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Respiratory care


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Respiratory care

  1. 1.  Consider main point of final paper  List topics which must be covered (aspects of the disease)  Label all information by topic  Determine most logical order  Create outline for the paper  Compose the paper using outline and notes Organizing the paper:
  2. 2. The Project  Working in groups  Write a paper  Each person within the group is responsible for a section of the paper
  3. 3. The Project  Taking notes:  If typing notes on the computer, label each note –with author, page number, and subtopic.  Put your response to the information in a different font. OR  Use the index card method:  Use 3 x 5 cards – one piece of information per card.
  4. 4.  Cause #1 --------------------  Cause #1 --------------------  Cause #1 --------------------  Smith 65 Main causes Write your response to the information on the back of the card.
  5. 5. The Project  All of the information from a particular source you have used will be assigned a number when the final paper (with information from all the group members) is written.  Make note of which source a particular piece of information came from – that will be needed for the final paper.
  6. 6. Recommendations Each person may:  label his/her references from the text with a different color  1,2,3,4 1,2,3,4 1,2,3,4 1,2,3,4  use initials to indicate which group member the information came from  CK1, CK2, CK3, CK4  use his/her name  Cindy1, Cindy2, Cindy3  use a letter from the alphabet  A1, A2, A3, A4 B1,B2,B3,B4
  7. 7. Recommendations  If two students are both using the same article:  Label the articles a specific color – and when you cite that particular article use that specific color for the internal citation
  8. 8. Using the information from the outside sources:  Remember: Every piece of information that is taken from an outside source must be cited or referenced, unless it is considered common knowledge.  Common knowledge depends upon the audience: specialized vs. general audience example:  Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome - ARDS
  9. 9. Cite outside information.  Summaries – a more concise version of the original information  highlights the main points in your own words.
  10. 10.  Paraphrases – same information contained in the original source - put in your own words  Use a thesaurus for synonyms example:  “Collaborate” – highlight the word – right click on it – select “synonyms”
  11. 11.  Quotations – exact wording from the outside source  Limit use of quotes.  Only use quotes when the information can not easily be reworded – or if it is reworded, the impact or effect of the writing will be lost.
  12. 12.  (If you do use a direct quote, be sure it goes smoothly from your words to the words of the outside source so that it is understood who said those words and in what context.)
  13. 13.  Rather than just saying “The author Davidson said” and then going into the quote, introduce Davidson’s words.  Use a signal phrase which identifies exactly who made the statement and in what context. For example: The well-known researcher Charles Davidson argues that “-------.”
  14. 14. Citing direct quotations within your paper: The well-known researcher Charles Davidson (4) argues that “-------.” (p23) OR The well-known researcher Charles Davidson “---.” (4, p23) (note: in this example, Charles Davidson’s article was source #4 on the reference list and the quote was taken from page 23 of his article)
  15. 15.  Plagiarism is taking another’s words, writing style, or ideas and presenting them as if they are your own.  Be aware that if information is taken from an outside source – even if a reference is provided, - if the wording is too close to the original, that is a form of plagiarism, as the author’s writing style has been taken.  See the HVCC plagiarism policy, at, for more information.
  16. 16.  Vancouver style - commonly used in the medical and scientific fields  A research paper documented in Vancouver style should contain:  a reference list  identifies the references cited in the paper with publication information  appears at the end of the paper with the entries listed numerically and in the same order that they have been cited in the text and  a bibliography  lists sources which were not cited in the text but are relevant to the subject  arranged alphabetically by the author’s name or the title, if no author’s name is provided
  17. 17. Providing references within the text of your essay:  a number is assigned to each reference as it is cited  original number assigned to the reference or source is reused each time the reference is cited in the text, regardless of its previous position in the paper.  references are identified by numbers, provided directly after the name of the author cited, or at the end of the quote or information from the author which has been paraphrased  the numbers can be in round or square brackets, or as superscripts.  (Check with your instructor to see which style to use.)
  18. 18. General Guidelines for Citing Sources  journal title abbreviations are used – not the full title of the journal  to find the journal abbreviations: go to PubMed; select the Journal Database and type in the title of the journal – click “go”  once the title appears look next to that and the title abbreviation should be there
  19. 19. General Guidelines for Citing Sources  months of publication are abbreviated to the first 3 letters  use the last name of the author and the first and middle initials. There are no periods in between the initials.  the first letter of the first word and any proper names in a book title are capitalized  “ed.” is used to indicate the edition of a book  tables should each be given a brief title  illustrations and figures in the text should be numbered in consecutive order
  20. 20.  Journal article: 1. Russell FD, Coppell AL, Davenport AP. In vitro enzymatic processing of radiolabelled big ET-1 in human kidney as a food ingredient. Biochem P Pharmacol 1998 Mar 1;55(5):697-701. (Note: In vitro enzymatic processing of radiolabelled big ET-1 in human kidney as a food ingredient = name of the article; Biochem Pharmacol = title of the journal; 1998 Mar 1 = publication year, month, day; 55(5) = volume/issue numbers; 697-701 = page numbers [if the page numbers are continuous, you may omit the month, day, and year])
  21. 21. Our Sample Article: 1. Lu S, Cai S, Ou C, Zhao H. Establishment and evaluation of a simplified evaluation system of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Yonsei Med J [Internet]. 2013 July [cited 2013 Sept 5]; 54(4):935-41. Available from: MEDLINE with Full Text: 5&sid=e1f31027-4941-44fa-b457-70406e119a19%40 sessionmgr15&hid=4&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3 QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=mnh&AN=23709429
  22. 22.  For further information: The University of Queensland (Brisbane, Australia) website: _support/guides/how_to_cite_your_sources/citing_your_ sources_-_vancouver_style The University of Western Australia website at:
  23. 23. Writing and Research Center Marvin Library, 2nd floor Monday through Thursday: 7am to 10pm Friday: 7am to 5pm Saturday: 9am to 4pm Ms. Hammond, Writing Specialist Writing and Research Center Marvin Library, 2nd floor 629-7865 or Mon. 10 to 6 – Tues. 9:30 to 5:30 Wed. and Thu. 2 to 10 Fri. 9 to 5  Call 629-7230 for general information on Learning Centers’ services.