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Animals in Research


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Animals in Research

  1. 1. Chapter 5
  2. 2.  Medical and veterinary investigations & training  Drug testing  Cosmetic testing  Consumer products  Educational programs  Annually between 100,000,000 and 115,000,000
  3. 3. Living animals used for these procedures are called laboratory animals. They usually die from these procedures or are euthanized. Major issue for animal rights activists since 1970s
  4. 4.  Procedure in which an organism is cut apart for scientific examination  DISSECTION  VIVISECTION  Term used for all invasive research and testing performed on live animals
  5. 5.  Training tools for doctors and veterinarians ◦ E.g., inserting a catheter, administering anesthesia, performing operations ◦ Test subjects on vaccines, drugs, and other products  So you have a spectrum of passionate belief.  May 2008 Gallup Poll  Table 5.1 page 78  Do you see a trend?
  6. 6. People react emotionally to these images. Scientists and researchers prefer to think of these animals as specimens or clinical tools.
  7. 7. Took the position that animals were unthinking and unfeeling machines (French philosopher) Philosopher Rene Descartes 1596-1650
  8. 8. Jeremy Bentham – British philosopher and political scientist 1748-1832
  9. 9.  1894 – Animals’ Rights, Considered in Relation to Social Progress ◦ “The practice of vivisection is revolting to the human conscience, even among the ordinary members of a not over-sensitive society.” ◦ Beginning of modern antivivisection ◦ Movement  Scientific manipulation of living beings
  10. 10.  American Anti-Vivisection Society – 1883  New England Anti-Vivisection Society – 1895
  11. 11. p. 79 Mark Twain “A Dog’s Tale”
  12. 12.  Doctors lobbied Congress to crack down on dangerous drugs and personal products sold to Americans. ◦ Opposed by powerful marketing groups 1937 – 100 children died from drinking a product that contained antifreeze. 1938 – The Food, Drug and Cosmetics Act required animal testing.
  13. 13.  First tests – rats, up to one month  1957 – Drug testing on rats and dogs for up to 6 months  1960s – Testing on pregnant animals* see notes  1980s – Rats and dogs up to 18 months
  14. 14. * p. 80 - Pepper
  15. 15.  Media publicized  Bills introduced in Congress to regulate animal dealers and laboratories  Life Magazine, 1966: Concentration Camps for Dogs p. 80
  16. 16. Required licensing of animal dealers and regulation of laboratory animals Excluded (and still does) rats, birds and mice
  17. 17. Animal Liberation: A New Ethics for Our Treatment of Animals (1975) *Dr. Peter Singer
  18. 18. Late 70s – Henry Spira, animal activist, accused major companies of animal cruelty in animal testing. National Association for Biomedical Research and Michigan Society of r Medical Research were soon founded. 1980 – Cosmetics, Toiletries and Fragrance Association funded the founding of The Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing at Johns Hopkins University. *Draize Eye Test
  19. 19. Videos about animal experimentation, dissection and activism
  20. 20. Click here for a Lexis news search lesson! Type: biosearch and testing and lab! and Philadelphia What happened after Biosearch?
  21. 21.  Prohibits causing physical disruption to the functioning of an animal enterprise ◦ Three types of animal enterprises:  Commercial or academic enterprises using animals to produce food or fiber or for agriculture, research or testing  Zoos, aquariums, circuses, rodeos and other legal sporting events  Fairs and similar events designed to advance agricultural arts & sciences ◦ Offenses that can be charged under the act include using the mail to cause physical disruption at animal enterprises and stealing, damaging, or causing the loss of property, including animals and records.
  22. 22. Stop Huntington Animal Cruelty SHAC 7 Trailer
  23. 23.  Animal Welfare Act  Health Research Extension Act  Food Drug and Cosmetic Act
  24. 24. See USDA summary
  25. 25.  Passed in 1985  Requires facilities that receive federal funding from the Public Health Service* follow an animal welfare policy (called Public Health Service Policy)  Must follow Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals  Similar to requirements in AWA but HREA applies to all vertebrates including mice, rats and birds
  26. 26.  Drugs must receive FDA approval before they can be sold in the U.S.  The FDA does not allow human testing to occur if animal testing is unsatisfactory.  Animal testing is not required for cosmetics (but is recommended).
  27. 27.  Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act of 1947 and Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976 ◦ EPA administers these two pieces of legislation  Federal Hazardous Substances Labeling Act – 1960 ◦ Consumer Product Safety Commission administers ◦ Applies to household products ◦ Affects animals because household products with hazardous ingredients must warn consumers
  28. 28. Click HERE for a timeline of the history of advocating for chimpanzees used in research.
  29. 29. NIH temporarily bans new chimpanzee research
  30. 30. 2007: Six states accounted for 46% of all regulated research animals
  31. 31. Number of animals used in research by species, 1973-2007
  32. 32. ◦ Biomedical Research  Vast majority of research animals are used in this area  CRISP (Computer Retrieval of Information on Scientific Projects) – database of biomedical research projects that have received federal funding since 1972
  33. 33. ◦ Drug Testing  Drug companies usually test new drugs on at least 2 different animal species.
  34. 34. ◦ Product Testing ◦ Consumer Products ◦ Dissections ◦ Surgical/Medical Training and Behavior Research
  35. 35.  “Cruelty Free” P. 88  Johns Hopkins FAQs
  36. 36.  Personal Care for People Who Care  Who Tests on Animals?
  37. 37.  2009 – ban on testing of cosmetic ingredients on animals in Europe  2009 – ban on sale and import of cosmetics tested on animals using certain tests  2013- final ban on the sale and import of cosmetics tested on animals using any test
  38. 38.  The following states have laws upholding a student's right to choose humane alternatives to dissection without being penalized: Florida, California, Pennsylvania, New York, Rhode Island, Illinois, Virginia, Oregon, New Jersey and Vermont. ◦ Many schools and school boards have also independently enacted student-choice policies.
  39. 39.  PCRM – Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine Many veterinary schools now use animal cadavers donated by people whose pets have died of natural causes or have been humanely euthanized due to an illness or condition.
  40. 40. More than 90% of all U.S. medical schools have eliminated live animal labs to train medical students. What does this mean? Albany Medical College Animal Use Policy
  41. 41.  American Anti-Vivisection Society  National Anti-Vivisection Society ◦ Personal Care for People Who Care  New England Anti-Vivisection Society  Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine  Google “companies that do not test on animals.”
  42. 42. Genetic Engineering Related Topics
  43. 43. For Friday: The Animal Welfare Act