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  • somebody can help solve this problem
    The unit for electricity usage is kwh for domestic usage the tariff A monthly rent for tariff A is 21.8 cent/unit for the first 200 units 25.8 cent/unit for the next 800 units and 27.8 cent/unit for each addition units. Create a program that will be read the amount of electricity units (in kwh) used by a customer, Calculate the amount of money needs to be paid by the customer to TNB company A bill statement needs to be printed out
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  2. 2. Definition• A flowchart is a pictorial representation of an algorithm in which steps are drawn in the form of different shapes of boxes and the logical flow is indicated by interconnecting arrows.• Flowcharts are also called block diagrams, flow diagrams, system charts, procedural charts, run diagrams and logic charts.
  3. 3. • Flowcharts are compared with the blue print of a building.• Flowcharts depict the flow of data, documents, various steps to be repeated(looping) and alternatives available at a particular step.• In short Flowchart is a coherent, pictorial representation or model that provides a means of recording, analyzing and communicating information.
  4. 4. Flowcharts can be divided into four categories as below : TYPES of• FLOWCHARTSSystem System Program Run FlowchartsOutline charts Flowcharts Flowcharts
  5. 5. A flowchart is drawn according to defined rules and using standard flowchart symbols prescribed by American National Standard Institute(ANSI)• Refer teaching material.
  6. 6. Benefits Of Flow charts• A flowchart helps to clarify how things are currently working and how they could be improved . It also assists in finding out the key elements of a process and the start of next one• The reasons for using flowcharts as a problem solving tool are given below.
  7. 7. • Makes logic clear- the main advantage of using a flowchart to plan a task is that it provides a pictorial representation of the tasks, which makes the logic easier to follow. The symbols are connected in such a way that they show the movement of information through the system visibly.
  8. 8. • Communication- being a graphical representation of a problem solving logic, flowcharts are better way of communicating the logic of a system to all concerned.• Effective analysis- with the help of a flow chart, the problem can be analyzed in an effective way.
  9. 9. • Useful in Coding- the flowcharts acts as a guide or blueprint during the analysis and program development phase. Once the flowcharts are ready, the programmers can plan the coding process effectively.• Proper testing and debugging- by nature a flowchart helps in detecting the errors in a program, as the developers know exactly what the logic should do.
  10. 10. • Appropriate documentation-Flowcharts serve as a good program documentation tool. Since normally the programs are developed for novice users.
  11. 11. Limitations of Flowcharts.• Complex- The major disadvantages in using the flowcharts is that when a program is very large, the flowcharts may continue for many pages, making them hard to follow.• Costly- Drawing flowcharts are viable only if the problem solving logic is straight forward and not very lengthy. However , if flowcharts are to be drawn for a huge application, the time and cost factor of program development may get out of proprtion.
  12. 12. • Difficult to modify- due to symbolic nature, any changes of modifications to a flowcharts usually requires redrawing the entire logic again, and redrawing a complex flowchart is not a simple tasks.• No update: usually program are updated regularly . However corresponding update in the flowchart may not take place, especially in the case of large programs. As a result the logic in flowchart may not match with the actual program.