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  1. 1. Global Responses to the Rise of the West
  2. 2. History of Imperialism
  3. 3. World in 1900
  4. 4. British Empire in 1900 “The Sun Never Sets on the British Empire”
  5. 5. Dutch Empire
  6. 6. German Empire in 1914
  7. 7. India “The Jewel in the Crown” 1661 1st British trade center at Bombay – 1690 British establish center at Calcutta 1707 Start of Mughal decline 1756-1763 Seven Years’ War – British East India Co. uses sepoys 1857 Sepoy Rebellion 1858 Beginning of the British Raj
  8. 8. Indian Resistance to British Rule Reforms – Ram Mohan Roy Cooperation – Indian National Congress (1885) Nationalism – Radical movement centered on Hinduism – Called for independence and revolts – Paved path for Gandhi, etc. Ram Mohan Roy
  9. 9. Impact of British rule in India Positive: – Western education – Social reforms • Keep the caste system – Technology • Railroads • Telegraph lines – Brought into the global market economy Negative: – Move towards cash crops lead to famines – Drain India of resources – Taxes used to pay for army and generous salaries for administrators – Increase in chronic poverty
  10. 10. British Railways in India Left: the Darjeeling Express Above: Queen Victoria station
  11. 11. Famine in India 1877
  12. 12. French Empire Light Blue: 1st French colonial empire; Dark Blue: 2nd French colonial empire
  13. 13. French in Vietnam 1600s Jesuit priests arrive in Vietnam; French trade with Vietnam follows 1802 French help Gia Long unite Vietnam 1820-1841 Minh Mang replaces Gia Long and begins to persecute Christians Persecutions plus pressures in Europe provided justification for French conquest By 1890s France controlled Vietnam (later would add Cambodia and Laos)
  14. 14. Vietnamese Resistance Guerrilla warfare – “Save the King Movement” Vietnamese Nationalist Party (VNQDD) – Fail to create mass movement – Replaced by Communist Party of Vietnam (Viet Minh) • Dominated by Ho Chi Minh
  15. 15. Bastille Day in Vietnam
  16. 16. Imperialism in Africa Left: Africa in 1878 Right: Africa in 1914
  17. 17. Berlin Conference (1884-1885)
  18. 18. British Imperialism in South Africa 1652 1st Dutch settlement at Cape Town 1815 British annex Cape Town 1830 Boers begin Great Trek 1867 Diamonds discovered in Orange Free State 1885 Gold discovered in Transvaal 1899-1902 Boer Wars
  19. 19. Images of Britain in Africa
  20. 20. British in Imperialism in Egypt 1798 Invasion of Egypt by Napoleon 1805 Muhammad Ali and his successors modernize Egypt – Borrow heavily from England and France – Build Suez Canal 1882 Nationalist uprisings threaten Egyptian government – Egypt becomes a protectorate of Great Britain
  21. 21. Suez Canal
  22. 22. Egyptian Responses Reforms – Muhammad Ali Nationalism – Arabs see British control of Egypt as double colonization – Dinshawi incident (1906) Islamic Fundamentalism – Mahdi
  23. 23. Legacy of the Mahdi Mahdi army of Muqtada al-Sadr in Iraq
  24. 24. Ottoman Empire in the 19th c. Called the “Sick Man of Europe” Why? Just a few examples… – Power struggles between government, religious experts, Janissaries, and other elites – Ayan (landlords) skimmed tax revenue – Import of European manufactures caused a decline in the artisan class – Empire became economically dependent on Europe – External threats from Egypt, Austria-Hungary, Russia, and Balkan nationalism • Greece gained its independence in 1830
  25. 25. Ottoman Territorial Losses
  26. 26. Ottoman Reforms Early reforms of Selim III (1789-1807) resisted by Janissaries Janissaries slaughtered by Mahmud II in 1826 Tanzimat Reforms – Modernize military and bureaucracy – University education focusing on math & science – Western technology (telegraphs, railroads, etc.) – Constitution of 1876 Few changes for lower class & women
  27. 27. Resistance to Reforms & Revolt Religious conservatives – Ulama Individual sultans – Abdul Hamid (1878-1908) – Overthrown in 1908 Ottoman Society for Union Progress – “Young Turks”—Nationalism – Establish a parliamentary system – Led Ottoman Empire into WWI
  28. 28. The Qing Dynasty (1644-1912) Founded by a Manchu warlord Traditional Chinese dynasty Qing Golden Age – Kangxi (1662-1722) – Yongzheng (1722-1735) – Qianlong (1735-1796) Dynasty in declines after the death of Qianlong – White Lotus Rebellion (1796-1804)
  29. 29. China: Decline of a Civilization Internal Breakdown Opium War Taiping Rebellion Self-Strengthening Movement Failure of Force – Sino-Japanese War – Boxer Rebellion – Chinese Revolution of 1912
  30. 30. The 1st Opium War (1839-1842)
  31. 31. The 1st Opium War (1839-1842)
  32. 32. The 1st Opium War (1839-1842) Lin Zexu destroying opium. In the summer of 1939, Lin Zexu confiscated and destroyed 2.6 million pounds of opium. It took 500 laborers 22 days to destroy all of the opium.
  33. 33. The 1st Opium War (1839-1842)
  34. 34. Legacy of the Opium War “Unequal Treaties” – Opens 5 ports to trade with Britain British gain control of Hong Kong British gain extraterritoriality Does NOT address sale of opium Chinese hero, Lin Zexu
  35. 35. Causes of the Taiping Rebellion Anti-Manchu sentiment – Strongest among southern laborers who were mostly Han Chinese – Caused by a myriad of problems • Natural disasters, economic collapse, government corruption and the defeat in the Opium War Leadership of Hong Xiuquan – Brother of Jesus? Statue of Taiping leader Hong Xiuquan
  36. 36. Taiping Rebellion (1850-1864) Hong Xiuquan’s army was able to seize 44 Chinese cities including the Southern capital of Nanjing (picture above).
  37. 37. Aftermath of the Taiping Rebellion Self-Strengthening Movement – Modernize the army – Improve infrastructure – Relied on foreign investment Resisted by Neo-Confucian scholars and Dowager Empress Cixi (1861-1908) Sino-Japanese War (1894- 1895) Dowager Empress Cixi, “the Dragon Lady”
  38. 38. Sino-Japanese War 1894-1895
  39. 39. Western Spheres of Influence
  40. 40. Boxer Rebellion (1900)
  41. 41. Fall of the Qing Dynasty Death of Dowager Cixi Sun Yat-sen’s 3 Principles of the People – Nationalism, Democracy, and People’s Welfare Qing falls in 1912 – End of the imperial system Replaced by the Republic of China – Sun Yat-sen named 1st president Sun Yat-sen
  42. 42. Decline of Tokugawa Shogunate By early 19th century, Japanese society was in turmoil – Declining agricultural productivity – Harsh taxes on peasants – Periodic crop failures, famine, and starvation – Samurai and daimyo are in debt to merchants Some Positives – Highest literacy rate outside of the West
  43. 43. Challenge of the West Arrival of Matthew Perry (1853) – Unequal Treaties • Similar to the treaties signed by the Qing dynasty – Perry’s “Black Ships” steam into Tokyo Bay – Force the Japanese to establish trade and diplomatic relations with the U.S. Japanese depiction of Admiral Matthew Perry
  44. 44. Internal Conflict Shogunate’s deals with West viewed as dishonorable – Popular slogan: “Revere the emperor, expel the barbarians” Demands for reform include lowering rice prices & expulsion of foreign “barbarians” Revolution? – Two minor wars between supporters of emperor and supporters of the shogun – January 3, 1868, the last shogun abdicated and the shogunate was destroyed
  45. 45. Modernization: Meiji Restoration Abolish feudal order – Daimyo removed from power – Samurai class is abolished Constitutional government – Constitution of 1889 establishes constitutional monarchy with legislature – Emperor commanded armed forces, named prime minister, and appoint the cabinet – Suffrage limited—only 5% could vote in 1890
  46. 46. New Meiji Government Left: Structure of Meiji Governement; Above: Mutsuhito, the Meiji Emperor
  47. 47. Modernization: Meiji Restoration Japanese industrialization – Modernize the military, transportation, communication, education, etc. – Creation of zaibatsu • Combination of state initiative and private investment • Consolidates economic power into the hands of a few powerful families • Many companies started by men of samurai origins
  48. 48. Japan’s Economic Growth
  49. 49. Social Developments No reforms to ease burdens on rural population Massive population growth – Strained resources and kept labor costs low Role of women – Maintain inferiority of women in the home – High-school education for women (1899) – Silk industry relied upon women working in factories
  50. 50. Japanese Imperialism Sino-Japanese War – Japan gains influence over Korea & Manchuria Russo-Japanese War – Japan’s navy leads to victory over Russia Japan annexes Korea in 1910
  51. 51. Latin American Independence Factors – Creole leadership • Simon Bolivar – The Enlightenment – Napoleon’s conquest of Spain • Mask of Ferdinand – Native unrest • Father Miguel de Hidalgo – Distance
  52. 52. Problems After Independence Political rivalries – Centralists vs. federalists – Liberals vs. conservatives – Caudillos • Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna – Victorious at the Alamo! • Juan Manuel de Rosas (Argentina) – Role of the Catholic church – Creoles vs. natives – Western interference Santa Anna
  53. 53. Economic Problems Monroe Doctrine (1823) Economic Imperialism? – Britain replaced Spain as the dominant economic force in Latin America – Economy continued to depend upon exports – Britain dominated until 1860 Modernization theory vs. Dependency theory
  54. 54. U.S. Intervention in Latin America Mexican-American War (1846-1848) – Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo Spanish-American War – U.S. gains Puerto Rico, the Philippines, Guam – “Independence” for Cuba Roosevelt Corollary (1904) Panama Canal – Completed August 1914
  55. 55. U.S. Imperialism
  56. 56. U.S. Imperialism
  57. 57. “Big Stick” foreign policy
  58. 58. Mexico (1821-1876) 1821-1850’s marked by political instability – Defeat in Mexican- American war began a nationalist movement Benito Juarez (1858-1872) – La Reforma • Attempted massive land reform – Reforms challenged the Catholic church Benito Juarez
  59. 59. Porfirio Diaz (1876-1910) Industrialized Mexico – Built railroads – Improved banking system – Focused on oil & mining – Depended on foreign investment Increasingly autocratic Oppressed political opposition – Arrested Francisco Madero in 1910 Porfirio Diaz
  60. 60. Argentina After independence dominated by caudillos Politically stabilized after 1862 Economic growth based on exports – Primary export is beef – Industrialization dependent on foreign capital Large numbers of immigrants from Europe – 3.5 million from Italy, Germany, Russia, etc. – Golondrinas
  61. 61. Latin American Society Few changes for women in Latin America – Remained under the control of their fathers and husbands • Machismo – Lower class had more economic freedoms – Gained more access to education Racial castes were formally abolished – Racial and ethnic tensions continued • Few major/ethnic reforms