, month, day; 55(5) = volume/issue numbers; 697-701 = page numbers [if the page numbers are continuous, you may omit the month, day, and year])
    20. 20. Sample Article: 1. Lu S, Cai S, Ou C, Zhao H. Establishment and evaluation of a simplified evaluation system of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Yonsei Med J [Internet]. 2013 July [cited 2013 Sept 5]; 54(4):935-41. Available from: MEDLINE with Full Text: 5&sid=e1f31027-4941-44fa-b457-70406e119a19%40 sessionmgr15&hid=4&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3 QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=mnh&AN=23709429
    21. 21. Sample Citations  Books with up to six authors: Lodish H, Baltimore D, Berk A, Zipursky SL, Matsudaira P, Darnell J. Molecular cell biology. 3rd ed. New York: Scientific American; 1995.  Books with more than six authors: Fauci AS, Braunwald E, Isselbacher KJ, Wilson JD, Martin JB, Kasper DL, et al, editors. Harrison's principles of internal medicine. 14th ed. New York: McGraw Hill, Health Professions Division; 1998. (Note: “et al” means “and others” and indicates that the authors beyond the first six are not listed)  Books with an editor: Millares M, editor. Applied drug information: strategies for information management. Vancouver, WA: Applied Therapeutics, Inc.; 1998. 
    22. 22.  Chapter or parts books with an editor: Porter RJ, Meldrum BS. Antiepileptic drugs. In: Katzung BG, editor. Basic and clinical pharmacology. 6th ed. Norwalk, CN: Appleton and Lange; 1995. p. 361-80.  Books with an edition number: Blenkinsopp A, Paxton P. Symptoms in the pharmacy: a guide to the management of common illness. 3rd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Science; 1998.  Books in a series: Bennett GL, Horuk R. Iodination of chemokines for use in receptor binding analysis. In: Horuk R, editor. Chemokine receptors. New York: Academic Press; 1997. p. 134-48. (Methods in enzymology; vol 288). (Note: Chemokine = name of the book; Methods in enzymology = titles of the series; vol = Volume number)
    23. 23.  Journal articles: Russell FD, Coppell AL, Davenport AP. In vitro enzymatic processing of radiolabelled big ET-1 in human kidney as a food ingredient. Biochem Pharmacol 1998 Mar 1;55(5):697-701. (Note: In vitro enzymatic processing of radiolabelled big ET-1 in human kidney as a food ingredient = name of the article; Biochem Pharmacol = title of the journal; 1998 Mar 1 = publication year, month, day; 55(5) = volume/issue numbers; 697-701 = page numbers [if the page numbers are continuous, you may omit the month, day, and year])
    24. 24.  Articles with an unknown author: Coffee drinking and cancer of the pancreas [editorial]. Biochem Pharmacol 1981;283:628.  Newspaper articles: Lee G. Hospitalizations tied to ozone pollution: study estimates 50,000 admissions annually. The Washington Post 1996 Jun 21;Sect. A:3 (col. 5).
    25. 25.  Multimedia material: Get the facts (and get them organised) [videocassette]. Williamstown, Vic.: Appleseed Productions; 1990. (Note: The details required are the same as those for a book, with the form of the item indicated in brackets after the title.)  Online journals: Morse SS. Factors in the emergence of infectious disease. Emerg Infect Dis [serial online] 1995 Jan-Mar;1(1): [24 screens]. Available from: URL:http://www/cdc/gov/ncidoc/EID/eid.htm. Accessed December 25, 1999. 
    26. 26. LaPorte RE, Marler E, Akazawa S, Sauer F. The death of biomedical journals. BMJ [serial online]. 1995;310:1387-90. Available from: Accessed September 26,1996. (Note: Provide an abbreviated title of the electronic journal. Provide the volume number and issue number [in parentheses]. Indicate the number of screens in square brackets or pages.)
    27. 27. Websites: Hoffman DL. St John's Wort. 1995;[4 screens]. Available at: URL: medica/stjohns.htm. Accessed July 16, 1998. Health on the net foundation. Health on the net foundation code of conduct (HONcode) for medical and health web sites. Available at: Accessed June 30, 1998. (Note: If the author is not documented, the title becomes the first element of the reference.
    28. 28.  For further information: The University of Queensland (Brisbane, Australia) website: _support/guides/how_to_cite_your_sources/citing_your_ sources_-_vancouver_style The University of Western Australia website at:
    29. 29. Writing and Research Center Marvin Library, 2nd floor Monday through Thursday: 7am to 10pm Friday: 7am to 5pm Saturday: 9am to 4pm Ms. Hammond, Writing Specialist Writing and Research Center Marvin Library, 2nd floor 629-7865 or Mon. 10 to 6 – Tues. 9:30 to 5:30 Wed. and Thu. 2 to 10 Fri. 9 to 5  Call 629-7230 for general information on Learning Centers’ services.