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Does coaching work
(and why you should care)

Frederik Anseel (Ghent University)
Contact: frederik.anseel@ugent.be
Downloa...
Does	
  coaching	
  work?	
  
Does	
  coaching	
  work?	
  
Of	
  course,	
  why	
  otherwise	
  
– 
– 
– 
– 
– 
– 
– 
– 
– 
– 
– 

Are	
  coaches	
  pa...
The	
  coaching	
  field	
  is	
  filled	
  with	
  
contradic>ons.	
  Coaches	
  themselves	
  disagree	
  
over	
  why	
  ...
Problemen	
  
Wat	
  is	
  ‘coaching’?	
  
–  Evenveel	
  defini<es	
  als	
  coaches	
  

	
  
Regula>e?	
  
–  Meerdere	
...
Why	
  should	
  you	
  care?	
  
Why	
  you	
  should	
  care	
  
Indien	
  u	
  een	
  kwakzalver	
  bent	
  
– 
– 
– 
– 
– 

Dan	
  weet	
  u	
  het	
  w...
Wat	
  zegt	
  de	
  wetenschap?	
  
	
  
(Noot:	
  ik	
  ben	
  een	
  believer)	
  
Hoe coaching evalueren?

Coaching

Meting
achteraf

Satisfaction
Self-report
progress

Objective
outcomes
Supervisor or
ot...
80% of studies that evaluated the
accuracy of self-assessments of
knowledge, skills or abilities concluded
that learners’ ...
Hoe coaching evalueren?
Pre - test / post – test

Meting
Vooraf

Coaching

Meting
achteraf

Pre – test / post – test met c...
Evidence?	
  
•  Quite	
  a	
  lot	
  of	
  coaching	
  research	
  has	
  been	
  done	
  
–  “How	
  sa<sfied	
  are	
  y...
Why	
  I	
  believe	
  coaching	
  works	
  
	
  
Importance	
  of	
  reflec>on
	
  
•  Kolb,	
  Dewey:	
  “Without	
  reflec>on,	
  
experience	
  may	
  be	
  of	
  li9le	
...
Theore>cal	
  basis	
  of	
  reflec>on
	
  
•  Dual	
  process-­‐models	
  in	
  cogni<ve	
  en	
  social	
  psychology	
  ...
Systema>c	
  Reflec>on	
  
Interven>ons
	
  
•  How	
  to	
  elicit	
  strategy	
  2	
  ?	
  
•  Self-­‐explana*on:	
  "how...
After Event Reviews
“Learning procedure that gives learners an opportunity to
systematically analyze their behavior and to...
Study	
  procedure
	
  
•  Experiment	
  
–  Feedback:	
  quan<ta<ve	
  and	
  qualita<ve	
  feedback	
  for	
  each	
  
c...
29	
  
30	
  
31	
  
32	
  
33	
  
34	
  
35	
  
Vertical bars denote 0.95 confidence intervals
16
Task 1
Task 2
15

14

13
Mean Task Performance

12

11
No Feedback / No ...
Vertical bars denote .95 confidence intervals
16

Task 1
Task 2
15

14

Mean Task Performance

13

12
No feedback/ No refl...
So,	
  what	
  have	
  we	
  
learned	
  here?	
  
Limited	
  evidence	
  for	
  effec>veness	
  coaching	
  
–  If	
  you	
  are	
  a	
  believer,	
  you	
  should	
  care!	...
Thanks!	
  

	
  
Contact:	
  
Frederik.anseel@ugent.be	
  
Fanseel.be	
  
@fanseel	
  
HRSeminar Coaching Frederik Anseel
HRSeminar Coaching Frederik Anseel
HRSeminar Coaching Frederik Anseel
HRSeminar Coaching Frederik Anseel
HRSeminar Coaching Frederik Anseel
HRSeminar Coaching Frederik Anseel
HRSeminar Coaching Frederik Anseel
HRSeminar Coaching Frederik Anseel
HRSeminar Coaching Frederik Anseel
HRSeminar Coaching Frederik Anseel
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HRSeminar Coaching Frederik Anseel

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HRSeminar Coaching Frederik Anseel

  1. 1. Does coaching work (and why you should care) Frederik Anseel (Ghent University) Contact: frederik.anseel@ugent.be Downloads (web): fanseel.be Twitter: @fanseel
  2. 2. Does  coaching  work?  
  3. 3. Does  coaching  work?   Of  course,  why  otherwise   –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  Are  coaches  paid  to  do  it?   Do  businesses  buy  it?   Do  individual  clients  pay  for  it?   Do  individual  clients  come  back  for  more?   Do  they  have  coaching  qualifica<ons?   Are  there  conferences  on  coaching?   Are  lots  of  books  published  about  coaching?   Are  so  many  employed  to  do  it?   Does  it  keep  growing?   Are  there  so  many  coaching  businesses?   It’s  helping  other  people,  what  can  possibly  go  wrong?   Well,  that’s  se9led  then…  
  4. 4. The  coaching  field  is  filled  with   contradic>ons.  Coaches  themselves  disagree   over  why  they’re  hired,  what  they  do,  and   how  to  measure  succes…  In  this  market,  as   in  so  many  others  today,  the  old  saw  s>ll   applies:  Buyer  beware!   (Harvard  Business  Review,  Coutu  &  Kauffman,  2009)  
  5. 5. Problemen   Wat  is  ‘coaching’?   –  Evenveel  defini<es  als  coaches     Regula>e?   –  Meerdere  federa<es  -­‐  cer<ficering   –  Who  cares?     “Clients  and  endorsements  are  the  currency  of  coaching  business”     Wie  coacht?   Wat  gebeurt  er  in  coaching?   –  Werkingsmechanisme?   –  Doelstellingen  en  match  tussen  doelstelling,  methode  en  context?  
  6. 6. Why  should  you  care?  
  7. 7. Why  you  should  care   Indien  u  een  kwakzalver  bent   –  –  –  –  –  Dan  weet  u  het  wellicht  niet  (maar  iedereen  praat  achter  uw  rug).   Vroeg  of  laat  valt  u  door  de  mand.   Kan  u  veel  meer  verdienen  met  methodes  die  ook  echt  werken   Kan  u  ook  schade  aanrichten   HoeL  u  niet  langer  met  collega’s  te  discussiëren  over  uw  methode     Indien  u  een  effec>eve  coach  bent   –  –  –  –  –  Kan  u  eindelijk  begrijpen  waarom  u  zo  effec<ef  bent,  ondanks  uzelf   Kan  u  uw  effec<viteit  verhogen   HoeL  u  zich  niet  langer  te  ergeren  over  de  toestand  van  uw  vakgebied   Kan  u  zich  duidelijk  onderscheiden  van  de  kwakzalvers   HoeL  u  niet  langer  met  collega’s  te  discussiëren  over  uw  methode  
  8. 8. Wat  zegt  de  wetenschap?     (Noot:  ik  ben  een  believer)  
  9. 9. Hoe coaching evalueren? Coaching Meting achteraf Satisfaction Self-report progress Objective outcomes Supervisor or other ratings
  10. 10. 80% of studies that evaluated the accuracy of self-assessments of knowledge, skills or abilities concluded that learners’ self-assessments were remarkably inaccurate (Sitzmann et al., 2010)
  11. 11. Hoe coaching evalueren? Pre - test / post – test Meting Vooraf Coaching Meting achteraf Pre – test / post – test met controlegroep Meting Vooraf Rando m Coaching Meting Vooraf Coaching Meting achteraf Meting achteraf
  12. 12. Evidence?   •  Quite  a  lot  of  coaching  research  has  been  done   –  “How  sa<sfied  are  you?”   •  Rela>vely  li9le  of  it  is  good-­‐quality  research   –  Objec<ve  outcomes,  control  group,  performance  or  development   •  No  long-­‐term  effects  research   •  No  compara>ve  research  with  other  interven<ons   •  Researchers  lament  the  state  of  the  field  
  13. 13. Why  I  believe  coaching  works    
  14. 14. Importance  of  reflec>on   •  Kolb,  Dewey:  “Without  reflec>on,   experience  may  be  of  li9le  use”   •  “For  most  individuals  reflec<on  is  probably   the  least  favorite  ac>vity”   TUM  -­‐  01.10.2013  
  15. 15. Theore>cal  basis  of  reflec>on   •  Dual  process-­‐models  in  cogni<ve  en  social  psychology   •  Two  modes  of  cogni<ve  processing   Strategy 1 Automatic Implicit Rapid Undemanding of cognitive capacity Strategy 2 Controlled Explicit Slow Demanding of cognitive capacity •  Strategy  2:  stronger  and  longer-­‐las<ng  learning  effects     TUM  -­‐  01.10.2013  
  16. 16. Systema>c  Reflec>on   Interven>ons   •  How  to  elicit  strategy  2  ?   •  Self-­‐explana*on:  "how  did  you  contribute  to  the  performance  observed  in   the  experience",  "why  did  you  do  A  or  decide  B?“   •  Data  verifica*on:  "consider  a  different  approach  that  could  have  been   taken"  and  "what  might  have  happened  if  that  approach  was  chosen“   •  Feedback:  "what  worked,  what  did  not  work",  "what  has  been  learned  from   the  experience",  and  "how  will  you  behave  in  the  future?”   •  Ellis,  S.,  Carebe,  B.,  Anseel,  F.,  &  Lievens,  F  (in  press).  Systema<c  Reflec<on:  Implica<ons  for  Learning  from  Failures  and   Successes.  Current  Direc*ons  in  Psychological  Science  
  17. 17. After Event Reviews “Learning procedure that gives learners an opportunity to systematically analyze their behavior and to be able to evaluate the contribution of its components to performance outcomes” (Ellis & Davidi, 2005: 857)
  18. 18. Study  procedure   •  Experiment   –  Feedback:  quan<ta<ve  and  qualita<ve  feedback  for  each   competency   –  Reflec<on:  behavioral  example  of  a  correct  and  an  incorrect   response  for  each  competency  required   No feedback + No reflection Feedback + reflection In-basket Task 1 Feedback + reflection In-basket Task 2 No feedback + reflection Performance 1 Performance 2 28  
  19. 19. 29  
  20. 20. 30  
  21. 21. 31  
  22. 22. 32  
  23. 23. 33  
  24. 24. 34  
  25. 25. 35  
  26. 26. Vertical bars denote 0.95 confidence intervals 16 Task 1 Task 2 15 14 13 Mean Task Performance 12 11 No Feedback / No Reflection Feedback / Reflection Feedback / No Reflection No Feedback / Reflection Anseel, F., Lievens, F., & Schollaert, E. (2009). Reflection as a strategy to enhance task performance after feedback. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 110, 23-35.
  27. 27. Vertical bars denote .95 confidence intervals 16 Task 1 Task 2 15 14 Mean Task Performance 13 12 No feedback/ No reflection Feedback/ Reflection Feedback/ No reflection No feedback/ Reflection Anseel, F., Lievens, F., & Schollaert, E. (2009). Reflection as a strategy to enhance task performance after feedback. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 110, 23-35.
  28. 28. So,  what  have  we   learned  here?  
  29. 29. Limited  evidence  for  effec>veness  coaching   –  If  you  are  a  believer,  you  should  care!       Focus  needed  in  coaching  interven>ons                           1.  Data verification! 2.  Self-explanation! 3.  Feedback and selfawareness! 4.  Goal-setting!
  30. 30. Thanks!     Contact:   Frederik.anseel@ugent.be   Fanseel.be   @fanseel  

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