Tourism theory and practice


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Tourism theory and practice

  1. 1. PEDAGOGICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY OF COLOMBIA<br />HOTEL AND TOURISM MANAGEMEN<br />TOURISM THEORY AND PRACTICE<br />Presented to: Hector Garcia Lopez<br />Presented by: Hugo Hernan Sanchez Baez<br />3th September 2010<br />
  2. 2. Tourism is a collection of activities, services and industries that delivers a travel experience, including transportation, accommodations, eating and drinking establishments, retail shops, entertainment businesses, activity facilities and other hospitality services provided for individuals or groups traveling away from home.<br />What is Tourism? (WTO) <br />
  3. 3. DEFINITIONS OF TOURISM <br />MATHIESON AND WALL (1982)<br />“Tourism is the temporary movement of people to destinationsoutside their normal places of work and residence,the activities undertaken during their stay in those destinations, and the facilities created to cater to their needs." <br />
  4. 4. DEFINITIONS OF TOURISM <br />MACINTOSH AND GOELDNER (1986)<br />“Tourism is the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the interaction of tourists, business suppliers, host governments and host communities in the process of attracting and hosting these tourists and other visitors."<br />
  5. 5. Other terms of interest<br />EXCURSIONISTis a person traveling for pleasure in a period less than 24 hours (Macintosh and Goeldner, 1986).<br />
  6. 6. FOREIGN TOURISTis any person visiting a country, other than that in which he/she usually resides, for a period of at least 24 hours (Committee of Statistical Experts of the League of Nations, 1937).<br />
  7. 7. VISITOR is any person visiting a country other than that in which he/she has his/her usual place of residence, for any reason other than following an occupation remunerated from within the country visited (United Nations Conference on International Travel and Tourism, 1963).<br />
  8. 8. TRAVELis the act of moving outside one's home community for business or pleasure but not for commuting or traveling to or from school (Macintosh and Goeldner, 1986).<br />
  9. 9. TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS<br />The type and availability of transportation will determine travel destinations. The development of accommodations were likewise determined by the development of transportation systems. <br />
  10. 10. STAGECOACH (1500 A.D.) Invented in Hungary.<br />RAILROADS (1825)First passenger train was in England.<br />BOATS & SHIPS (early 400 B.C., but first ocean liner 1840).<br />AUTOMOBILE (1908) Henry Ford's Model T.<br />AIR TRAVEL (1919) by what is now know as Lufthansa Airline.<br />SPACE TRAVEL (2015) estimated date for passenger travel into suborbital space. <br />These systems are <br />
  11. 11. ATTRACTIONS<br />Natural Resources<br />Culture<br />Ethnicity<br />Entertainment<br />X-treme Tourism<br />FACILITIES<br />Lodging<br />Food & Beverage<br />Support Services<br />Infrastructure<br />Transportation<br />Time and Money<br />Hospitality<br />Hospitality<br />DIMENSIONS OF TOURISM<br />
  12. 12. Time<br />Money<br />Mobility<br />Motivation<br />ESSENTIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR TOURISM<br />
  13. 13. Advocacy platform: 1950's - 1960's. Tourism considered an ideal activity with few negative impacts for tourist destinations. Governmentshouldpromotetourism.<br />Cautionary platform: 1970's. Proposed that tourism would eventually result in negative impacts for tourism destinations unless it was carefully planned and regulated.<br />Adaptancy platform: 1980"s. Promoted less mass tourism and more alternative tourism. Alternative tourism included: home stays; cultural villages and volunteer tourism.<br />Knowledge-based platform: 1990's. Promotes planning for specific tourism activities and destinations which attempt to scientifically determine impacts and capacities for tourism destinations.<br />JAFARI'S FOUR PLATFORMS<br />
  14. 14. ECOTOURISM<br />Four core criteria of ecotourism<br />1) A FORM OF TOURISM. The most common reason for travel is visiting friends and relatives (VFR). A "tourist" will also travel outside of their normal residence and spend a specific amount of time at a destination.<br />
  15. 15. 2) The attractions are based primarily on a natural environment (ecosystem) or some component of that environment. It also may have a cultural component associated with the natural environment.<br />
  16. 16. 3) All visitors are motivated by the opportunity to gain knowledge or appreciation of a natural area or culture.<br />
  17. 17. 4) THE SUSTAINABILITY is a critical factor in any ecotourism definition. It is "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs"  (WCED, 1987, p. 43).<br />
  18. 18. ECOTOURISM AND OTHER TOURISM TYPES<br />NATURE-BASED TOURISM. Any type of tourism that relies on attractions directly related to the natural environment.. Ecotourismis a subset of nature-basedtourism.<br />CULTURAL TOURISM. Cultural tourism's focus is on the cultural aspects of a visitor's experience.<br />
  19. 19. ECOTOURISM AND OTHER TOURISM TYPES<br />ADVENTURE TOURISM. This includes: an element of risk; a higher level of physical exertion; and a need for specialized skills to participate successfully and safely in the activity.<br />HYBRIDS. These forms of tourism address complex and multi-faceted visitor experiences. They include: trekking, ACE tourism (adventure, culture and ecotourism);  and NEAT (nature-based, ecotourism, and adventure tourism). <br />
  20. 20. ECOTOURISM AND OTHER TOURISM TYPES<br />3S (SEA, SAND AND SUN) TOURISM. Tourism based mostly on mass tourism (resort).<br />ALTERNATIVE TOURISM AND MASS TOURISM. This spans the variety of tourism form small-scale to mass tourism. One being no better or worse that the other depending on the impacts and sustainability of the activities.<br />
  21. 21. ECOTOURISM AND OTHER TOURISM TYPES<br />SUSTAINABLE TOURISM. An area of sustainable tourism that includes all ecotourism, most of alternative tourism and mass tourism.<br />
  22. 22. NATURE BASED IN TURISM<br />
  23. 23. SUPPLY AND DEMAND <br />Is the relationship between the quantity that tourism enterprises provided. tourism enterprises wish to sell at various prices and the quantity of tourism services that consumers wish to buy. <br />
  24. 24. THANK YOU<br />