neu
;k
l'kfDrdj.k
laiknd

Jqfr ikaMs;] vfHkthr nkl] JkoUrh jsìh] fcuezrk jkuh

áweu jkbV~l ykW usVodZ
Hkkjr
g~;weu jkbV~l ykW usVodZ ds mn~ns’;
•	 ewyHkwr ekuokfËkdkjksa dh lqj{kk djuk] vko';d lalkËkuksa rd oafpr leqnk;ksa dh igqa...
lekt ds gkf'k;s ij Ëkdsy fn;s x,
yksxksa rFkk ekuokfËkdkjksa ds fy, tkjh
muds la?k"kZ dks lefiZr
vkHkkj

n

eudkjh tula[;k uhfr vkSj nks cPpksa ds fl)kar ij py jgh tu vnkyr ds nkSjku vkSj mlds
ckn feyh lwpukvksa dh otg ...
neu ;k l'kfDrdj.k

„„ vf[kyk

f'konkl vkSj lsaVj QkWj ,Moksdslh fjlpZ dh Vhe dk vkHkkj ftuds iz;kl ls dk;ZØe dks
ehfM;k do...
b

Hkwfedk

l iqLrd esa cqfu;knh :i ls mu lwpukvksa dks ladfyr fd;k x;k gS tks neudkjh tula[;k
uhfr vkSj nks cPpksa ds dku...
neu ;k l'kfDrdj.k

„„ t'kksËkjk

ckxph & vË;{k] if'pe caxky jkT; efgyk vk;ksx
„„ bejkuk dkfnj & çksQslj] tokgj yky usg: fo...
fok; lwph
vkHkkj		
Hkwfedk		
ifjp;		
v/;k; ,d % fo'kskKksa ds vkys[k
tula[;k % feFkd vkSj lPpkbZ	
vyekl vyh	
tux.kuk vkSj ...
neu ;k l'kfDrdj.k

v/;k; rhu % dsl v/;;u
jktuhfrd v;ksX;rk vkSj izfØ;kRed v'kDrrk		
105
vlQy ca/;kdj.k vkSj vkijs'ku ds ck...
ifjp;

g

e nks gekjs nks dh xawt pkgs ftruh eklwe yxs ysfdu ;g gS çk.k?kkrd] pkgs bls dksbZ fdlh
Hkh n`fVdks.k ls ns[ksA ...
neu ;k l'kfDrdj.k

dh ?kaVh fufgr LokFkks± ds rgr ctk;h tk jgh gSA fufgr LokFkZ vusd gSa ysfdu bu lcesa ,drk gS D;ksafd
,d...
ifjp;

djus vkSj bl ij fopkj djus ds fy, dh tkus okyh cSBdksa dh vksj pyk tkrk gSA y{; vkSj y{;ksa dh
izkfIr ljdkj ds vanj...
neu ;k l'kfDrdj.k

viukus ds ckn flQZ 1987 esa ikap yk[k cPpksa dks xksn fy;k x;kA ftu cPpksa dks fdlh ds }kjk xksn
fy;s t...
ifjp;

muesa ls 47 izfr'kr us dgk fd nks cPps vkn'kZ gSa tcfd 72 izfr'kr efgykvksa us dgk fd os nks ;k
rhu cPps iSnk djuk ...
neu ;k l'kfDrdj.k

mis{kk sy jgs gSa vkSj ftUgsa iapk;r tSlh tehuh yksdrkaf=d laLFkk ls tksM+dj etcwr djus dh ckr
lafoËkku...
ifjp;

dkQh rRijrk ls [kM+k ekuk tkrk gS fQj Hkh bl lanHkZ esa mudk joS;k tks gS mls ns[kdj ;gh dgk tk
ldrk gS fd ;g ,d mn...
v/;k; ,d

fo'kskKksa ds vkys[k

tula[;k o`f)
n tula[;k uhfr
tula[;k uhfr;ka vkSj jktuhfrd Hkkxhnkjh
n jktuhfrd uhfr;ka vkS...
tula[;k % feFkd vkSj lPpkbZ
vyekl vyh*

eSa

bl iz'u ls 'kq#vkr djuk pkgwaxk fd tc ge tula[;k ij ppkZ djrs gSa rks la[;kvk...
neu ;k l'kfDrdj.k

rFkk xHkZfujks/kdksa dh vf/kd miyC/krk esa mUufr ds dkj.k tUenj esa /khjs/khjs fxjkoV vkus yxrh
gSA rRi...
tula[;k o`f)

rkfydk1
Hkkjr esa tulkaf[;dh laØe.k
okZ

dqy tula[;k
¼djksM+ esa½

iw.kZ o`f)
¼djksM+ esa½

n'kdh; o`f)
nj

...
neu ;k l'kfDrdj.k

Lrj rd yk ldsa] e`R;q njksa dks dk;e j[k ldssa vkSj 'kwU; izoklu lqfuf'pr dj ldsa rks Hkh fudV
Hkfo; es...
tula[;k o`f)

feFkd 5 % nks cPpksa dk dkuwu u dsoy tula[;k fu;af=r djus esa vkSj fodkl iz;klksa ds fy,
mi;ksxh gS cfYd efg...
tux.kuk vkSj lkaiznkf;drk
pk# xqIrk

*

eSa

bl eqís dks mBkuk pkgwaxh fd tula[;k vkSj tux.kuk dh jktuhfr dks fganw lkaizn...
tula[;k o`f)

uqdlku fxukrs gSaAß ifj.kkeLo:i] la[;kRed 'kfDr dk fopkj lkaiznkf;d psruk esa Mqcks fn;k x;k gS
vkSj fganw l...
Hkkjrh; tula[;k uhfr % ,d i;kZoyksdu
,vkj uank*

l

jdkj esa dke djus ds vius vuqHko dh otg ls eSa tkurk gwa fd tc Hkkjr l...
tula[;k uhfr

vkSj LiV utfj;k viuk;k vkSj lqko fn;k fd ifjokj fu;kstu dks tUe nj fu;a=.k ;k nks cPpksa
ds chp varj tSlh ra...
neu ;k l'kfDrdj.k

vktknh ds igys vkSj ckn esa ftruh Hkh desfV;ka cuha lHkh us izkFkfed LokLF; lqj{kk ds O;kid
utfj, dks v...
tula[;k uhfr

ij /;ku nsuk jkVªh; tula[;k uhfr dk rkRdkfyd y{; gSA bldk e/;kof/k y{; gS cgqr lkjs dk;ZØeksa
dks cgq{ks=h; ...
neu ;k l'kfDrdj.k

„„ cky

mÙkjthfork vkSj cky LokLF; miØe.k(
„„ ifjokj dY;k.k lsokvksa dh t:jrksa dks iwjk djuk(
„„ 'kgjh...
nks cPpksa dk dkuwu %
jkT; ljdkjsa xyr fn'kk dh vksj
dkWfyu xksUlkfYol*

Hkk

jr dh dbZ jkT; ljdkjsa vius ;gka cl og dkuwu...
neu ;k l'kfDrdj.k

ds fy, rS;kj fd;s x;s ekWMy dks ihNs NksM+ fn;k vkSj y{;eqDr utfj;s dh 'kq#vkr dh] fQj bldh
txg jkVªh; ...
tula[;k uhfr

f[kykQ dke djus yxhA tgka vf'kf{kr fL=;ksa esa dqy tuu{kerk nj 3-47 gS ogha e/;oxhZ; fL=;ksa esa
;g 1-99 gSA...
iapk;rksa esa nks cPpksa ds dkuwu dks ysdj
vke vkneh ds vuqHko
fueZyk cqp*

t

ula[;k dks ysdj fpark,a 1952 esa jkVªh; ifj...
tula[;k uhfr;ka vkSj jktuhfrd Hkkxhnkjh

çns'k] jktLFkku vkSj mÙkj çns'k esa iapk;rksa dks ysdj efgykvksa ds vuqHko laca/k...
neu ;k l'kfDrdj.k

73osa vkSj 74osa laoS/kkfud la'kks/ku ls iapk;r dh cukoV esa Hkkjh cnyko dh 'kq#vkr gqbZA bu
la'kks/kuk...
tula[;k uhfr;ka vkSj jktuhfrd Hkkxhnkjh

cPpksa ds dkuwu ds f'kdkj gq, yksxksa ds fojksf/k;ksa dks NksM+dj vkSj dksbZ Hkh ...
neu ;k l'kfDrdj.k

muds fopkjksa esa bl vçekf.kr dYiuk dks ysdj Hkh ,d:irk Fkh fd nks cPpksa dk çko/kku ykxw gksus ls
iapk...
tula[;k uhfr;ka vkSj jktuhfrd Hkkxhnkjh

ds dqN usrkvksa dk ekuuk Fkk fd ;g dkuwu nfyrksa vkSj xjhcksa ds fy, cqjk gS D;ks...
neu ;k l'kfDrdj.k

bPNk ds vuq:i ifjokj dk vkdkj gks tkrk Fkk ;kuh fd nks ls T;knk cPps ftuesa de ls de ,d ;k nks
csVA yxH...
tula[;k uhfr;ka vkSj jktuhfrd Hkkxhnkjh

rsy ih fy;k vkSj ej x;kA cgjgky] mlus xHkZikr djokus ls badkj fd;kA 'kk;n mls tka...
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi
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Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi

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Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi

Published by Human Rights Law Network(HRLN), a division of Socio Legal Information Centre(SLIC). For more details about our works, visit us at http://hrln.org

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Coercion versus Empowerment in Hindi

  1. 1. neu ;k l'kfDrdj.k laiknd Jqfr ikaMs;] vfHkthr nkl] JkoUrh jsìh] fcuezrk jkuh áweu jkbV~l ykW usVodZ Hkkjr
  2. 2. g~;weu jkbV~l ykW usVodZ ds mn~ns’; • ewyHkwr ekuokfËkdkjksa dh lqj{kk djuk] vko';d lalkËkuksa rd oafpr leqnk;ksa dh igqap c<+kuk vkSj HksnHkko nwj djuk • ,slh lnk'k; U;k; iz.kkyh fodflr djus esa ;ksxnku djuk tks lekt ds detksj vkSj oafpr rcdksa ds fy, lqyHk gks vkSj lkFk gh tokcnsg] ikjn'khZ] pqLr&nq#Lr vkSj vke tu dh vkfFkZd igqap ds Hkhrj gks • xjhcksa ds fy, izHkkoh dkuwuh lgk;rk iz.kkyh fodflr djus esa ;ksxnku djuk • tufgr esa #fp j[kus okys odhyksa vkSj dkuwu ls fdlh u fdlh :i esa tqMh u;h ih<+h ds yksxksa dks mfpr + izf'k{k.k nsuk rkfd lkekftd vkanksyuksa dks le>us vkSj t:jrean yksxks]a leqnk;ksa dks dkuwuh lgk;rk nsus ds vykok u;h fofËkd ladYiuk,a vkSj j.kuhfr;ka fodflr djus esa n{krk gkfly gks lds neu ;k l'kfDrdj.k (Daman Ya Sashaktikaran, Hindi title) © lksfl;ks yhxy bUQjes'ku lsaVj e-mail: publications@hrln.org ISBN: 81&89479&39&3 2008 laiknd Jqfr ikaMs;] vfHkthr nkl] JkoUrh jsìh] fcuezrk jkuh vuqokn vkSj vkys[k laiknu jathr oekZ vkys[k laiknu lg;ksx dfork iar] vuqiek prqosZnh ysvkmV gjnso 'kekZ] chjsUnz dqekj xqIrk eqæd #nzk fizaV~l] 181] ckiw ikdZ] dksVyk eqckjd iqj] u;h fnYyh&110003] Qksu % $91&9810732459 çdk'kd g~;weu jkbV~l ykW usVodZ ¼lksfl;ks yhxy bUQjes”ku lsaVj dk ,dka”k½ 576] efLtn jksM] taxiqjk] ubZ fnYyh&110014 Qksu% $91&11&24378854@24379855@56 website: www.hrln.org email: publications@hrln.org
  3. 3. lekt ds gkf'k;s ij Ëkdsy fn;s x, yksxksa rFkk ekuokfËkdkjksa ds fy, tkjh muds la?k"kZ dks lefiZr
  4. 4. vkHkkj n eudkjh tula[;k uhfr vkSj nks cPpksa ds fl)kar ij py jgh tu vnkyr ds nkSjku vkSj mlds ckn feyh lwpukvksa dh otg ls gh bl fdrkc dk lkeus vkuk laHko gks ik;kA lHkh lg;ksxh laLFkkvksa vkSj áweu jkbV~l ykW usVodZ ds lkfFk;ksa vkSj fe=ksa] ftudh lkewfgd dksf'k'k ls ;g tu vnkyr yx ik;h] ds izfr ge viuh d`rKrk izdV djrs gSaA fuEufyf[kr yksxksa vkSj laLFkkvksa us ftl çdkj ls lg;ksx fn;k Fkk] muds çfr fo'ks"k :i ls ge viuk vkHkkj çdV djrs gSa % „„ gsYFk okp mÙkj çns'k] fcgkj] efgyk vkSj LokLF; ds fy, dke dj jgh laLFkk lek fjlkslZ xzqi] gaxj izkstsDV vkSj tu LokLF; vfHk;ku ;s lHkh tu vnkyr ds lkFkh vk;kstd FksA dk;ZØe dh :ijs[kk rS;kj djus] mls ykxw djus] fo'ks"kKksa dks vius ys[k i<+us ds fy, rS;kj djus vkSj lk{;ksa dh çLrqfr dks lefUor djus esa jkT; vk;kstu desVh dk bu yksxksa us Hkjiwj lg;ksx fd;kA „„ tu vnkyr ds le{k c;ku nsus ds fy, ns'k Hkj ls ,sls yksxksa dks <wa< fudkyuk tks neudkjh tula[;k uhfr vkSj nks cPpksa ds fl)kar dh ekj ls cp fudys Fks vkSj ftu jkT;ksa ls os vk;s Fks muds dsl dk vË;;u djus ds fy, jkT; vk;kstu desVh ds lnL;ksa dk vkHkkj ftuds lkewfgd iz;Ru ds fcuk ;g lc laHko ugha gks ikrkA „„ lPpkbZ vkSj lkgliwoZd vius vuqHko ckaVus ds fy, neudkjh tula[;k uhfr vkSj nks cPpksa ds fl)kar dh ekj ls cp fudys yksxksa dk vkHkkjA neudkjh vkSj y{; vkËkkfjr tula[;k fu;a=.k ds utfj;s ds izfrdwy çHkko dks bUgksaus vius c;kuksa ds tfj;s mtkxj fd;kA „„ vnkyr ds lnL;ksa & 'kckuk vkteh] lanhi nhf{kr] lbZnk gkfen] #Fk euksjek] ehjk f'kok] olarh nsoh] t'kksËkjk ckxph] iwf.kZek vkMok.kh vkSj bejkuk dkfnj dks ftUgksaus viuk cgqewY; le; fn;k lkFk gh lqfoK vkSj fo'oluh; lq>ko HkhA „„ fo[;kr fo'ks"kKksa & , vkj uank] ts ds ckafB;k] euh"k xqIrs] fueZyk cqp] ehjk f'kok] pk# xqIrk] jhrk ljhu vkSj vyekl vyh dks ftUgksaus vius ys[kksa ds tfj;s neudkjh tula[;k uhfr vkSj nks cPpksa ds fl)karksa ls tqM+s eqíksa dks Li"Vrk ls ysfdu lkjxfHkZr <ax ls j[kkA „„ çR;sd jkT; ls vk, çfrfufËk;ksa dk vkHkkj ftUgksaus vius&vius jkT;ksa dh neudkjh tula[;k uhfr vkSj nks cPpksa ds fl)kar ls tqM+h egRoiw.kZ lwpuk,a nhaA
  5. 5. neu ;k l'kfDrdj.k „„ vf[kyk f'konkl vkSj lsaVj QkWj ,Moksdslh fjlpZ dh Vhe dk vkHkkj ftuds iz;kl ls dk;ZØe dks ehfM;k dojst feyhA „„ tu vnkyr dh ohfM;ks fjdkWfMax ds fy, eSftd ySUVuZ QkmaMs'ku vkSj iwjh dkjZokbZ dk vfHkys[k rS;kj djus ds fy, lqns'k usxh dk vkHkkjA „„ ,pvkj,y,u ls tqMh vfËkoDrk iwue oekZ] çf'k{kq Jqfr jatu vkSj fnYyh fo'ofo|ky; ds fofËk Nk= + fouh'k esgjk vkSj lqfpdk nsoM+k dk vkHkkj ftUgksus 'kksËk vkSj bl iqLrd dh lkexzh ladfyr djus a esa enn dhA „„ bl iqLrd ds ewy vaxzsth laLdj.k ds laiknu ds fy, gsYFkokp ;wih&fcgkj ds jekdkar jk;] Ëkuq Loknh vkSj ,pvkj,y,u ds çf'k{kqvksa ik;y 'kkg] vkfnR; diwj vkSj uafnrk cknkeh dk vkHkkjA „„ fgUnh vuqokn esa leUo; vkSj fn'kk&funsZ'ku ds fy, ,pvkj,y,u ds funs'kd ¼çdk'ku½ lqjs'k ukSfV;ky dk vkHkkjA „„ vkSj var esa eSd vkFkZj QkmaMs'ku vkSj bZbZMh dk fo'ks"k :i ls vkHkkj ftudh dksf'k'k ds fcuk u tu vnkyr dk vk;kstu laHko gks ikrk vkSj u gh bl fdrkc dk çdk'kuA vi
  6. 6. b Hkwfedk l iqLrd esa cqfu;knh :i ls mu lwpukvksa dks ladfyr fd;k x;k gS tks neudkjh tula[;k uhfr vkSj nks cPpksa ds dkuwu ij yxh tu vnkyr ds nkSjku gesa çkIr gqb±A ;g tu vnkyr 9&10 vDVwcj 2004 dks bafM;u lks'ky baLVhV~;wV] u;h fnYyh esa yxh FkhA ,pvkj,y,u] gsYFk okp ;wih fcgkj] lek fjlkslZ xzqi QkWj foesu ,saM gsYFk] n gaxj çkstsDV vkSj tu LokLF; vfHk;ku us feydj bl tu vnkyr dk vk;kstu fd;k FkkA ,df=r dh x;h lwpukvksa dks laikfnr dj ,slk :i fn;k x;k gS ftlls fd neudkjh vkSj y{; vkËkkfjr tula[;k uhfr ds f[kykQ py jgh cgl esa bldk bLrseky dgha Hkh fd;k tk ldsA Hkkjr ds cgqr lkjs jkT; neudkjh tula[;k uhfr viukus ds Øe esa [krjukd gn rd çksRlkgu] naM vkSj y{; ds rjhdksa dks 'kkfey dj jgs gSaA bl rjg u flQZ Hkkjr ds lafoËkku dk mYya?ku dj jgs gSa cfYd 1994 esa dkfgjk esa gq, tula[;k ,oa fodkl vkSj efgykvksa ds f[kykQ fdlh Hkh izdkj ds HksnHkko mUewyu ds fy, vk;ksftr varjkZ"Vªh; lEesyu esa tks lgefr cuh Fkh mldk Hkh mYya?ku dj jgs gSa lkFk gh o"kZ 2000 esa viuk;h x;h jk"Vªh; tula[;k uhfr dk HkhA bl fLFkfr dks ns[krs gq, gh neudkjh tula[;k uhfr vkSj nks cPpksa ds dkuwu ds f[kykQ tu vnkyr dk vk;kstu fd;k x;k FkkA ftl le; ;g tu vnkyr vk;ksftr dh x;h Fkh mUgha fnuksa vkB jkT;ksa esa ,sls yksxksa dks ftUgksaus nks cPpksa ds fl)kar dks rksM+k Fkk] naMkRed dkjZokbZ dk lkeuk djuk iM+k tSls fd mUgsa LFkkuh; Lrj dk pquko yM+us ugha fn;k tkuk] muds rhljs ;k mlds ckn ds cPpksa dks ljdkjh Ldwyksa ls fudkyuk] vuqlwfpr tkfr@tutkfr ds fy, pyk, tk jgs dY;k.kdkjh dk;ZØeksa ls mUgsa vyx fd;k tkuk lkFk gh jk'ku dkMZ] dsjksflu rsy vkSj xjhch js[kk ls uhps ds yksxksa dks nh tkus okyh lqfoËkkvksa ls mUgsa oafpr fd;k tkukA tu vnkyr yxkus dh t:jr blfy, Hkh iM+h D;ksafd LokLF; ,oa ifjokj dY;k.k ea=ky;] Hkkjr ljdkj us 2004 ds var esa ^vR;fËkd tUenj okys 209 ftyksa* esa yf{kr ifjokj fu;kstu dk;ZØe pykus dk çLrko fy;k FkkA yksxksa vkSj fo'ks"kKksa dh xokgh ds tfj;s tu vnkyr us neudkjh tula[;k uhfr vkSj nks cPpksa ds dkuwu ds fufgrkFkZ dh iM+rky dhA bl vnkyr ds ekuuh; lnL;x.k Fks % „„ lbZnk gkfen & lnL;] ;kstuk vk;ksx „„ 'kckuk vkteh & lkaln] izfl) fQYe vfHkus=h vkSj lkekftd dk;ZdrkZ „„ iwf.kZek vkMok.kh & vË;{k] jk"Vªh; efgyk vk;ksx „„ lanhi nhf{kr & lkaln
  7. 7. neu ;k l'kfDrdj.k „„ t'kksËkjk ckxph & vË;{k] if'pe caxky jkT; efgyk vk;ksx „„ bejkuk dkfnj & çksQslj] tokgj yky usg: fo'ofo|ky; „„ olarh nsoh & vË;{k] rfeyukMq jkT; efgyk vk;ksx „„ #Fk euksjek & vË;{k] efgyk laxBuksa dk jk"Vªh; xBcaËku „„ ehjk f'kok & vxz.kh LokLF; dk;ZdrkZ tu vnkyr ds mís';ksa vkSj xfrfofËk;ksa ds pkj vk;ke Fks % 1- jkT;ksa ds i;Zoyksdu vkSj O;fDr;ksa dh xokfg;ksa ds tfj;s ml mHkjrh ço`fÙk dks mtkxj djuk tks y{;ksa dks ikus vkSj neudkjh ifjokj fu;kstu dk;ZØeksa dks ykxw djus esa fn[k jgh gSA 2- ihfM+r yksxksa dh O;fDrxr xokfg;ksa ds tfj;s ml vlj dks lkeus ykuk tks neudkjh tula[;k uhfr vkSj nks cPpksa ds fl)kar dh otg ls tu lkËkkj.k ij iM+ jgs gS]a fo'ks"k dj xjhc vkSj gkf'k;s ij iM+s yksxksa ij ;g ns[krs gq, fd mUgsa fdl rjg dh lsok,a izkIr gks jgh gS]a [kkldj LokLF; lsok,aA 3- neudkjh tula[;k uhfr dh t:jr] oSËkrk vkSj izHkko ij fo'ks"kKksa dh jk; dks lkeus ykukA 4- xokfg;ksa vkSj izLrqfr;ksa ds vkËkkj ij neudkjh tula[;k uhfr vkSj nks cPpksa ds dkuwu ds f[kykQ izfrf"Br lnL;ksa ds lq>ko dks lkeus ykus dk volj rS;kj djukA ianzg izHkkfor jkT;ksa ls vk;s ipkl ls Hkh T;knk yksxksa us neudkjh tula[;k uhfr dks ysdj vius O;fDrxr vuqHko lquk;sA bu O;fDrxr xokfg;ksa ds igys ianzg jkT;ksa ls vk, izfrfufËk;ksa us HkwfedkLo:i viuh ckrsa j[kha tks bl eqís ds fgek;rh jgs gSaA O;fDrxr xokfg;ksa ij chp&chp esa fojke yxkrs gq, fo'ks"kKksa us vius ipks± ds tfj;s neudkjh tula[;k uhfr ds fofHkUu igyqvksa dks mtkxj fd;k tks fuEufyf[kr gSa & „„ tula[;k foLQksV dk Hkze „„ Hkkjr esa tula[;k uhfr dk bfrgkl vkSj fodklØe „„ neudkjh tula[;k uhfr vkSj nks cPpksa ds dkuwu ds fuEufyf[kr ij iM+us okys çHkko &  afoËkku ds frgÙkjosa vkSj pkSgÙkjosa la'kksËkuksa dh jks'kuh esa yksxksa dh jktuhfrd Hkkxhnkjh vkSj l LFkkuh; 'kklu esa izfrfufËkRo  Hkkjr esa fyax vuqikr esa c+rk vlarqyu  ekt esa mudk ntkZ] mudk ifjR;Dr thou] muds lkFk fd;k tkus okyk nqO;Zogkj vkSj tcnZLrh l xHkZikr djkus ;k vlQy caË;kdj.k dh otg ls muds LokLF; ij iM+us okys izHkko  ekt ds gkf'k;s ij iM+s vU; oxZ tSls fd vuqlwfpr tkfr] vuqlwfpr tutkfr] vU; fiNM+s l oxZ] cPps vkSj xjhcA ;g O;kid fok;oLrq nks fnuksa dh dk;Zokgh dk ekxZn'kZu djrh jgh vkSj yksxksa dh O;fDrxr xokfg;ksa esa mnkgj.k ds :i esa lkeus vkrh jgh vkSj fo'kskKksa us viuh izLrqfr ls ftldh lS)kafrd :i ls iqfV dhA tu vnkyr esa lfpo] LokLF; ,oa ifjokj dY;k.k] Hkkjr ljdkj dk mifLFkr gksuk vkSj Hkkjr ljdkj dh vksj ls cksyuk ,d fnyklk nsus okyh ckr jghA tu vnkyr viuh ijkdkBk ij rc igqph tc izfrfBr a lnL;ksa us vius lqko lkeus j[ks tks fuf'pr :i ls Hkkjr ljdkj dks vkxs dk jkLrk fn[kkrs gSA a tula[;k ^fLFkjhdj.k* ds uke ij [kM+h dh x;h ftl ifjfLFkfr dk yksx lkeuk dj jgs gSa mldk nLrkost rS;kj djus ds vfrfjDr ge ;g mEehn djrs gSa fd tula[;k o`f) dks ysdj Hkkjr ljdkj ds utfj;s esa tks deh gS mls ;g fdrkc mtkxj djsxh vkSj bldh txg ekuoh; utfj;k viukus dk jkLrk rS;kj djsxhA viii
  8. 8. fok; lwph vkHkkj Hkwfedk ifjp; v/;k; ,d % fo'kskKksa ds vkys[k tula[;k % feFkd vkSj lPpkbZ vyekl vyh tux.kuk vkSj lkaiznkf;drk pk# xqIrk Hkkjrh; tula[;k uhfr % ,d i;kZoyksdu ,vkj uank nks cPpksa dk dkuwu % jkT; ljdkjsa xyr fn'kk dh vksj dkWfyu xksUlkfYol iapk;rksa esa nks cPpksa ds dkuwu dks ysdj vke vkneh ds vuqHko fueZyk cqp nks cPpksa dk dkuwu ¼Vhlh,u½ rFkk efgykvksa vkSj oafprksa dh jktuhfrd lgHkkfxrk jhrk ljhu fxjrk fyax vuqikr % jkVªh; vkikrdky tsds ckafB;k fxjrk fyax vuqikr] nks cPpksa dk dkuwu vkSj efgykvksas dh fLFkfr euhkk xqIrs v/;k; nks % jkT;okj leh{kk vka/kz izns'k th Ýkafll jkt vkSj fot; y{eh fcgkj nsfodk fc'okl xqtjkr 'kqHky{eh uanh gfj;k.kk txerh lkaxoku fgekpy izns'k la/;k xkSre kj[kaM dY;k.kh ds- eh.kk e/; izns'k vuqt dfiykJ;h vkSj ik#y lkjLor egkjkVª vknzs QukZfUMt vkSj t;k osy.kdj ef.kiqj uksuhckyk nsoh ;sax[kkse vkSj chih 'kekZ mM+hlk xkSjkax eksgkik=k iatkc eueksgu 'kekZ jktLFkku iYyoh xqIrk rfeyukMq iwf.kZdk bykle mÙkj izns'k jekdkar jk; mÙkjk[kaM js.kq flag v vii xi 3 8 10 15 18 30 35 43 51 57 60 62 65 67 70 73 77 79 83 85 91 93 99
  9. 9. neu ;k l'kfDrdj.k v/;k; rhu % dsl v/;;u jktuhfrd v;ksX;rk vkSj izfØ;kRed v'kDrrk 105 vlQy ca/;kdj.k vkSj vkijs'ku ds ckn dh f'kdk;rsa 116 vi;kZIr LokLF; lsok vkSj HkzVkpkj 121 ikfjrksfkd vkSj naM 126 v/;k; pkj % tu vnkyr dh fVIi.kh vkSj ljdkj dk n`fVdks.k tu vnkyr dh fVIi.kh 131 ljdkj dk n`fVdks.k çlUuk ds gksrk 141 v/;k; ikap % vnkyr dh vuq'kalk,a vnkyr dh vuq'kalk,a 145 iqu'p vfHkthr nkl 147 ifjf'kV vuqyXud1 % lquok;h dh le;lkj.kh tu 153 vuqyXud2 % [;k uhfr fodkl vkSj ekuokf/kdkj tula ij vk;ksftr xksBh dk ?kksk.kki= 156 vuqyXud3 % ifjokj fu;kstu ds fy, 209 ftyksa esa U;wure lkk dk;ZØeksa dh ;kstuk 159 vuqyXud4 % lalnh; fo/ks;d vkSj neudkjh tula[;k fu;a=.k izko/kkuksa lfgr tula[;k uhfr;ksa dh lwph 164 vuqyXyd5 loksZP; U;k;ky; ds lacaf/kr fu.kZ;@vkns'k 165 vuqyXud6 % tkosn vkSj vU; cuke gfj;k.kk jkT; ¼2003½ 8 ,llhlh 369 189 vuqyXud7 % Hkw[k ifj;kstuk ds v/;;u ds fudkZ 192 vuqyXud8 % u dk Hk; fu/kZ 208 vuqyXud9 % jkT; lapkyu lfefr ds lnL; 225 x
  10. 10. ifjp; g e nks gekjs nks dh xawt pkgs ftruh eklwe yxs ysfdu ;g gS çk.k?kkrd] pkgs bls dksbZ fdlh Hkh n`fVdks.k ls ns[ksA ;g vla[; [krjukd ekU;rkvksa vkSj vkËkkjksa ij [kM+h gSA bldh dk;Z ç.kkyh vanj ls [krjukd gSA ;g lkekU;r;k ekuokfËkdkj ds lHkh fu;eksa dk mYya?ku djrh gS vkSj fo'ksk :i ls cPpk iSnk djus ds vfËkdkj dkA fdlh Hkh lwjr esa nks cPpksa ds dkuwu dks vU; fdlh Hkh neudkjh fjokt dh rjg voSËk vkSj vlaoSËkkfud djkj nsrs gq, fujLr dj nsuk pkfg,A bldh rg rd tkus ds fy, fd vkf[kj dSls vkSj D;ksa ljdkj nks cPpksa ds bl dkuwu dks vkt Hkh viukdj bls vkxs c+k jgh gS vkSj U;k;ky; bldh j{kk dj jgk gSA ;g t:jh gS fd bl fl)kar dk fo[kaMu fd;k tk, vkSj blds vanj lekfgr eqíksa dh ijrksa dks rksM+k tk,A bldh 'kq#vkr ,dne cqfu;knh pht ls dh tk, tks Åijh rkSj ij fcYdqy lgh izrhr gksrh gSA vkt dh rkjh[k esa Hkkjrh; tuekul esa ;g fcYdqy jp cl pqdk gS fd Hkkjr vkt ftl Hkh nqnZ'kk dk lkeuk dj jgk gS mu lcdk gy nks cPpksa ds dkuwu esa gh gSA nks cPpksa ds dkuwu ds Hkzked vkËkkj igyh ckr rks ;g fd ns'k esa ^tula[;k foLQksV* dh vk'kadk dks eglwl djrs gq, bl nks cPpksa ds dkuwu dks viuk;k x;k gSA ysfdu blls T;knk Hkjekus okyh ckr dksbZ nwljh vkSj ugha gks ldrhA ;g ,d tkucw dj fd;k tkus okyk çpkj gS ¼blds dkj.kksa ij ge tYn gh ckr djsaxs½ ftldk [kqyklk dbZ rF;ksa ls gksrk gSA ljdkj }kjk ;gka lwpukvksa ij gkykafd iwjh rjg ls jksd gS fQj Hkh 'kq#vkr [kqn ljdkj }kjk ,d= fd;s x;s vkadM+s vkSj L=ksrksa ls dh tk ldrh gSA rktk tulkaf[;dh; izo`fr crkrh gS fd tula[;k esa fxjkoV dks lqfuf'pr dj fy;k x;k gSA ysfdu ljdkj bl ljy rF; dks u flQZ udkjrh gS cfYd cM+s gh likV ax ls rdZ j[k dj ^tula[;k laosx* ds fl)kar dks dwM+snku esa Mky nsrh gSA tkfgj gS fd Hkkjr esa tgka bruh cM+h vkcknh gS mls c+us ls vpkud jksdk ugha tk ldrkA bldh vfØ;rk Hkh bls dqN le; rd xfreku cuk, j[krh gS Bhd ml cM+s Vªd dh rjg tks czsd yxk;s tkus ds ckotwn dqN nwj rd f?klVrk pyk tkrk gSA cgjgky ljdkj bl lkekU; ls fl)kar dks ugha leus dk cgkuk djrh gS vkSj mlds led{k j[kdj ns[krh ughaA ysfdu ljdkj vkf[kj vius gh fudkks± dks D;ksa ugha ekurh vkSj D;ksa og ^tula[;k foLQksV* dk gkSvk [kM+k djus okyksa esa 'kkfey gks x;h gSA ;g leuk eqf'dy ugha fd tula[;k foLQksV dh [krjs
  11. 11. neu ;k l'kfDrdj.k dh ?kaVh fufgr LokFkks± ds rgr ctk;h tk jgh gSA fufgr LokFkZ vusd gSa ysfdu bu lcesa ,drk gS D;ksafd ,d ekeys esa ;g ,d leku gSaA bu fufgr LokFkZ okyksa dh utjksa esa lekt dk ,d ,slk oxZ gS ftls thus dk gd oks ugha nsuk pkgrsA mudk diViw.kZ ,tsaMk gS fd bl oxZ dk lQk;k dj fn;k tk,A xjhcksa dk [kwu pwl dj vkSj Ëkuh gq, tk jgs Hkkjr ds mPp vkSj eË;oxZ dk isV vc Hkh Hkjk ugha gS] os tksj nsdj viuk nq[kM+k lqukrs gSa fd muds ikl mruk ugha gS ftruk gksuk pkfg, D;ksafd ;s xjhc ^lqvjksa* dh rjg cPps iSnk djrs gSa vkSj lkjs lkËkuksa dks pV dj tkrs gSaA og dHkh ugha lksprs fd okLro esa ;s xjhc Hkw[ks gSa] cs?kj gSa] csjkstxkj gSa vkSj fdlh Hkh lkËku ;k ukSdjh rd budh igqap ugha gSA vkorhZ vkjksi ;g gS fd xjhcksa dks cPpk iSnk djus ls jksdk tk;s ugha rks dksbZ ^fodkl* ugha gksxkA Hkkjr ds ^fodkl'khy* ns'k cus jgus dh otg ;s gh yksx gSa] lkjs lkËkuksa dks ;s fupksM+ ysrs gSaA bu lHkh diViw.kZ oDrO;ksa esa dgha bl ckr dk mYys[k ugha gS fd ;s vehj yksx gh gSa tks lalkËkuksa ij ?k`f.kr ax ls dCtk tek, gq;s gSa] eu esa ykyp j[krs gSa] mls cckZn djrs gSa vkSj fu%ladksp mldk miHkksx djrs gSaA bl ckr dk dgha mYys[k rd ugha feyrk gS fd var esa xjhcksa ds fy, dksbZ lalkËku cprk gh ugha gS ftldk os nksgu dj ldsaA os rks lalkËkuksa ds :i esa vius cPpksa dks ns[krs gSa vkSj mlh ij fuHkZj jgrs gSaA ;gh otg gS fd os ifjokj fu;kstu dk fojksËk djrs gSaA vxj dksbZ ^fodkl* ds rdZ vkSj nks cPpksa ds dkuwu dh rg rd tk, rks mls vkSj Hkh Hk;kud dkj.k utj vk,axsA eq[; :i ls ^ËkeZ* vkSj ^tkfr* dh jktuhfr utj vk;sxh vkSj og Hkh oxZ ds lkFk ,dne iqjkru ax ls xqaFkh gqbZA ,d ,sls ns'k esa tgka cgqla[;d yxkrkj bl nq%LoIu esa thrs gSa fd ,d fnu vYila[;d la[;k esa muls T;knk gks tk,axsA nks cPpksa dk dkuwu muds gkFk esa vpkud ,d ,slk vkStkj ns nsrk gS ftlls mUgsa yxrk gS fd os vYila[;dksa dh vkcknh ij fu;a=.k j[k ldrs gSaA ;gh ckr ,d [kkl ËkeZ ds yksxksa ds fy, Hkh mlh çdkj ls lp gS blfy, os nks cPpksa ds dkuwu dks vËkksxkeh ekurs gSa vkSj ml ij ls Ëkek±rj.k dh vkØkedrk ls mUgsa yxrk gS fd bu nksuksa dk latksx ?kkrd gS vkSj ;g tkjh jgk rks ,d fnu cgqla[;dksa dk lQk;k gks tk,xkA oSls Hkh mudk ekuuk gS fd tks ËkkfeZd :i ls vYila[;d gSa] vR;ar fiNM+h tkfr ds gSa] lH;rk ds nk;js ls ckgj gSa vkSj czkã.kksa dh cuk;h ^Åaph* tkfr dh nqfu;k ls Hkh] vka[kksa esa pqHkus okyh xanh cfLr;ka iSnk djrs gSaA i`Foh dk dpjk gSa ;s vkSj bu ij pkgs tSls Hkh gks yxke dluk t:jh gSA ftl rjg ls nqVrkHkjh Qklhoknh lksp us ^fodkl* dk ycknk igu j[kk gS] ;g vius vki esa Hk;kud gSA pwafd nks cPpksa ds dkuwu dk fu'kkuk ^vfodflr* vkcknh gS blfy, ;g dkQh gn rd lgh tku iM+rk gS fd blh dkuwu dh otg ls os vkt Hkh fiNM++siu ls mcj ugha ik, gSaA ysfdu ;g loky dksbZ ugha iwNrk fd ;gka fodkl ds volj iSnk u gksus ds izfr dkSu tokcnsg gSA iSnk gksrs gh ftl O;fDr dk lalkËkuksa ij gd iDdk gks tkrk gS og bl izR;{k vU;k; dh tjk Hkh fpark ugha djrk] cfYd blds foijhr dksbZ nwljk vxj vius fgLls dh vksj ns[krk Hkh gS rks os ml ij jksd yxkus dh lkjh dksf'k'ksa 'kq: dj nsrs gSaA ns'k dh iwjh jktuhfr lqfoËkkizkIr oxks±] tkfr;ksa vkSj leqnk;ksa dh cquh gqbZ gSA lkjk [ksy mudk gh jpk gqvk gSA blesa dksbZ vk'p;Z ugha fd vkt os [kqn viuh] vius lalkËkuksa] vius fgrksa dh j{kk tula[;k uhfr vkSj nks cPpksa ds dkuwu dh vkM+ esa dj jgs gSaA tula[;k foLQksV ;k ,slh gh vuki'kuki dgkfu;ksa ds lgkjs mls mfpr Bgjk jgs gSaA nks cPpksa ds dkuwu dks viuk dj ljdkj Hkh Qk;ns esa jgrh gSA bl rjg og ns'k ds fodkl vkSj lHkh oxksZ ds yksxksa dks ftlesa xjhc vkSj misf{kr Hkh 'kkfey gSa] thou dk vfËkdkj vkSj leku volj nsus dh tokcnsgh ls fcuk fdlh vkjksi ds cp fudyrh gSA lkjk Ë;ku nks cPpksa ds fl)kar dk y{; izkIr xii
  12. 12. ifjp; djus vkSj bl ij fopkj djus ds fy, dh tkus okyh cSBdksa dh vksj pyk tkrk gSA y{; vkSj y{;ksa dh izkfIr ljdkj ds vanj xyr le iSnk djrh gS fd mlus dqN ik fy;k gS ;k mUgsa yxrk gS fd mUgksaus dqN miyfCËk gkfly dj yh gS ftls de ls de fn[kk;k rks tk ldrk gSA ljdkj dks vPNh rjg irk gS fd varjkZVªh; ekU;rk izkIr fl)kar vkSj ekud ,d rjQ tula[;k dk fodkl lwpdkad] efgykvksa lfgr misf{kr oxks± dk l'kfDrdj.k] lalkËkuksa dk leku caVokjk vkSj nwljh rjQ tula[;k o`f) nj ij fu;a=.k ds chp lhËkk lacaËk tksM+rk gSA ysfdu fdlh Hkh ljdkj ds fy, ;g ,d Hkkjh tokcnsgh dk dke gSA ysfdu oSlh ljdkj ds fy, tks bl ij fo'okl ugha djrh] bl tokcnsgh dks vfHk'kki dh rjg ysrh gSA ,slh dksbZ Hkh ;qfDr tks ljdkj dks pkykdh ls cp fudyus dk jkLrk fn[kkrh gS] ljdkj }kjk vaxhdkj dj yh tkrh gSA cgqjkVªh; dkjiksjsV dh gqdwer ftldh #fp flQZ miHkksDrk cktkj vkSj lqijikojksa dh nqfu;k dh jktuhfr ls gS] Hkkjr dh c+rh tula[;k ls [kqn dks Hk;Hkhr eglwl djrh gSA og Hkkjr ljdkj dh enn dks vkxs vk jgh gS vkSj tula[;k ^fu;a=.k* dks ^jktuSfrd :i ls lgh* Bgjk jgh gSA blfy, blesa dksbZ vpaHks dh ckr ugha gS fd ljdkj }kjk Lohdkj fd;s x;s varjkZVªh; ekudksa ds izfr fdlh ds eu esa vknj Hkko ugha gSA bl rF; dh dgha dksbZ Lohd`fr gh ugha gS fd tks yksx vkt ifjokj fu;kstu esa lQy gSa og flQZ blfy, D;ksafd lwpukvksa vkSj lsokvksa rd mudh igqap gSA mUgsa thou dh csgn cqfu;knh phtksa dh le gS tSls LokLF;] xHkZfujksËkd] Hkkstu] f'k{kk] jkstxkj vkSj fodkl lwpdkadA ;s oks phtsa gSa tks ml oxZ dh efgykvksa dk Hkh l'kfDrdj.k djrh gSaA bl rF; dh Hkh dgha dksbZ Lohd`fr ugha gS fd tula[;k ds fupys rcds ls vk, yksx ftUgksaus fdlh rjg [kqn dks dqN Åij mBk;k gS] vxj pkgrs Hkh gSa fd ifjokj NksVk jgs rks Hkh os ,slk ugha dj ikrs D;ksafd mu lkËkuksa rd mudh igqap gh ugha gSA vke ukxfjd dks pdjk nsus ds fy, Hkkjr ljdkj tksj nsdj dgrh gS fd nks cPpksa ds dkuwu esa dqN Hkh neudkjh ugha gSA og rks flQZ ^çksRlkgu* nsuk ;k ugha nsuk vkSj ^y{;* dks t:jh ekurh gSA mldk rdZ gS fd tula[;k foLQksV dh orZeku ifjfLFkfr esa yksxksa dk Ë;ku bl vksj vkd`V fd;s jgus ds fy, vkSj iz;Ru dks cuk;s j[kus ds fy, bu lcdh t:jr iM+rh gSA og ,d csgn ljy lp dks Lohdkj ugha djrh fd ;g ^izksRlkgu* nsuk ;k ugha nsuk thou dh csgn cqfu;knh phtksa ls tqM+h gS tSls Hkkstu ¼jk'ku dkMZ½] f'k{kk ¼Ldwy esa ukekadu vkSj Qhl esa ekQh½] LokLF; ¼tu LokLF;lqfoËkk,a eqgS;k djuk tSls fd fujksËk ;k xHkZikr dh lsok;sa½ vkSj l'kfDrdj.k ¼iapk;r pquko yM+uk½] vkthfodk ¼ukSdjh] çksUufr] fdlkuksa ds fy, flapkbZ ;k nwljh lqfoËkk;sa½A ;s lkjh lqfoËkk;sa ,sls yksxksa ls tqM+h gS tks ljdkj dh enn ds fcuk ;s lc ugha dj ldrsA vius O;kogkfjd ifj.kke esa ;s izksRlkgu nsuk ;k ugha nsuk neudkjh gh lkfcr gksrk gS pkgs dkxt ij dqN Hkh dgk tk,A ifjokj fu;kstu Lohdkj djus okyksa ;k blds fy, izsfjr djus okyksa dks nh tkus okyh izksRlkgu jkf'k dk Hkh nq#i;ksx gh gksrk gSA bl ekeys esa phu lQy jgk gSA ysfdu ;gka ,d ckr dk mYys[k djuk t:jh gS fd ,d cPps dh uhfr dks viukus ls igys phu esa efgykvksa ds fy, O;kid vkSj U;k;iw.kZ lkekftd vkSj vkfFkZd volj dh tehu rS;kj dh x;hA ;g tUenj de djus dk ,d vktek;k gqvk rjhdk gSA blfy, ogka ogh ifj.kke feyk ftldh vk'kk FkhA phu ds mnkgj.k ls ,d lcd lh[kuk Hkh csgn t:jh gS fd ogka Hkh ,d cPps dh uhfr us dkQh leL;k,a [kM+h dh gSaA mnkgj.k ds rkSj ij xksn ysus ds ekeyksa esa Hkkjh c+ksÙkjh ns[kus esa vk;hA ,d cPps dh uhfr viukus ls igys tgka bldh la[;k nks yk[k Fkh ogha uhfr xiii
  13. 13. neu ;k l'kfDrdj.k viukus ds ckn flQZ 1987 esa ikap yk[k cPpksa dks xksn fy;k x;kA ftu cPpksa dks fdlh ds }kjk xksn fy;s tkus ds fy, ogka NksM+k tkrk Fkk mu cPpksa esa yM+fd;ksa dh la[;k yM+dksa ds vuqikr esa T;knk gksrh FkhA blh uhfr dh otg ls xHkZikr djkus dh ?kVuk esa Hkh dkQh btkQk ns[kk x;kA [kkldj eknk Hkzw.k gR;k ds ekeys esa c+ksÙkjh fparktud fLFkfr rd ik;h x;h D;ksafd ogka Hkh Hkkjr dh rjg csVk ikus dh dkeuk dh tkrh gSA bu fLFkfr;ksa us efgykvksa ds LokLF; dks uqdlku rks igqapk;k gh lkFk gh fyaxkuqikr esa Hkh dkQh vlekurk vk;hA blds foijhr gekjs dsjy esa T;knk LoLFk rjhdk viuk;k x;kA ifj.kke Hkh blus ogh fn;k tks phu esa ik;k x;k ysfdu ;gka ;g dke fodkl ds jkLrs fd;k x;kA nks cPpksa ds dkuwu dh {kerk vkSj ifj.kke bl fcanq ij igqap dj fdlh ds fy, ;g t:jh gks tkrk gS fd og nks cPpksa ds dkuwu ij fopkj djs rjhds ds :i esa Hkh vkSj y{; ds :i esa HkhA bl rjg fopkj djus ij dbZ rjg ds rjhdksa dh vksj Ë;ku tkrk gS tks nks cPpksa ds dkuwu ds y{; dks ikus ds fy, viuk, tkrs gSaA ;g 'kq: gksrk gS izksRlkgu nsuk ;k ugha nsuk vkSj y{; ds fl)kar ls] vkSj pyk tkrk gS bl fl)kar dks ykxw djus dh fofHkUu ;kstukvksa rdA D;k ;g t:jh gS fd nks cPpksa ds dkuwu dks ykxw fd;k tk, vxj dksbZ bZekunkjh ls bl fn'kk esa tkap djs rks lhËkk vkSj ljy mÙkj feysxk ^ugha*A blesa dksbZ 'kd ugha fd ;g vO;ogkfjd] vuko';d vkSj vokaNuh; gSA blds urhts rfud Hkh ldkjkRed ugha gSa tcfd cqjs ifj.kkeksa dh Hkjekj gSA igyk egRoiw.kZ rF; rks ;g gS vkSj ftldh igys Hkh ppkZ dh tk pqdh gS fd ;gka vkt dh rkjh[k esa dksbZ tula[;k foLQksV ugha gSA Hkkjr fcYdqy lgh rjhds ls tuu{kerk ds ekeys esa laØe.k dky ls xqtj jgk gSA iwjs ns'k esa tula[;k o`f) nj esa yxkrkj fxjkoV gks jgh gS vkSj tUe nj esa Hkh deh vk;h gSA dsjy] rfeyukMq] dukZVd] xksok] vkaËkz izns'k] fgekpy izns'k] fnYyh vkSj iatkc tSls jkT;ksa esa blus izfrLFkkfir Lrj ;k izfrLFkkfir tUe Lrj ds vklikl dh fLFkfr dks ik fy;k gSA nwljh egRoiw.kZ lPpkbZ ;g gS fd orZeku esa tks tula[;k o`f) nj gS og jgsxh ghA bls fu;af=r ugha fd;k tk ldrk pkgs tks Hkh rjhds viuk fy;s tk;saA nks cPpksa ds dkuwu ls Hkh ;g fu;af=r gksus okyk ugha gSA ,slk ml ?kVuk dh otg ls gksuk r; gS ftls ^laosx o`f)* dgk tkrk gSA bldk eryc gqvk fd dqN okks± rd tula[;k esa c+ksÙkjh gksrh jgsxh D;ksafd mPp dqy tUe nj dh otg ls foxr esa dqy tula[;k ds vuqikr esa Hkkjh o`f) gqbZ tks vuqekur% dqy tula[;k dk 58 izfr'kr FkhA bl rjg ml oDr iSnk gq, yksx orZeku esa cPpk iSnk djus dh mez esa gSaA bl cPpk iSnk djus okyh mez esa efgykvksa ds vuqikr dks ns[krs gq, vuqeku gS fd Hkkjr esa 20012026 ds chp tula[;k esa 75 izfr'kr o`f) ^tula[;k laosx* dh otg ls gksxh ¼Mk;lu] dklsu vkSj fclkfj;k ds vuqlkj½A blfy, tSlk fd Åij dgk x;k] bl ij vpkud u jksd yxkbZ tk ldrh gS vkSj u yxkbZ tkuh pkfg,A dbZ jkT;ksa esa ifjokj dks NksVk fd;s tkus ds ckotwn dqN le; rd ;g o`f) tkjh jgsxhA ,slk mu jkT;ksa esa Hkh gksxk ftlus dqy tUe nj ¼VksVy QfVZyhVh jsV½ dk izfrLFkkfir Lrj ik fy;k gSA tula[;k esa ckdh 25 izfr'kr dh o`f) muds }kjk gksxh ftudh vk;q yach gS vkSj ftuds nks ls T;knk cPps gSaA rhljh egRoiw.kZ ckr ;g gS fd nks cPpksa ds dkuwu dks Fkksiuk okLro esa vuko';d gS D;ksafd vfËkdka'k efgyk,a] tks ,dne xjhc vkSj lqnwj xkaoksa esa jgus okyh gSa] os Hkh tks vYila[;d leqnk; ls vkrh gS ;kuh fd os lHkh efgyk;sa tks bl dkuwu ds fu'kkus ij gSa] [kqn pkgrh gSa fd mUgsa de ls de cPps gksaA 199899 esa gq, jkVªh; ifjokj LokLF; losZ{k.k2 ds eqrkfcd tks fL=;ka vfookfgr Fkha xiv
  14. 14. ifjp; muesa ls 47 izfr'kr us dgk fd nks cPps vkn'kZ gSa tcfd 72 izfr'kr efgykvksa us dgk fd os nks ;k rhu cPps iSnk djuk pkgsaxhA blh losZ{k.k esa ;g ckr Hkh lkeus vk;h fd nks cPpksa dh ekrkvksa dk 72 izfr'kr vkSj pkj ;k T;knk cPpksa dh ekrkvksa dk 86 izfr'kr vc vkSj cPpk ugha pkgrh FkhaA vxj ugha pkgus ds ckotwn mUgsa T;knk cPps gSa rks og flQZ blfy, fd mUgsa lqjf{kr vkSj mfpr iztuu lacaËkh LokLF; lsok,a] cPpksa ds thfor cps jgus dh mUur lsok,a vkSj lcls vko';d pht fd cPpk tuus ;k u tuus dk fodYi muds ikl gksA blds fy, t:jh Lora=rk vkSj rkdr iznku djus esa ljdkj vlQy jghA blds foijhr nks cPpksa dk dkuwu vusd cqjs ifj.kkeksa dks tUe nsrk gSA bl ekeys esa flQZ ;g dguk fd ;g Hk;kog gS] dkQh ugha gSA lcls T;knk dV ikus okyksa esa efgyk;sa gSaA csVs dh tcjnLr pkgr j[kus okys bl lekt esa fL=;ka ckjckj xHkZikr djkus dks etcwj gSa tks muds LokLF; dks rckg dj nsrk gSA y{; ikus ds fy, gtkjksagtkj dh la[;k esa caË;kdj.k dks vatke fn;k tkus yxk gSA T;knkrj fL=;ksa dks gh caË;kdj.k ds fy, ckË; fd;k tkrk gSA muds lkFk ;g dke dHkh ykyp nsdj rks dHkh cyiwoZd fd;k tkrk gSA 'kk;n gh muls dHkh lgefr yh tkrh gSA lgh lykg rks dHkh nh gh ugha tkrhA ml ij ls caË;kdj.k dk dke ftl rjhds ls fd;k tkrk gS] ,dne gM+cM+h esa vkSj og Hkh dSai yxkdj tgka u vkWijs'ku ds dke esa t:jh lkoËkkuh dk [;ky j[kk tkrk gS vkSj u vkWijs'ku ds ckn dh lkoËkkuh dkA mlls Hk;kud urhts lkeus vkrs gSaA vkWijs'ku ds ckn efgyk ;k rks jksxxzLr gks tkrh gS ;k ne rksM+ nsrh gSA dqN rks vR;fËkd jDrlzko dh f'kdkj gks tkrh gSaA bl ckr ds Hkh lk{; ekStwn gSa tc NksVh yM+fd;ksa dk Hkh caË;kdj.k dj fn;k x;kA dkxt ij fy[k fn;k x;k fd og 'kknh'kqnk gS vkSj nks cPpksa dh eka gSA ,slk flQZ y{; ikus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA blls Hkh cnrj fLFkfr ;g gS fd tgka flQZ nks cPps iSnk fd;s tk ldrs gSa ogka yksx pkgrs gSa fd de ls de ,d csVk rks vo'; gksA dbZ ckj rks bPNk djrs gSa fd nksuksa csVs gh gksaA ,slh ifjfLFkfr esa os dksbZ dksj dlj ckdh ugha j[krs gSa csVh ds tUe dks jksdus dkA dksbZ vk'p;Z ugha fd oSls jkT;ksa esa tgka nks cPpksa ds fl)kar dks dM+kbZ ls ykxw fd;k x;k gS ogka Hkzw.k dh fyax tkap us ,d rjg ls izFkk dk :i ys fy;k gSA ftlus igys gh ls ekStwn fyaxkuqikr dh vlekurk dks vkSj c+k fn;k gSA yacs le; esa bu lcdk csgn cqjk izHkko lekt ds rkusckus ij iM+rk gS fo'kskdj efgykvksa dh fLFkfr lcls T;knk izHkkfor gksrh gSA vË;;u ls ;g ckr Hkh lkeus vk;h gS fd ifr }kjk iRuh dks NksM+ nsus] cPpksa dks NksM+ nsus ;k fdlh dks xksn nsdj vius ls vyx dj nsus tSlh ?kVukvksa dk lhËkk lacaËk nks cPpksa ds dkuwu ls gSA nwljs Lrj ij] nks ls T;knk cPps gksus ij grksRlkfgr djus tSlh naMkRed dkjZokbZ ds tfj;s xjhcksa] vf'kf{krksa vkSj yxHkx lHkh lqfoËkkghuksa ds izfr HksnHkkoiw.kZ O;ogkj fd;k tkrk gSA izksRlkgu nsuk ;k ugha nsuk vius vki esa mu reke yksxksa ds izfr ftls ;g izHkkfor djrk gS] vuqfpr ,oa vU;k;iw.kZ gSA jkVªh; ifjokj LokLF; losZ{k.k2 ds vuqlkj 1549 ds chp dh iztud vk;q okyh xzkeh.k efgykvksa esa dqy tuu{kerk nj ¼Vh,Qvkj½ 307 gS tcfd 'kgjh bykds esa 227A vuqlwfpr tkfr@vuqlwfpr tutkfr dh efgykvksa esa tuu{kerk nj lcls vfËkd gS tcfd vf'kf{krksa ds chp ;g muls vfËkd gS tks d{kk10 ls vkxs rd i+h gSaA blls LiV gksrk gS fd nks cPpksa ds dkuwu ds fu'kkus ij ;s gh efgyk;sa gSaA pwafd grksRlkfgr djus ds Øe esa nh tkus okyh lqfoËkk,a ;k nku tSls fd jk'ku dkMZ] Ldwy esa nkf[kyk] flapkbZ dh lqfoËkk dks jksdk tkrk gS tks flQZ lqfoËkkghu vkSj oafpr yksxksa dks gh izHkkfor djrs gSaA dksbZ Hkh vkneh bl ckr dks vklkuh ls le ldrk gS fd eË;e oxZ ;k laiUu yksxksa dks ,slh phtksa ls u rks izyksfHkr fd;k tk ldrk gS vkSj u gh Hk; fn[kkdj jksdk tk ldrk gSA muds thou esa bu phtksa dk dksbZ eryc ugha gksrk tks yksx bu phtksa ls izHkkfor gksrs gSa] ogh yksx gSa tks ,d tekus ls HksnHkko vkSj xv
  15. 15. neu ;k l'kfDrdj.k mis{kk sy jgs gSa vkSj ftUgsa iapk;r tSlh tehuh yksdrkaf=d laLFkk ls tksM+dj etcwr djus dh ckr lafoËkku ds 73osa vkSj 74osa la'kksËku esa dh x;h gSA okLro esa nks cPpksa dk dkuwu bl la'kksËku dh vkRek dks ekj nsrk gSA tc flQZ bl vkËkkj ij efgykvksa] ;qokvksa vkSj detksj oxZ ds yksxksa dks jksdk tkrk gS fd mUgsa nks ls T;knk cPps gSaA cgqr jkT;ksa esa nks ls T;knk cPpksa ds ekrkfirk ds pquko yM+us ij izfrcaËk yxkus dh otg gh eq[; :i ls dbZ ckj pqus gq, lnL;ksa dks gVkus dk dkj.k cuk gS tcfd ,d lnL; ds :i esa os dkQh vPNk dke dj jgs gksrs gSaA nks cPpksa ds dkuwu dh voSËkrk mi;qZDr rF;ksa ls ;g LiV gS fd nks cPpksa dk dkuwu HksnHkkoiw.kZ vkSj fujadq'k gS blfy, vlaoSËkkfud Hkh gS vr% bls iwjh rjg [kRe dj nsuk pkfg,A Hkkjr }kjk Lohd`r varjkZVªh; ekud lkFk gh 1994 esa gq, tula[;k vkSj fodkl ij varjkZVªh; lEesyu esa bl ckr dk fu.kZ; fy;k x;k gS fd tula[;k o`f) ds uke ij fdlh Hkh izdkj dh tcjnLrh dh txg fodkl vkSj l'kfDrdj.k dh odkyr dh tk,xh vkSj og Hkh fo'kskdj efgykvksa dsA efgykvksa ds f[kykQ fdlh Hkh izdkj ds HksnHkko ds mUewyu lekSrs ¼lhbMh,MCyw½ dk vuqPNsn16¼1½ efgykvksa dks vfËkdkj nsrk gS fd os cPpksa dh la[;k vkSj nks cPpksa ds chp ds varj dks ysdj Lora=rkiwoZd vkSj tokcnsgh ds lkFk fu.kZ; ysa vkSj lwpuk] f'k{kk vkSj vius vfËkdkj dks ykxw djus ds rjhdksa rd mudh igqap dks lqfuf'pr djrk gSA ukxfjd ,oa jktuhfrd vfËkdkj ij varjkZVªh; ?kksk.kki= dk vuqPNsn17¼1½ izR;sd O;fDr dks mlds futh vkSj ikfjokfjd thou esa fdlh izdkj ds euekus vkSj xSjdkuwuh gLr{ksi ds f[kykQ vfËkdkj nsrk gSA bl izdkj ds vfËkdkj dks pkgs tSls Hkh lw=c) fd;k tk,] ysfdu mldk fØ;kUo;u cPpk iSnk djus dh viuh bPNk dks ljdkjh vfËkdkfj;ksa dks crkus vkSj ljdkjh fglkc ls viuh iztuu{kerk dk bLrseky djus dh ckË;rk iSnk djus dh jkT; 'kfDr dks de dj nsrk gSA cgjgky] ;gka fdlh Hkh ekud dk bLrseky ugha fd;k tk jgk gSA vk'p;Ztud ckr ;g gS fd yksx blds ckjs esa de gh tkurs gSa fd Hkkjr dh jkVªh; tula[;k uhfr esa dgha Hkh ^nks cPps ds fl)kar* dk mYys[k ugha gS cfYd flQZ ^NksVk ifjokj* fy[kk x;k gSA tgka rd ckË;rk dk loky gS rks jkVªh; tula[;k uhfr dh izLrkouk esa LiV :i ls dgk x;k gS ^^iztud LokLF; lqj{kk lsok ysus vk;s ukxfjdksa dh ,sfPNd vkSj lehcwh ilUn vkSj lgefr dks ojh;rk nsus vkSj fcuk y{; fuËkkZfjr fd;s ifjokj fu;kstu lsok ykxw j[kus ds izfr ljdkj ds utfj;s dks jkVªh; tula[;k uhfr 2000 lqfuf'pr djrk gSA** efgykvksa dks mUur LokLF; vkSj iksk.k eqgS;k djkus] f'k'kq LokLF; vkSj mlds thfor cps jgus dh fLFkfr dks csgrj djus vkSj ifjokj fu;kstu lsok,a iznku dj efgykvksa ds l'kfDrdj.k dh egÙkk ij jkVªh; tula[;k uhfr us yxkrkj tksj fn;k gSA izLrkfor tula[;k fLFkjhdj.k dks ikus ds ;s izekf.kr rjhds gSaA var esa fu%lang :i ls dgk tk ldrk gS fd nks cPpksa dk dkuwu ;k bls ykxw djus ds fy;s cuk;h s x;h dksbZ Hkh uhfr ;k foËkku tks yksxksa dks dqN lqfoËkk,a ;k iqjLdkj iznku dj ftlds os vU; rjhds ls Hkh gdnkj gS]a nks ls T;knk cPpk iSnk djus ij izfrcaËk yxkrh gS og HksnHkkoijd] mUgsa detksj djus okyk] tufojksËkh vkSj vyksdrkaf=d gSA lkFk gh ;g dY;k.kdkjh jkT; vkSj lkekftd] vkfFkZd] jktuhfrd U;k; ds laoËkkfud ?kksk.kk ds Hkh f[kykQ gSA blds ckotwn fd loksPp U;k;ky; lfgr iwjh Hkkjrh; U;k;ikfydk S Z dks iwjh nqfu;k dkQh izc) vkSj izxfr'khy ekurh gSA ftls ekuokfËkdkj vkSj varjkZVªh; ekud ds i{k esa q xvi
  16. 16. ifjp; dkQh rRijrk ls [kM+k ekuk tkrk gS fQj Hkh bl lanHkZ esa mudk joS;k tks gS mls ns[kdj ;gh dgk tk ldrk gS fd ;g ,d mnkgj.k gS tks crkrk gS fd Hkkjrh;ksa ds eu esa ;g fl)kar fdruh xgjh iSB cuk pqdk gSA ;g fcMEcuk gh gS fd vkt ukxfjd lekt U;k;ky; tkus ls csgrj ljdkj ij gh Hkjkslk djrk gSA og lerk gS fd ,d fnu ljdkj bls [kRe djsxh ysfdu ljdkj us vHkh rd bls ekSf[kd :i ls rks bls neudkjh ekuk gS vkSj ;g Hkh dgrh gS fd bls can dj nsuk pkfg, ysfdu okLro esa og bls ykxw fd;s j[krh gSA bl chp tks lkËkughu iq#k vkSj efgyk;sa gSa muds ikl blds flok vkSj dksbZ mik; ugha gS fd os U;k; vkSj ekuokfËkdkj ds fy, viuk la?kkZ tkjh j[ksA a Jqfr ikaMs; xvii
  17. 17. v/;k; ,d fo'kskKksa ds vkys[k tula[;k o`f) n tula[;k uhfr tula[;k uhfr;ka vkSj jktuhfrd Hkkxhnkjh n jktuhfrd uhfr;ka vkSj fyaxkuqikr n n
  18. 18. tula[;k % feFkd vkSj lPpkbZ vyekl vyh* eSa bl iz'u ls 'kq#vkr djuk pkgwaxk fd tc ge tula[;k ij ppkZ djrs gSa rks la[;kvksa esa ge bruh vf/kd #fp D;ksa ysrs gSaA fu%lansg] eSa bl ckr ls lger gwa fd la[;k,a ân;xzkgh gksrh gSa vkSj izk;% muds lkFk rFkkdfFkr v[kaMuh; lR; dk cy gksrk gSA fdarq] gekjs ns'k esa tula[;k ls tqM+h la[;kvksa us vR;ar fooknkLin ,oa cgq/kk xyr yksd uhfr;ksa dks tUe fn;k gS ftuds xaHkhj ifj.kke fudyrs gSaA lPpkbZ ;g gS fd Hkkjr dh tula[;k 1951 esa 36 djksM+ ls c+dj 2001 esa 102 djksM+ ls vf/kd gks xbZ gSA ;g tula[;k o`f) jktuhfrKksa] turk ds usrkvksa] iz'kkldksa] ukSdj'kkgksa] fodkl fu;kstdksa] yksd LokLF; fo'kskKksa] tu lkaf[;dh] lekt foKkfu;ksa] 'kks/kdrkZvksa vkSj ;gka rd fd vke turk lfgr izR;sd O;fDr ds fy, fpark dk fpjLFkk;h dkj.k cu xbZ gSA LiV :i ls dgsa rks ,d Hk;xzafFk ¼Qh;j lkbdksfll½ ;k la[;kRed Mj ¼uacj Qksfc;k½ ?kj dj x;k gSA tula[;k laca/kh ppkZ,a fuf'pr rkSj ij bl rjg dh mfDr;ksa elyu ÞHkkjr esa ,d vjc ls vf/kd yksx gSa]ß Þ;g fo'o esa lokZf/kd tula[;k okyk nwljk ns'k gS]ß ÞfudV Hkfo; esa ;g phu dks iNkM+dj fo'o esa lokZf/kd tula[;k okyk ns'k cu tk,xkß] ;k vR;f/kd xjhch] izfr O;fDr de vk; vkSj /kheh vkfFkZd o`f) dk dkj.k Hkkjr dh c+rh vkcknh gSß ls 'kq: gksrh gSaA vfu;af=r tula[;k foLQksV ns'k dh cfy dk cdjk cu x;k gS rFkk Hkkjr dh izxfr] vkfFkZd o`f) vkSj fodkl esa #dkoV Mkyus ds fy, bls iwjh rjg ls ftEesokj eku fy;k x;k gSA igyk iz'u ftldk mÙkj nsuk vfuok;Z gS] og ;g gS fd D;k Hkkjr esa oLrqr% dksbZ tula[;k foLQksV gS Hkh ;k ugha gS D;k tula[;k okLro esa Hk;kog nj ls vkxs c+ jgh gS ÞmÙkj lh/kk lk gS] ughaA fQj Hkh] ;g LiV mÙkj Lo;a gh fdlh dks ;dhu fnykus ds fy, i;kZIr ugha gSA ewyHkwr eqíksa dks leus ds fy, gesa dbZ vU; iz'u iwNus gksaxs vkSj muds mÙkj nsus gksaxsA ge bldh 'kq#vkr tula[;k o`f) ds eqís ls djrs gSa tks ,d izkd`frd ?kVuk gS rFkk fo'o ds izR;sd {ks= esa ?kfVr gqbZ gS % Hkkjr dksbZ viokn ugha gSA tula[;k o`f) dks laØe.k dh ,d fodklkRed izfØ;k ds :i esa n'kkZ;k x;k gS tks rhu pj.kksa esa gksrh gSA igys pj.k esa] vf/kd tUe vkSj xHkZ/kkj.k njksa ds lkFklkFk vf/kd e`R;q njsa Hkh gksrh gSaA nwljs pj.k esa vf/kd tUe vkSj xHkZ/kkj.k njsa csyxke tkjh jgrh gSa] fdarq dbZ dkjdksa ds dkj.k e`R;q njksa esa Hkkjh fxjkoV vkrh gS ftlds ifj.kkeLo:i LokHkkfod :i ls vf/kd tula[;k o`f) gksrh gSA bl pj.k ds nkSjku vkfFkZd vkSj HkkSfrd izxfr] efgykvksa ds l'kfDrdj.k * vyekl vyh ofjB tu LokLFk fo'kskK vkSj ikWiqys'ku QkmaMs'ku vkWo bafM;k ds ofjB lykgdkj gaS
  19. 19. neu ;k l'kfDrdj.k rFkk xHkZfujks/kdksa dh vf/kd miyC/krk esa mUufr ds dkj.k tUenj esa /khjs/khjs fxjkoV vkus yxrh gSA rRi'pkr cM+h rsth ls rhljk pj.k vkrk gS ftlesa tUe vkSj e`R;q njsa cjkcj gksrh gSa vkSj ,d ckj iqu% ^fuEu larqyu* gkfly gksrk gSA ;g pØ] ftls tulkaf[;dh laØe.k ds :i esa tkuk tkrk gS] lHkh tula[;kvksa esa ?kfVr gksrk gSA tulkaf[;dh laØe.k ds pj.k igyk pj.k vf/kd tUe nj vkSj vf/kd e`R;qnj ¼mPp larqyu½ nwljk pj.k vf/kd tUe nj vkSj de e`R;qnj ¼LokHkkfod o`f) dh vf/kd nj½ rhljk pj.k de tUe nj vkSj de e`R;qnj ¼fuEu larqyu½ gesa tulkaf[;dh laØe.kksa ds nwljs pj.k ij ckjhdh ls xkSj djuk pkfg, tks e`R;q njksa esa rhoz fxjkoV ds dkj.k LokHkkfod o`f) dh mPp njsa n'kkZrk gS tcfd tUe njsa 'kq#vkrh mPp Lrjksa ij gh cuh jgrh gSaA ;g nwljk pj.k 20oha 'krkCnh ds mÙkjk)Z esa fo'o dh csfelky tulkaf[;dh o`f) n'kkZrk gS % fo'o dh tula[;k 40 okks± ls de le; esa ¼1960 ls 1999 rd½ 3 vjc ls nksxquh gksdj 6 vjc gks xbZ rFkk egt 12 okks± esa ¼1987 ls 1999 rd½ c+dj 5 ls 6 vjc gks xbZA bls Ms+ vjc ls nksxquk ;kuh fd 3 vjc gksus esa pkj xquk le; yxk rFkk 1 vjc igqapus esa yxHkx ,d gtkj okZ yxsA f}rh; fo'o ;q) ds ckn gksus okyh csfelky o`f) nj vxM+s ns'kksa esa fpfdRlk miyfC/k;ksa ds dkj.k e`R;q njksa esa vpkud vkbZ fxjkoV rFkk vk/kqfud fpfdRlk esa bu miyfC/k;ksa dks cgqr de ykxr ij fodkl'khy ns'kksa esa nqgjkus dh ;ksX;rk dk ifj.kke FkhA chekfj;ksa vkSj egkekfj;ksa dks fu;af=r djus dh tkudkjh ls lqlfTtr mPp larqyu ij fLFkj o`f) okys fodkl'khy ns'kksa esa e`R;q njksa esa vpkud fxjkoV vkbZ] tcfd tUe njsa ogh jgha rFkk vk/kqfud fpfdRlk esa bu miyfC/k;ksa dks cgqr de ykxr ij fodkl'khy ns'kksa esa nqgjkus dh ;ksX;rk dk ifj.kke FkhA blls Hkkjr lfgr dbZ ns'kksa esa vHkwriwoZ mPp Lrj dh LokHkkfod o`f) gqbZA vktknh ds ckn ls Hkkjr esa e`R;qnj esa rsth ls fxjkoV vkuh 'kq: gqbZ tcfd bldh tUe nj mPp cuh jgh ftlds ifj.kkeLo:i 1961 ls 1981 rd rhoz tula[;k o`f) dk nkSj vk;kA lkj.kh1 tulkaf[;dh laØe.k ds fl)kar dks cgqr lgh :i esa n'kkZrh gS tks LiV djrh gS fd fLFkj tula[;k] mPp o`f) nj vkSj rhoz o`f) nj ds pj.kksa ls xqtjus ds ckn n'kdh; o`f) nj esa fxjkoV vkuh 'kq: gksrh gSA tSlk fd lkj.kh1 esa ns[kk tk ldrk gS] 1951 esa Hkkjr dh dqy tula[;k 36 djksM+ ls FkksM+h gh vf/kd FkhA rRi'pkr~ 1961 esa ;g tula[;k c+dj 44 djksM+ rFkk 1971 esa yxHkx 55 djksM+ gks xbZA 1961 ls 1971 rd dh vof/k esa lekuq:i vkSlr okfkZd izfrfuf/kdkjh 2-22 dh o`f) nj rFkk yxHkx 11 djksM+ dh iw.kZ o`f) ds lkFk 24-8 izfr'kr dh vc rd dh lcls vf/kd n'kdh; o`f) nj ntZ dh xbZA 1971 ls 1981 rd dh vof/k esa 196171 esa 24-8 izfr'kr dh n'kdh; o`f) nj ds eqdkcys 197181 esa 24-6 izfr'kr rd dh o`f) ntZ dh x;h tks fiNys n'kd dh rqyuk esa ekewyh :i ls gh de gSA 1981 ds ckn] tula[;k o`f) nj ¼n'kdh; o`f) nj vkSj vkSlr okfkZd izfrfuf/kdkjh o`f) nj nksuksa½ esa Hkkjh deh vkbZA fiNys 20 okks± esa] n'kdh; o`f) nj vkSj okfkZd vkSlr izfrfuf/kdkjh o`f) njsa 24-6 izfr'kr rFkk 2-22 ¼197181½ ls ?kVdj 23-9 izfr'kr vkSj 2-14 ¼198191½ rFkk 21-3 izfr'kr vkSj 1-93 ¼19912001½ gks xbZ gSaA okLro esa] 19912001 dh vof/k ds nkSjku Hkkjr us vktknh ds ckn ls n'kdh; o`f) nj esa lcls rst fxjkoV ntZ dhA 4
  20. 20. tula[;k o`f) rkfydk1 Hkkjr esa tulkaf[;dh laØe.k okZ dqy tula[;k ¼djksM+ esa½ iw.kZ o`f) ¼djksM+ esa½ n'kdh; o`f) nj vkSlr okfkZd izfrfuf/kdkjh o`f) njsa tulkaf[;dh laØe.k ds pj.k 190151 2336 13 fLFkj tula[;k ¼izFke pj.k½ 195161 3644 8 $21-6 1-96 mPp o`f) nj ¼f}rh; pj.k½ 196171 4455 11 $24-8 2-22 197181 5568 13 $24-6 2-20 rhoz mPp o`f) nj ¼f}rh; pj.k½ 198191 6884 16 $23-9 2-14 199101 84102 18 $21-3 1-93 iztuu nj esa LiV fxjkoV ds lkFk mPp o`f) ¼r`rh; pj.k½ tSlk fd Åij crk;k x;k gS] Hkkjr dh tula[;k o`f) nj vkSj dqy xHkZ/kkj.k nj ¼Vh,Qvkj½ esa foxr nks n'kkfCn;ksa ls n`rkiwod fxjkoV vk jgh gSA okZ 1951 esa ,d efgyk ds vkSlru N% ls vf/kd cPps gksrs + Z Fks ¼rFkkfi muesa ls dbZ tYnh gh ej tkrs Fks½ % vkt ;g vkSlr rhu ls FkksMk T;knk gSA rduhdh 'kCnksa + es]a 2001 rd dqy xHkZ/kkj.k nj 6 ls ?kVdj 3-2 gks xbZ FkhA vc yksxksa ds vis{kkd`r de cPps gksrs gSa vkSj T;knkrj yksx NksVk ifjokj pkgrs gSA blds vykok] 2001 dh tux.kuk n'kkZrh gS vktknh ds ckn ls Hkkjr esa a fd Ng okZ dh vk;q ls de ds cPpksa ds vuqikr esa Hkh deh vkbZ e`R;qnj esa rsth ls fxjkoV vkuh 'kq: gqbZ tcfd bldh gS] tks xHkZ/kkj.k esa fxjkoV n'kkZrh gSA vki iwN ldrs gSa fd blds ckotwn vkf[kj D;ksa la[;kvksa tUe nj mPp cuh jghA esa dqy o`f) vf/kd izrhr gksrh gSA okZ 1951 ls 81 rd ifj.kkeLo:i rhoz tula[;k xHkZ/kkj.k vkSj e`R;qnj ds #kukas us ns'k dh tula[;k mez kaps o`f) dk nkSj vk;k dks bl rjg ls +ky fn;k gS fd blesa ,d Hkkjh var%fufeZr o`f) dh laHkkouk gSA nwljs 'kCnksa esa] vius çkjafHkd iztuudkjh okks± esa yksxksa dh la[;k esa o`f) gqbZ gSA mnkgj.k ds fy, Hkkjr esa ,sls ;qokvksa dh la[;k vf/kd gS ¼yxHkx 60 izfr'kr½ tks iztuudkjh vk;q oxZ esa gSa ;k tYnh gh gks tk,axsA ;fn ;g 60 izfr'kr dh vkcknh izfr ;qxy vis{kkd`r de cPps Hkh iSnk djsa rks la[;k esa ifjek.k o`f) vf/kd cuh jgsxh] D;ksafd iztuudkjh ;qxyksa dh la[;k vf/kd gSA bl rjg tUe nj rc Hkh vf/kd gksxh] pkgs Vh,Qvkj de gksA iqjkuh ihf+;ksa ds fy, e`R;q njksa esa lq/kkj vkSj thoueku esa o`f) Hkh tulkaf[;dh lkfgR; esa tula[;k xfr ds fy, of.kZr bl var%fufeZr o`f) izo`fÙk esa b±/ku dk dke djrh gSA dqN vuqekuksa ds vuqlkj] 19912001 dh vof/k ds nkSjku] tula[;k o`f) dk vuqikr ftldk Js; tula[;kj¶rkj dks fn;k tk ldrk gS] yxHkx 70 izfr'kr Fkk] tcfd vokaNuh; xHkZ/kkj.k dk ;ksxnku yxHkx 25 izfr'kr Fkk] dsoy 5 ls 6 izfr'kr dh tula[;k o`f) ,sls ;qxyksa ds dkj.k Fkh tks T;knk cPps iSnk djuk pkgrs FksA ;gka rd fd ;fn ge xHkZ/kkj.k njksa dks rRdky 2-1 ds izfrLFkkiu 5
  21. 21. neu ;k l'kfDrdj.k Lrj rd yk ldsa] e`R;q njksa dks dk;e j[k ldssa vkSj 'kwU; izoklu lqfuf'pr dj ldsa rks Hkh fudV Hkfo; esa iw.kZr% Hk;kud tula[;k o`f) gksxhA ;g izo`fÙk Hkkjrh; tula[;k esa ;qok yksxksa dh Hkkjh rknkn ds dkj.k vxyh dqN n'kkfCn;ksa rd tkjh jgsxhA blls iwoZ fd gesa de gksrh xHkZ/kkj.k nj ds LiV ifj.kke fn[kkbZ iM+s] blesa dqN le; yxsxkA vU; 'kCnksa esa] Hkkjr ,d rst j¶rkj ls pyrh gqbZ jsyxkM+h dh rjg gS ftlds czsd vHkhvHkh yxk, x, gSa] pwafd ;g cgqr Hkkjh gS rFkk cgqr rst xfr ls py jgh gS] okLrfod Bgjko vkus esa blesa le; yxsxkA /;ku nsus ;ksX; egRoiw.kZ ckr ;g gS fd czsd okLro esa yxk, tk pqds gSaA tula[;k o`f) % ikap feFkd vkSj lPpkb;ka feFkd 1 % Hkkjr dh tula[;k blfy, c+ jgh gS D;ksafd vf'kf{kr xzkeh.k xjhc bl le; 50 okZ igys dh rqyuk esa T;knk cPps iSnk dj jgs gSa] tcfd f'kf{kr vkSj 'kgjh e/;e oxZ vius ifjokj ds vkdkj dks fu;a=.k esa j[krk gSA lPpkbZ % ifjokj dk vkdkj xzkeh.k vkSj 'kgjh vkcknh rFkk xjhc ,oa e/; oxZ lfgr lHkh lkekftd lewgksa esa ?kV jgk gSA xzkeh.k vkSj 'kgjh ifjokjksa ds ikl bl le; fiNys okZ dh rqyuk esa yxHkx 44 izfr'kr de cPps gSaA ;fn xzkeh.k vkSj 'kgjh Vh,Qvkj dh rqyuk dh tk, rks 30 okZ igys dh rqyuk esa xzkeh.k efgykvksa ds ikl 2-1 ¼1970 esa 56] 1999 esa 3-5½ de cPps gSa] tcfd 'kgjh efgykvksa ds ikl mlh vof/k esa 1-7 ¼1970 esa 4-1] 1999 esa 2-4½ de cPps gSaA feFkd 2 % xjhc yksx T;knk cPps iSnk djrs gSa D;ksafd os ifjokj fu;kstu ds Qk;ns ugha lersA lPpkbZ % xjhc ifjokjksa esa ifjokj fu;kstu viukus dh rhoz bPNk gksrh gS] fdarq os ,slk ugha dj ikrs D;ksafd xHkZfujks/kd rjhdksa dk mi;ksx djus ds fy, muds ikl igqap ;k foÙkh; lalk/kuksa dh deh gksrh gSA dqN jkT;ksa esa 25 izfr'kr rd xHkZfujks/kd dh t:jr dks iwjk ugha fd;k x;kA feFkd 3 % vktknh ds ckn ls Hkkjr dh tula[;k o`f) us ns'k ds [kk| mRiknu dks iNkM+ fn;k gSA lPpkbZ % vktknh ls ysdj okZ 2001 rd [kk| mRiknu us oLrqr% tula[;k o`f) dks ihNs NksM+ fn;k gSA tcfd tula[;k 1951 esa 36 djksM+ ls rhu xquh gksdj 2001 esa 102 djksM+ gks xbZ gS] [kk| mRiknu 1951 esa 50 fefy;u ehfVªd Vu ls pkSxquk gksdj 2001 esa 200 fefy;u ehfVªd Vu gks x;k gSA feFkd 4 % tula[;k fLFkjhdj.k gkfly djus dk ljdkj ds fy, lcls vljnkj rjhdk gS fd og nks cPpksa ds dkuwu tks phu ds ,d cPpkuhfr ds leku gS] dks ykxw djus tSls dBksj ,oa izHkko'kkyh mik; viuk,A lPpkbZ % ;g lgh gS fd phu dks viuh tula[;k o`f) de djus esa Hkkjh lQyrk gkfly gqbZ gS ysfdu nf{k.k Hkkjrh; jkT; dsjy us neudkjh mik; dk lgkjk fy, fcuk viuh tula[;k o`f) nj de djus esa vkSj Hkh vf/kd lQyrk gkfly dh gSA phu dk Vh,Qvkj 1979 esa 2-8 Fkk tks 1991 esa ?kVdj 2-0 gks x;k] dsjy dk Vh,Qvkj 1979 esa 3-0 Fkk tks 1991 esa ?kVdj 1-8 gks x;kA ;g Hkh iw.kZ :i ls LiV ugha gS fd phu dh xHkZ/kkj.k nj esa bruh deh dk Js; ,dcPpk uhfr dks fn;k tk ldrk gSA phu dh tula[;k o`f) esa ukVdh; deh eq[;r% 1970 vkSj 1979 ds chp vkbZ vkSj oLrqr% bldk vk/kkj mu lq/kkjksa esa Fkk tks lkE;oknh Økafr ds ckn fdarq blds ,d cPpk uhfr ds ykxw fd, tkus ds igys ?kfVr gq, tSls fd vFkZO;oLFkk] efgykvksa dh fLFkfr vkSj f'k{kk esa lq/kkjA 6
  22. 22. tula[;k o`f) feFkd 5 % nks cPpksa dk dkuwu u dsoy tula[;k fu;af=r djus esa vkSj fodkl iz;klksa ds fy, mi;ksxh gS cfYd efgykvksa ds LokLF; ds fy, Hkh ;g ldkjkRed gSA lPpkbZ % nks cPpksa ds dkuwu dks iq= dh pkgr ds lanHkZ esa j[kdj lek tkuk pkfg, tks Hkkjrh; lekt dh ,d vke fo'kskrk gSA nks cPpksa dk dkuwu ykxw fd, tkus ls fyax p;u ;k tUe iwoZ uSnkfud fyax fu/kkZj.k ds fy, izks|ksfxfd;ksa dk O;kid nq#i;ksx gksxk tks L=h Hkzw.kksa ds fyax p;udkjh xHkZikrksa dks tUe nsxkA ;g dgus dh vko';drk ugha fd lkekftd nckoksa ds dkj.k ckjckj gksus okys xHkZikr dh otg ls efgyk;sa LiV:i ls LokLF; laca/kh tksf[ke mBkrh gSaA fudkZ % eSa ;g dgrs gq, ckr lekIr djuk pkgwaxk fd tula[;k fLFkjhdj.k dksbZ rduhdh leL;k ugha gS ftlds fy, fdlh rduhdh fDodfQDl ?kksy dh vko';drk gSA ca/;kdj.k Fkksius vkSj y{;ksa ds ihNs Hkkxus esa Hkh bldk lek/kku ugha gSA vc geus ;g irk yxk fy;k gS fd tula[;k fLFkjhdj.k dk LiV ekxZ lkekftd fodkl] efgykvksa ds l'kfDrdj.k rFkk vkSj T;knk fyax lekurk ls gksdj xqtjrk gSA fo'kskdj] efgyk l'kfDrdj.k ekuo fodkl ds fy, egRoiw.kZ gSA xq.koÙkk;qDr LokLF; lqj{kk rd yksxksa dh igqap esa lq/kkj ykuk fo'kskdj efgykvksa ds fy, vfuok;Z vkikr izlwfr laca/kh lqj{kk lk/kuksa esa lq/kkj djuk Hkh egRoiw.kZ gSA ,sls dk;ZØeksa dk foLrkj ,oa izlkj fd;k tkuk pkfg, tks vke turk dks xHkZfujks/kd lqyHk djkrs gksa rFkk leqnk; vk/kkfjr LokLF;dk;ZØeksa esa Hkh ubZ tku Qwadh tkuh pkfg,A tula[;k j¶rkj ds fu.kkZ;d egRo dks ns[krs gq, tks fudV Hkfo; esa tula[;k o`f) lqfuf'pr djrk gS] yksxksa dks nks ;k de cPps iSnk djus ds fy, etcwj djus gsrq nks cPpksa dk dkuwu ykxw djuk] o`f) nj ?kVkus esa csrqdk ,oa fuizHkkoh nksuksa gks ldrk gSA okLro esa] tula[;k j¶rkj dks de djus dk ,dek= lokZf/kd dkjxj rjhdk 'kknh] fo'kskdj yM+fd;ksa ds fy, lalxZ dh mez esa o`f) djuk gSA ,d yM+dh ds Ldwy esa i+us ds okks± dh la[;k esa o`f) djuk ml y{; dks gkfly djus dk ,d rjhdk gSA lkekU; rkSj ij] ,slh egRoiw.kZ uhfr;ksa dks viukus ls tks efgykvksa dk xHkZ/kkj.k djus esa nsjh ds izfr izksRlkfgr djrh gksa] ihf+;ksa ds chp esa le; dk varjky c+sxk tks tula[;k j¶rkj dks de dj ldrk gSA ;wih, ljdkj dk U;wure lkk dk;ZØe ¼lh,eih½ ,d cgqr gh izxfr'khy nLrkost gSA fdarq blds mica/kksa esa ,d iafDr gS] fd Þvf/kd xHkZ/kkj.k okys 150 ftyksa esa ,d rhoz yf{kr tula[;k fu;a=.k dk;ZØe 'kq: fd;k tk,xkAß ;g iqu% ,d ,sls ns'k dh lksp dks izfrfcafcr djrk gS tks fo'okl djrk gS fd mlds ;gka tula[;k laca/kh leL;k gS] tks okLro esa ,d fparktud izo`fÙk gSA iztuudkjh ,oa cky LokLF; ¼vkjlh,p½ dk;ZØe egRoiw.kZ kapkxr ,oa nh?kZdkfyd izHkko ntZ djk jgs gSa vkSj bl ckr dks ns[krs gq,] Hkkjrh; vuqHko lkekftd fodkl ds n`fVdks.k esa ifjorZu dh vuqefr ugha nsrk gSA tkx:drk iSnk djus] izseiwoZd ekuus vkSj LoSfPNd fu.kZ; ysus ds iz;klksa dks tksjtcjnLrh ls vyx djus ds chp Hkh cgqr iryh js[kk fn[kkbZ nsrh gSA ;fn bls Bhd ax ls gSaMy ugha fd;k tkrk gS rks ;g nks cPpksa ds dkuwu dks tUe nsrk gS ftlls var esa fyax p;u vkSj efgyk Hkzw.kksa ds fyax p;udkjh xHkZikr ds igys ls gh O;kid izpyuksa esa vkSj vf/kd btkQk gksxk] tks 06 okZ ds vk;q oxZ esa fyax vuqikr dks fcxkM+ jgk gSA nks cPpksa ds dkuwu dks viukus dk ,d vU; laHkkfor ifj.kke ;g gS fd LokLF;dehZ iqu% ifjokj fu;kstu y{;ksa vkSj lkef;d xHkZfujks/k dk;Z esa iwoZO;Lr gks ldrs gSa vkSj bl izfØ;k esa vkjlh,p dh nks izeq[k fo'kskrkvksa % efgykvksa ds LokLF; ls tqMh lsokvksa vkSj xq.koÙkk;qDr + ns[kHkky dks utjvankt dj ldrs gSA a 7
  23. 23. tux.kuk vkSj lkaiznkf;drk pk# xqIrk * eSa bl eqís dks mBkuk pkgwaxh fd tula[;k vkSj tux.kuk dh jktuhfr dks fganw lkaiznkf;d rkdrksa }kjk /kkfeZd vYila[;dksa fo'kskdj eqlyekuksa dks fu'kkuk cukus ds fy, rksM+kejksM+k x;k gSA nks cPpksa ds dkuwu ¼Vhlh,u½ dks ykxw djds ge vrhr dh xyfr;ksa dks nqgjk jgs gSa flok, bl ckr ds fd bl ckj ljdkj gS tks /kkfeZd vYila[;dksa] xjhcksa] fuEu tkfr ds O;fDr;ksa vkSj tutkfr;kas lfgr /kkfeZd vYila[;dksa dks fu'kkuk cuk jgh gSA igyh Hkkjrh; tux.kuk 1871 esa gqbZ vkSj vU; /kkfeZd lewgksa dh rqyuk esa fganqvksa dh la[;k dk vkdyu djus ds fy, fganw lkaiznkf;d rkdrksa ds fy, ;g ,d egRoiw.kZ gfFk;kj cu xbZA ;g u dsoy tux.kuk ds fy, gfFk;kj cuh cfYd rqyuk ds fy, HkhA tula[;k vkSj tux.kuk dh :f+oknh rkdrksa us ,sfrgkfld :i ls bldk bLrseky jktuhfr dks fganw lkaiznkf;d tula[;k laca/kh feFkd iSnk djus ;k mls dk;e j[kus tks a ls /;ku V nsA rkdrksa }kjk vYila[;dksa ds fy, fd;k gS tc laokLrfod eqíkso`f) gksrh gScarksk de mnkgj.k ds fy, iznk;okn esa dks fu'kkuk cukus ds fy, gksrh fganw tula[;k vkSj c+rh gqbZ eqfLye tula[;k dk rksM+kejksM+k x;k gS feFkd viuk flj mBkrs gSaA okZ 1920 ds n'kd esa fganqvksa dk laj{k.k vkSj vkRej{k.k]1 fganw ds lkFk fo'okl?kkr2 3 vkSj fganqvksa dh ?kVrh la[;k ij fpark tSls 'khkZdksa okys ijps Hkkjh la[;k esa forfjr fd, x,A blds lkFk gh vU; ijps c+rh gqbZ eqfLye tula[;k dk jksuk jks jgs FksA okZ 1925 esa Lokeh J)kuan bl ckr ij cy nsuk pkgrs Fks fd fganw tula[;k de gks jgh gS vkSj eqfLye tula[;k c+ jgh gSA mUgksaus ,slk djus ds fy, tula[;k laca/kh vkadM+ksa esa gsjQsj fd;k vkSj bls rksM+kejksM+kA fczfV'k mifuos'kh; vf/kdkjh Hkh bl rdZ dks gte dj x, vkSj Vdjko dks c+kok fn;kA okZ 1925 esa txnxq# 'kadjkpk;Z rd us ;g c;ku fn;k fd bDdloha 'krkCnh rd fganw iw.kZ :i ls [kRe gks tk,axsA fganw egklHkk ds Hkh fofHkUu izdk'ku gSa tks ;g dgrs gSa Þos ¼eqlyeku½ viuh miyfC/k;ka fxukrs gSa] ge ¼fganw½ vius * pk# xqIrk bfrgkldkj gSa vkSj tokgjyky usg: ;wfuoflZVh] u;h fnYyh esa i+krh gSa 1 vaxzsth vuqokn% datjos'ku ,aM lsYQ fiztjos'ku vkWo fgUnwt 2 vaxzsth vuqokn% fgUnwt gSo chu fcVªs;M 3 vaxzsth vuqokn% daluZ vckmV n fMDykbfuax fgUnw ikWiqys'ku
  24. 24. tula[;k o`f) uqdlku fxukrs gSaAß ifj.kkeLo:i] la[;kRed 'kfDr dk fopkj lkaiznkf;d psruk esa Mqcks fn;k x;k gS vkSj fganw lkaiznkf;d igpku dks fLFkj cuk, j[kus ds fy, ;g vko';d gks x;k gSA fyax vkSj ySafxdrk ds lanHkZ esa Hkh blds xaHkhj fufgrkFkZ jgs gSa tks ,sfrgkfld vkadM+ksa ds ,d NksVs ls mnkgj.k ls iznf'kZr gksxkA ;fn ge mÙkj Hkkjr esa fo/kokvksa ds iqufoZokg ls lacaf/kr cglksa ij xkSj djsa rks ge ns[k ldrs gSa fd 1920 ds n'kd esa ,d egRoiw.kZ cnyko vk;kA ml le;] fo'okl ;g Fkk fd vf/kd xHkZ/kkj.k {kerk vkSj laHkksx dh Hkw[k ls fo'kky eqfLye vkcknh vfLrRo esa vk;hA leku :i ls] mPp tkfr dh fganw fo/kokvksa ds ckjs esa Hkh O;kid fpark O;kIr Fkh tks eqfLye iq#kksa ds lkFk Hkkx tkrh Fkha rFkk eqfLye cPpksa dks tUe nsrh Fkha ftlls eqfLye vkcknh ds c+us esa enn feyrh FkhA bu fparkvksa us varr% ,d vfHk;ku dks tUe fn;k ftlus fganw iq#kksa dks fganw fo/kokvksa ls fo'kskdj mPp tkfr dh fganw fo/kokvksa ls 'kknh djus dks izksRlkfgr fd;k ftlls ;g lqfuf'pr fd;k tk lds fd mudh iztuudkjh {kerkvksa ls eqfLye vkcknh dh txg fganw vkcknh esa o`f) gksA bl izdkj] fo/kokvksa dks iqufoZokg djus dh vuqefr nsus dh 'kq#vkrh mnkj izLrkouk muds iztuudkjh {kerkvksa dks fu;af=r djus ds iz;kl esa foQy gks xbZA ogh pht vkt nks cPpksa ds dkuwu ds :i esa ?kfVr gks jgh gS tks efgykvksa] eq[;r;k xjhc] fuEu tkfr;ksa vkSj eqfLyeksa dh iztuudkjh {kerkvksa dks fu;af=r djus ds fy, tksjtcjnLrh okys mik;ksa ,oa y{;ksa dk bLrseky djrh gSA tux.kuk ds laca/k esa fganw dêjiaFkh rkdrksa }kjk lkeus j[kh xbZ iwjh okrkZ us igpkuksa dh cgqyrk dks uV dj fn;k rFkk ,d de gksrh fganw tula[;k ds feFkd dks gok nh vkSj mls dk;e j[kkA bfrgkl us gesa tula[;k laca/kh ,sls feFkdksa dh rkdr fn[kkbZ gSA ,sls feFkd vf/kla[; fganw lekt dks ;g ;dhu fnykus esa lQy jgs fd okLro esa ;g ,d ladVkiUu /kkfeZd vYila[;d leqnk; gS] bl rF; ds ckotwn fd ,sfrgkfld] lkaf[;dh; ,oa vU; vuqHkotfur lk{;ksa us mudk [kaMu fd;kA vkt] ge blh rjg dk ,d tula[;k laca/kh feFkd dke djrk gqvk ns[krs gSa] ;|fi tula[;k o`f) dk orZeku feFkd u dsoy xjhcksa cfYd /kkfeZd vYila[;dksa] nfyrksa vkSj efgykvksa dks Hkh nkskh Bgjkrk gSA nks cPpksa ds dkuwu us bu oxks± dks fu'kkuk cuk;k gS D;ksafd ;g O;kid rkSj ij fo'okl fd;k tkrk gS fd muesa lokZf/kd xHkZ/kkj.k {kerk nj gS vkSj blfy,] mUgsa l[r fu;a=.k esa j[kus dh vko';drk gSA 9
  25. 25. Hkkjrh; tula[;k uhfr % ,d i;kZoyksdu ,vkj uank* l jdkj esa dke djus ds vius vuqHko dh otg ls eSa tkurk gwa fd tc Hkkjr ljdkj us jkVªh; tula[;k uhfr cuk;h rks ;g turk dh t:jrksa vkSj ljdkj }kjk mls iwjk djus dh lgwfy;rksa dk vPNk lfEeJ.k FkkA bl uhfr dks viukuk ,d fodkloknh çfØ;k FkhA laln esa bl ij tedj cgl pyh Fkh vkSj ml le; tks Hkh jktuhfrd ny ekStwn Fks mu lcds chp ,d vkilh lgefr Hkh cu xbZ FkhA jkT; ljdkjksa vkSj {ks=ksa esa dke dj jgs fo'kskKksa us bldh tkapij[k Hkh dh FkhA tula[;k fLFkjhdj.k dh dksf'k'k vkSj iapokhZ; fodkl ;kstukvksa dh 'kq#vkr 195152 esa gqbZA okZ 1952 esa tks igyh tula[;k uhfr 'kq: gqbZ og Fkh jkVªh; ifjokj fu;kstu dk;ZØeA bl rjg Hkkjr bl uhfr dks ?kksfkr djus okyk igyk ns'k cukA okLro esa jkVªh; ifjokj fu;kstu dk;ZØe ls 1950 ds n'kd esa dE;qfuLV Økafr ds ckn phu us cgqr dqN fy;k ysfdu ekvks ;qx esa bls fcYdqy fHkUu rjhds ls viuk;k x;kA tula[;k leL;k dks gy djus ds fy, ogka U;k;laxr lkekftd fodkl ds jkLrs vf[r;kj fd, x,A mls bl rjg ykxw fd;k x;k tSls fd vkcknh ns'k dh lcls cM+h laifÙk gSA bl lksp ds rgr gh lkekftd fodkl ds cgqr lkjs fgrdkjh rjhds viuk, x,A ,dne 'kq#vkr ls gh tSlk fd ge ns[krs gSa fd tgka phu us viuh turk dks laifÙk lek ogha Hkkjr us mls cks dh rjg ns[kkA Hkkjr vkSj phu ds utfj, esa ;gh ewyHkwr varj gSA bl ckr dks ysdj [kwc cglsa gksrh gSa fd Hkkjr dks phuh rjhds viukus pkfg, ;k ughaA ,slk ugha gS fd 1979 esa vpkud ,d cPps dk fl)kar ykxw dj phu us leL;k dk gy fudky fy;kA mlds igys 1949 ls 79 rd phu us U;k;laxr lkekftd fodkl ds rjhds dks viuk;k tks ,d tuoknh utfj;k FkkA Hkkjr esa ,slk yxrk gS fd geus bl volj dks xaok;k gSA vxj ge lpeqp phu dk vuqdj.k ;k vuqlj.k djuk pkgrs gSa rks gesa lkekftd fodkl ds rjhds viukus gksaxs ftlus phuh tula[;k dks c+us ls jksd j[kk gSA lkFk gh bl ckr dks Hkh fnekx esa j[kuk gksxk fd Hkkjr ,d yksdrkaf=d ns'k gS blfy, gekjk utfj;k phu ls tjk fHkUu gksxk vkSj tks yksdra= dh 'krks± ds vuq:i gksxkA Hkkjr esa ,d 'khkZ desVh cukbZ xbZ Fkh ftls ifjokj fu;kstu 'kks/k ,oa vk;kstu desVh dgk x;kA tqykbZ 1953 esa bl desVh dh igyh cSBd eqcbZ esa gqbZA desVh us ifjokj fu;kstu ds fy, dkQh O;kid a * ys[kd Hkkjrh; tula[;k laLFkku ds dk;Zdkjh funs'kd gSaA blds igys og Hkkjr ljdkj ds ifjokj dY;k.k foHkkx ds lfpo Fks vkSj Hkkjr ds egkiath;d Hkh jg pqds gSa
  26. 26. tula[;k uhfr vkSj LiV utfj;k viuk;k vkSj lqko fn;k fd ifjokj fu;kstu dks tUe nj fu;a=.k ;k nks cPpksa ds chp varj tSlh rax lksp esa ifjHkkfkr ugha fd;k tkuk pkfg,A desVh us cgqr lkjs lqko fn, ftlesa ;kSu f'k{kk ds fy, ns'kHkj esa ifjokj fu;kstu dsanz [kksyus dk Hkh lqko 'kkfey FkkA vU; lqko ftu eqíksa dks ysdj Fks os Fks fookg ijke'kZ] oSokfgd LokLF;] ;kstukc) iSr`d vkSj xSjtuu {kerkA xSjtuu{kerk dks eqík blfy, cuk;k x;k D;ksafd bls tuu{kerk fu;a=.k ds lkFk tksM+dj ns[kk x;k FkkA bu lc ij fopkj izdV djrs gq, desVh us 1953 esa vius lqko fn,A Hkkjrh; desVh ds lqko ij phu us /;ku fn;k vkSj xHkZfujks/kd rjhdksa tSls fd fookg ijke'kZ ds vfrfjDr turk dh nwljh ewyHkwr t:jrksa dks leuk 'kq: fd;kA bl rjhds ls turk vkSj jkT; dh t:jrsa vfHkeq[k gqb± vkSj lkaLd`frd Økafr esa ifj.kr gqb± ftlus fo}kuksa] ukSdj'kkgksa vkSj lsok iznku djus okyksa dks fdlkuksa ds chp dke djus dks vxzlj fd;kA Hkkjr esa bl rjg ds fdlh dk;ZØe dh u rks ifjdYiuk dh xbZ vkSj u gh ykxw fd;k x;kA yksxksa dh ewyHkwr t:jrksa dks iwjk djus ds fy, phu dk jkLrk csgn mi;qDr FkkA blh otg ls ogka fL=;ksa ds l'kfDrdj.k] LokLF;] f'k{kk vkSj vk; rd U;k;laxr igqap dks yksxksa us ns[kkA bl lcdk tuu{kerk nj ij lh/kk vlj iM+k vkSj 1979 ds vkrsvkrs ns'k dh tUe nj dkQh uhps fxj xbZ FkhA ;g LiV gS fd phu us ifjokj fu;kstu lsok dh ftl vk/kkjHkwr vo/kkj.kk dks viuk;k og eqacbZ dh cSBd esa Hkkjrh; desVh }kjk fn, x, lqko ds vuq:i FkhA ekÅtsnqax tc phuh jktuhfrd ifjn`'; ls ckgj gks x, rks tula[;k fu;a=.k vkSj ifjokj fu;kstu dks ysdj phuh utfj, esa QdZ vk x;kA chek: if'peh f'k{kk ls phuh vuqHko ls cgqr mUgksus tkuk fd c+rh vkcknh ,d [krjk gSA ;g fopkj dqN phuh a fo}ku vkSj usrkvksa ds fnekx esa izHkko tek pqdk FkkA la;qDr jkVª dqN lh[kus dks gS esa f'k{kk ik jgs dqN phuh;ksa us bl fopkj dk leFkZu fd;k fd ysfdu ge mls ges'kk tula[;k fu;a=.k phu dh igyh t:jr gS vkSj mUgksaus ,d cPps xyr ax ls çLrqr dk fl)kar tSlh ck/;dkjh tula[;k uhfr dh rjQnkjh dhA bl u, utfj, dk ifj.kke Hk;kud FkkA tula[;k fLFkjhdj.k esa enn djrs gSa djus dh txg bl uhfr us cgqr lkjh lkekftd vkSj ikfjokfjd leL;kvksa dks [kM+k dj fn;k tSls fd foke fyaxkuqikr] fL=;ksa ds f[kykQ vijk/k esa c+ksÙkjh] ckfydk Hkzw.k gR;kA ;g /;ku nsus ;ksX; ckr gS fd phu viuh uhfr ij iqufoZpkj dj jgk gS vkSj gks ldrk gS fd og fyax fu/kkZj.k ds f[kykQ dkuwu dks viuk ysA phuh vuqHko ls cgqr dqN lh[kus dks gS ysfdu neudkjh tula[;k uhfr tSls fd nks cPpksa dk fl)kar vkSj izksRlkgu nsuk ;k nafMr djuk tSls rjhdksa ds tfj, Þtula[;k leL;kß dks rqjar gy djus ds Hkkjrh; utfj, ls phu dh rqyuk djrs oDr ogka ykxw fd, tk jgs dk;ZØeksa dks ge xyr ax ls izLrqr djrs gSaA ;g nq[kn gS fd gekjs uhfrdkj vkSj ukSdj'kkg ifjokj fu;kstu 'kks/k ,oa vk;kstu desVh dh okftc vkSj larqfyr lykg ij flQZ cksyrs Hkj gSa ysfdu okLro esa ca/;kdj.k ds y{; dks ikus ds fy, xHkZfujks/kd dk;ZØeksa dks viukrs gSaA LokLF; ea=ky; ds varxZr ifjokj fu;kstu dk ,d vyx foHkkx [kksyk x;kA ftlus 1966 esa dsanz }kjk izk;ksftr y{; izkfIr dk;ZØe dh 'kq#vkr dhA blds rgr ca/;kdj.k djkus okyksa dks izksRlkgu ds :i esa #i;s nsus dk izko/kku j[kk x;k FkkA ckn esa tc ;g dk;ZØe ekr`Ro ,oa f'k'kq LokLF; vkSj iksk.k ls tqM+ x;k rc Hkh eq[; mís'; iq#k ,oa efgyk ca/;kdj.k y{; dks ikuk jgk ftlls blesa csgrjh dh txg uqdlku gh gqvkA 11
  27. 27. neu ;k l'kfDrdj.k vktknh ds igys vkSj ckn esa ftruh Hkh desfV;ka cuha lHkh us izkFkfed LokLF; lqj{kk ds O;kid utfj, dks viukus ij tksj fn;kA mu lHkh dk ekuuk Fkk fd bl ekeys esa dksbZ lekSrk ugha gksuk pkfg,A NksVs ifjokj ds ekud dks viukrs oDr ;g t:jh gS fd ifjokjksa vkSj jkT; dh le vkil esa feysA muds }kjk LoSfPNd :i ls ifjokj fu;kstu dks viukus ls igys turk dh t:jrksa dks leuk pkfg, vkSj mfpr rjhds ls mldk mik; Hkh wa+k tkuk pkfg,A ysfdu nqHkkZX;o'k ,d ckj fQj y{; ds rjhds dks viuk;k tk jgk gSA jkVªh; tula[;k uhfr % bl lanHkZ ds varxZr vc eSa jkVªh; tula[;k uhfr dks j[kuk pkgwaxkA ;gka lkr jkT; gSa] ftUgksaus vius ;gka tula[;k uhfr dh 'kq#vkr dhA bl uhfr ds rgr mUgksaus izksRlkgu vkSj naM ds rjhdksa dks viuk;k tks jkVªh; tula[;k uhfr ds rgr ugha gSA jkVªh; tula[;k uhfr 1994 esa tula[;k vkSj fodkl ij varjkZVªh; lgefr esa turk }kjk LoSfPNd :i ls viuk, x, ,tsaMs dk leFkZu djrh gS vkSj ;gh ifjokj fu;kstu dks viukus ns'k essa tula[;k vkSj fodkl dk;ZØeksa dh :ijs[kk jkVª lgefr ls igys turk dh t:jrksa [khaprh gSA tula[;k vkSj fodkl 'ijftlesha;Hkkjr Hkh ,slh igyh ?kVuk Fkh tc dbZ ns k dks leuk pkfg, vkSj mfpr 'kkfey Fkk] ,d urhts rd igqapsA ;g dbZ ek;us rjhds ls mldk lek/kku Hkh esa ,d cM+h miyfC/k FkhA tula[;k vkSj fodkl lQyrkiwo wa+k tkuk pkfg, ij jkVªh; lgefr esa x;k ftlusZdoSfØ;kUo;u ds dk;ZØe dks viuk;k f'od :i ls tula[;k ds eqís ij lksp vkSj fØ;kUo;u ds fodYi j[ksA ;|fi Hkkjr dks vius ?kjsyw dkuwuksa esa tula[;k vkSj fodkl ij varjkZVªh; lgefr ds izko/kkuksa dks iwjh rjg 'kkfey djuk ckdh gS ysfdu Hkkjrh; ukxj lekt ljdkj ls ;g iwN ldrk gS fd og viuh opuc)rk ls D;ksa gV jgh gSA ml lgefr ds elkSns ij Hkkjr ds Hkh gLrk{kj gSaA Qjojh 2000 esa jkVªh; tula[;k uhfr ?kksfkr dh xbZA ;g ns'k dh igyh O;kid vkSj mnkj tula[;k uhfr gSA jkVªh; tula[;k uhfr lok±xh.k] vkfFkZd vkSj lkekftd fodkl dh ckr djrh gSA bldk eq[; y{; gS thou Lrj dks csgrj djuk] dY;k.kdkjh gksuk vkSj tula[;k fLFkjhdj.k ds fy, O;kid ¼gksfyfLVd½] cgq[kaMh; ,tsaMs ds varxZr volj iznku djukA bl uhfr ds rgr tula[;k fLFkjhdj.k bu rjhdksa ls fd;k tk ldrk gS lqxe vkSj ogu djus ;ksX; iztud LokLF;] izkFkfed ,oa ek/;fed f'k{kk dks nwjLFk {ks=ksa rd ys tkuk] vk/kkjHkwr lqfo/kkvksa] LoPNrk] ihus dk lkQ ikuh] vkokl] f'k{kk vkSj jkstxkj ds tfj, efgyk l'kfDrdj.k] lM+d vkSj vkokxeu tSls cqfu;knh fodklA ;g eqDr lwpuk] ltxrk] l'kfDrdj.k vkSj fodkl vk/kkfjr utfj, dks c+kok nsrk gS tks tula[;k fLFkjhdj.k dks cgq{ks=h; dksf'k'k cuk nsrk gSA lS)kafrd :i ls ;g y{; ;k izksRlkgu ;k naM ds utfj, dks [kkfjt djrk gS vkSj y{;ghu utfj, dh ckr djrk gSA jkVªh; tula[;k uhfr fyax dks ysdj ,d laosnu'khy uhfr gS tks fL=;ksa] fd'kksj yM+fd;ksa vkSj ckfydkvksa dh LokLF; vkSj 'kS{kf.kd t:jrksa ij cy nsrh gSA jkVªh; tula[;k uhfr dk 'kq#vkrh fcanq gSa csgrj lsok eqgS;k djuk] pquus ds fy, dbZ fodYiksa dks lkeus j[kuk] csgrj LokLF; lqj{kk dh yksxksa rd eqDr igqap dks cukuk vkSj vius vuqdwy tuu{kerk dks fu;af=r djus ds csgrj rjhds dks viukukA jkVªh; tula[;k uhfr ds mís';% çlodky vkSj ckn esa f'k'kq LokLF; lqj{kk ds fy, iw.kZ lsok eqgS;k djus ds fy, xHkZ fujks/kd] LokLF; vfHklajpuk vkSj izR;sd {ks= esa LokLF; lqj{kkdehZ dh t:jrksa 12
  28. 28. tula[;k uhfr ij /;ku nsuk jkVªh; tula[;k uhfr dk rkRdkfyd y{; gSA bldk e/;kof/k y{; gS cgqr lkjs dk;ZØeksa dks cgq{ks=h; Lrj ij ykxw dj 2010 rd ns'k Hkj esa dqy tuu{kerk nj dks izfrLFkkfir Lrj rd ykukA vkSj bldk nwjxkeh y{; gS 2045 rd tula[;k fLFkjhdj.k ds y{; dks ikuk tks vkfFkZdlkekftd fodkl vkSj i;kZoj.k lqj{kk dks cuk;s j[kus dh t:jr ds vuq:i gksA jkVªh; tula[;k uhfr ds dqN eq[; y{; fuEufyf[kr gSa „„ lwpuk] lqko vkSj tuu{kerk fu;a=.k ds fy, nh tkus okyh lsokvksa rd lcdh igqap( „„ tUe] e`R;q] fookg vkSj xHkZ/kkj.k dk 'kr izfr'kr jftLVªs'ku( „„ ,pvkbZoh dks QSyus ls jksduk vkSj jkVªh; ,M~l fu;a=.k laxBu ds lkFk csgrj lkeatL; LFkkfir djuk( „„ izlo vkSj ;kSu laca/kh jksxksa dh jksdFkke( „„ nok dh Hkkjrh; iz.kkyh dks eq[;/kkjk esa ykuk( „„ tuu{kerk nj ds izfrLFkkfir Lrj dks ikus ds fy, NksVs ifjokj ds fl)kar dks c+kok nsuk % ;gka NksVs ifjokj dk eryc nks cPps ;k ,d cPps dk fl)kar ugha gS cfYd ;g ,d ls ikap rd dqN Hkh gks ldrk gSA ;g lc ifjokj dh viuh t:jr vkSj ekax ij fuHkZj djrk gS( vkSj „„ dk;ZØeksa dks lkekftd {ks=kas esa bl rjg ls ykxw djuk fd ifjokj dY;k.k tudsafnzr dk;ZØe dk :i ys ysA D;k gks rjhdk tula[;k eqís ij dkjZokbZ djus vkSj jkVªh; tula[;k uhfr dh dk;Z ;kstuk vkSj mlds dke djus dh uhfr elyu tokcnsgh] ;kstuk] ns[kjs[k vkSj leUo; dks ax ls ykxw djus ds fy, t:jh gS fd ukSdj'kkgksa] rduhf'k;uksa vkSj lsok eqgS;k djus okyksa dh lksp] 'kSyh vkSj dk;Ziz.kkyh esa iwjk cnyko yk;k tk,A lcls vko';d gS ;kstuk vkSj dk;ZØe fØ;kUo;u dk fodsanzhdj.kA Hkkjr esa 620 ls T;knk ftys gSa] 638000 xkao vkSj 4000 'kgj gSaA ,sls esa ;kstuk ,oa dk;ZØe fØ;kUo;u ds fodsanzhdj.k dk eryc gS fd izR;sd xkao] okMZ vkSj 'kgj viuh okfkZd ;kstuk rS;kj djsa vkSj ;g fd lesfdr cky fodkl ;kstuk esa yxs lHkh LokLF;dehZ vkSj nwljs yksx ,d lkFk feydj dke djsaA Hkkxhnkjh i)fr dk bLrseky djrs gq, ;kuh fd xSj tuu{kerk] chekjh ls gksus okyh ekSrksa vkSj xHkZfujks/kd dh t:jrksa dk ?kj?kj tkdj izR;sd ifjokj ;k leqnk; dk vkdyu djukA xkao dh iapk;rksa@xzke lHkkvksa ds pqus gq, izfrfuf/k;ksa dh tokcnsgh gksuh pkfg, rkfd t:jrksa dk iDds rkSj ij vkdyu fd;k tk lds vkSj dk;ZØeksa dks izHkkoh ax ls ykxw djus dh ;kstuk cuk;h tk ldsA bl rjhds ls izR;sd xkao vkSj okMZ esa LokLF;] tula[;k vkSj lkekftd fodkl dh loZfgrdkjh ;kstuk rS;kj dh tk ldrh gSA xkao vkSj okMZ dh ;g ;kstuk ckn esa ftyk Lrjh;] jkT; Lrjh; vkSj var esa dsanz Lrjh; ;kstuk rS;kj djus dk vk/kkj cu ldrh gSA ftlesa ifjokjksa vkSj leqnk;ksa dh t:jrksa dk okLrfod izfrfcEcu gksxkA vxj U;wure lkk dk;ZØe esa tula[;k fu;a=.k dk y{; cpk gqvk gS rks mls ge xkao] okMZ vkSj 'kgj dh fo'ksk lkeqnkf;d ;kstuk ls iwjk dj ldrs gSaA tks LFkkuh;] jkT; ;k dsUnz ljdkj }kjk fu/kkZfjr fd;s x;s y{; dks Fkksirh ughaA rc tkdj ;g turk dk viuk dk;ZØe gks tk,xkA ;kstuk vkSj fØ;kUo;u ds fodsanzhdj.k ds vykok jkVªh; tula[;k uhfr dqN vkSj egRoiw.kZ rjhdksa dks vius esa 'kkfey djrh gS tks bl izdkj gSa „„ xzkeh.k Lrj rd izlwfr lsok dks ys tkuk( „„ csgrj LokLF; vkSj iksk.k ds fy, efgykvksa dks l'kDr djuk( 13
  29. 29. neu ;k l'kfDrdj.k „„ cky mÙkjthfork vkSj cky LokLF; miØe.k( „„ ifjokj dY;k.k lsokvksa dh t:jrksa dks iwjk djuk( „„ 'kgjh xanh cfLr;ksa esas jgus okyksa] tutkfr leqnk;ksa] igkM+h {ks=ksa] vkSj foLFkkfir vkSj izoklh vkcknh ds fy, fo'ksk ;kstuk rS;kj djuk( „„ fd'kksjksa dh t:jrksa dks iwjk djuk( „„ ifjokj fu;kstu esa iq#kksa dh Hkkxhnkjh dks c+kuk( „„ LokLF; lqj{kk izca/kdksa dh fofo/krk( „„ xSjljdkjh laxBuksa vkSj futh {ks=ksa dk lg;ksx ysuk vkSj mUgsa lkFk nsus ds fy, iDds :i ls rS;kj djuk( „„ Hkkjrh; mipkj O;oLFkk vkSj gksfe;ksiSFk dks eq[;/kkjk esa ykuk( „„ xHkZfujks/k dh rduhd] çtud vkSj f'k'kq LokLF; ds {ks= esa 'kks/k djuk( „„ o`) vkcknh dh t:jrksa dks iwjk djuk( vkSj „„ lwpuk] f'k{kk vkSj vkokxeu ds lk/ku rd lc dh igqap dks iDdk djukA xHkZ fujks/kd rduhdksa] çtud vkSj f'k'kq LokLF; ds {ks= esa dqN egRoiw.kZ [kkst bu fnuksa dh x;h gSA cktkj esa dbZ u;s izksMDV Hkh vk x;s gSaA mnkgj.k ds rkSj ij fjolhZcy bughfc'ku vkWo LieZ vaMj xkbMsl ds uke ls tkuk tkus okys iq#k xHkZ fujks/kd dk uke fy;k tk ldrk gS tks Hkkjrh; oSKkfudksa a dh izoh.krk dk vn~Hkqr uewuk gSA blds vykok Hkh vU; dbZ mRikn gSaA tSls lgsyh tks xSj var%lzkoh gS vkSj fL=;ksa ds LokLF; ds fy, lqjf{kr HkhA o`) vkcknh dh ns[kjs[k ,d rRdky fpark dk fok; gSA tux.kuk ls irk pyrk gS fd dqy vkcknh ds 7-6 izfr'kr yksx lkB okZ ;k blds Åij dh mez ds gSA a vk/kqfud foKku vkSj VsDuksyksth dh otg ls Hkkjrh;ksa dh vkSlr vk;q pwafd c+ x;h gS blfy, t:jh gS fd bl vk;q oxZ ds yksxksa dh ns[kHkky dk dksbZ jkLrk t:j awk tk,A eSaus pwafd ljdkj esa dke fd;k gS blfy, eqs insZ ds ihNs dh ckr dk irk gS fd ;g fdl rjg dke djrh gSA eSa tkurk gwa fd ;gka cgqr lkjh dfe;ka gSaA ysfdu eSa ;g ns[kdj [kq'k gwa fd uhfr;ksa dks izHkkoh ax ls ykxw djus ds fy, U;wure lkk dk;ZØe ,d csgrjhu [kkdk gS flok; ml fgLls ds ftlesa tula[;k ij fopkj fd;k x;k gSA eSa vk'kkfUor gwa fd tu vnkyr bl eqís dks mBk;sxh vkSj lqko nsxh fd ljdkj viuh bl uhfr ls ckt vk, D;ksafd ;g izkFkfed LokLF; lqj{kk ds O;kid utfj;s dh gR;k dj nsrh gSA viuk;h x;h dksbZ Hkh uhfr tu LokLF; eSaMsV ds varxZr gksuh pkfg,A rHkh tula[;k fLFkjhdj.k ds iz;kl vck/k rjhds ls pyk;s tk ldsaxs vkSj bfPNr ifj.kke nsus okyk tu vkanksyu [kM+k gks ik,xkA 14
  30. 30. nks cPpksa dk dkuwu % jkT; ljdkjsa xyr fn'kk dh vksj dkWfyu xksUlkfYol* Hkk jr dh dbZ jkT; ljdkjsa vius ;gka cl og dkuwu cukus gh okyh gSa tks lkekU; :i ls v;ksX;rk dh 'krZ ds rkSj ij nks cPpksa ds fl)kar ¼Vhlh,u½ dks ykxw dj nsxkA ;g tkosn cuke gfj;k.kk jkT;1 esa nks cPpksa ds fl)kar dks ysdj loksZPp U;k;ky; }kjk dh x;h xyr fVIi.kh dh otg ls gks jgk gSA loksZPp U;k;ky; us ;g fVIi.kh ;g lksp dj dh fd nks cPpksa dk fl)kar jkVªh; tula[;k uhfr 2000 esa lekfgr gSA cgjgky] lp ls ijs dqN Hkh ugha gks ldrkA okLro esa] loksZPp U;k;ky; ds le{k nks cPpksa ds dkuwu dk ekeyk fopkj gsrq ,d vyx rjhds ls vk;kA oSls ftUgsa gfj;k.kk esa iapk;r dk pquko yM+us ds ;ksX; ugha ekuk x;k Fkk] mu yksxksa us loksZPp U;k;ky; esa ;kfpdk nk;j dj jkT; ljdkj dh ml vf/klwpuk dh laoS/kkfudrk ij loky mBk;k Fkk tks ;ksX;rk ds rkSj ij nks cPpksa ds fl)kar dk fu/kkZj.k djrh gSA bl eqdnes dh dkjZokbZds nkSjku ljdkj us ftl rjg ls viuk i{k j[kk mlls loksZPp U;k;ky; dks yxk fd nks cPpksa dk fl)kar jkVªh; tula[;k uhfr dk gh ,d fgLlk gSA jkVªh; tula[;k uhfr dks viukus ds igys tks lykg e'kfojk fd;k x;k Fkk ;|fi mlls irk pyrk gS fd blh naMkRed 'krZ dh otg ls nks cPpksa ds fl)kar dks uhfr ls gVk fn;k x;k Fkk D;ksafd ;g vuqeku yxk fy;k x;k Fkk fd blls xjhc fL=;ksa dk vfgr gksxkA tula[;k vkSj fodkl ij varjkZVªh; ?kksk.kki=] 1994 us tula[;k dks ysdj ekud cny fn;sA fQj tula[;k fu;a=.k dh txg iztud LokLF; ij /;ku dsafnzr fd;k tkus yxkA bl ckr dks igyh ckj eglwl fd;k x;k fd ifjokj NksVk j[kus ds fy, naMkRed dkjZokbZ ls dgha csgrj gS fd f'k{kk] fodkl vkSj fL=;ksa ,oa cPpksa ds fy, dY;k.kdkjh dk;ZØeksa dks ykxw fd;k tk,A bl ckr ij lgefr trk;h x;h fd thou dh csgrjh ij /;ku fn;k tk, vkSj ;g fd tcnZLrh ;k çksRlkgu nsus ;k nafMr djus ds rjhds dks ugha viuk;k tk,A bl ?kksk.kk ds lkFk gh Hkkjr us vkikrdky ds fnuksa esa ifjokj fu;kstu * ys[kd 1 ¼2003½ ofjB vf/koDrk ,oa ekuokf/kdkj dk;ZdrkZ gSa rFkk áweu jkbV~l ykW usVodZ ds laLFkkid funs'kd gSa 8 SCC 369] ikB ds fy, vuqyXud 5 ns[ksa
  31. 31. neu ;k l'kfDrdj.k ds fy, rS;kj fd;s x;s ekWMy dks ihNs NksM+ fn;k vkSj y{;eqDr utfj;s dh 'kq#vkr dh] fQj bldh txg jkVªh; tula[;k uhfr us ys yhA jkVªh; tula[;k uhfr us vius mís'; ifjHkkfkr djrs gq, dgk fd thou Lrj dks csgrj cukuk mldk igyk dke gSA dqN QkSjh mís';ksa esa ls ,d gS xHkZfujks/kd dh t:jrksa dks iwjk djukA de ls de 25 izfr'kr xjhc yksx xHkZfujks/kd dk bLrseky djuk pkgrs gSa ysfdu ml rd mudh igqap ugha gks ikrh gSA jkVªh; tula[;k uhfr esa dgha Hkh nks cPpksa ds fl)kar ;k y{; ;k naMkRed dkjZokbZ dk mYys[k ugha gSA rc Hkh dbZ jkT;ksa us vius ;gka nks cPpksa ds ekud dks rksM+us okyksa dks nafMr djus ds dbZ rjhds viuk fy, gSaA tSls fd pquko u yM+us nsuk] jk'ku dkMZ] feêh rsy vkSj xjhch js[kk ls uhps thus okyksa dks feyus okyh lqfo/kkvksa dks nsus ls badkj djuk] rhljs cPps dks ljdkjh Ldwy esa f'k{kk nsus ls badkj djuk vkSj vuqlwfpr tkfr@vuqlwfpr tutkfr ds fy, pyk;s tk jgs dY;k.kdkjh dk;ZØeksa dk ykHk ugha mBkus nsukA tkosn cuke gfj;k.kk jkT; eqdnes esa loksZPp U;k;ky; }kjk fn;k x;k QSlyk ;g leus ds fy;s ,d vPNk mnkgj.k gS fd tfVy lkekftd eqíksa ij QSlyk lqukrs oDr U;k;ky; fdruh xaHkhj xyfr;ka dj tkrk gSA ,slk flQZ blfy, gksrk gS tkosn cuke gfj;k.kk jkT; D;ksafd dksbZ Hkh i{k ax ls ml tfVyrk dks j[k ugha eqdnes esa loksZPp U;k;ky; ikrk gSA U;k;ky; vkt Hkh 1960 ds ekU;rk [kks pqds }kjk fn;k x;k QSlyk ;g kaps ij ;dhu djrk gS vkSj ^rsth ls c+rh tula[;k* dks ^gkbMªkstu ce ls Hkh T;knk [krjukd* ekurk gSA leus ds fy;s vPNk mnkgj.k og bl fok; ij nks vKkr ys[kdksa dks m)`r djrk gS fd tfVy lkekftd eqíksa ij gS ftldk dFku gS fd ^1979 esa tula[;k o`f) nj QSlyk lqukrs oDr U;k;ky; esa tjk Hkh varj ugha vk;k gSA* okLro esa o`f) nj esa fiNys n'kd esa Hkkjh fxjkoV ntZ dh x;hA 1991 esa ;g fdruh xaHkhj xyfr;ka dj tgka 23-81 izfr'kr Fkh ogh 2001 esa ;g fxjdj 21-34 tkrk gS izfr'kr ij vk x;hA ;g vktknh ds ckn ls vc rd dh lcls de tula[;k o`f) nj gSA U;k;ky; igys dh lkr ikap okhZ; ;kstukvksa dk Hkh mYys[k djrk gS ftlds varxZr 1991 rd dh vof/k vkrh gSA bu ;kstukvksa esa naMkRed dk;Zokb;ksa ij tksj fn;k x;k gS] ysfdu vnkyr ml egRoiw.kZ cnyko dks fpfUgr ugha dj ikrk ftls tula[;k fu;a=.k ds fy, 1994 esa gqbZ tula[;k vkSj fodkl ij varjkZVªh; lgefr ds ckn viuk;k x;k gS tks naMkRed dkjZokbZ dks iwjh rjg [kkfjt djrk gS vkSj fodkl] thou Lrj esa lq/kkj vkSj efgyk dY;k.k ij tksj nsrk gSA U;k;ky; ;g leus esa Hkh ukdke jgk fd nks cPpksa ds dkuwu dh otg ls fL=;ksa ij iM+us okys vlj dks ysdj ;kfpdk esa ,d Hkh loky ugha mBk;k x;k gSA QSlys ds var esa fL=;ksa ij iM+us okys izHkko dks ysdj tc ppkZ dh x;h ¼^vkdfLed iz'u* 'khkZd ds varxZr½ rks mls ;g dg dj [kkfjt dj fn;k x;k fd eqdnek blls lacaf/kr ugha gSA mM+hlk] jktLFkku] gfj;k.kk vkSj e/; izns'k esa fd;s x;s 'kks/k ls ;g ckr lkeus vk;h fd iapk;r ds pqukoksa esa izR;kf'k;ksa dks v;ksX; djkj nsus ds fy, nks cPpksa ds dkuwu dk bLrseky djus ij yksx ifRu;ksa vkSj ifjokjksa dks NksM+us yxs] LokLF; ds reke [krjs ds ckotwn xHkZikr dh la[;k esa c+ksÙkjh gqbZ] yksx vius cPpksa dks fdlh dks xksn nsus dks cspSu gksus yxs vkSj iq#k iapk;rlnL; u;h 'kkfn;ka jpkus yxsA naMkRed dkjZokbZ bl rjg ls xjhc fL=;ksa ds 16
  32. 32. tula[;k uhfr f[kykQ dke djus yxhA tgka vf'kf{kr fL=;ksa esa dqy tuu{kerk nj 3-47 gS ogha e/;oxhZ; fL=;ksa esa ;g 1-99 gSA vuqlwfpr tkfr] vuqlwfpr tutkfr vkSj vU; fiNM+s oxks± esa f'k'kq e`R;qnj Øe'k% 83] 84 vkSj 76 gS tcfd nwljs lewgksa esa ;g 62 gSA bl vkcknh esa tuu{kerk nj blfy, T;knk gS D;ksafd ogka f'k'kq e`R;qnj Hkh cgqr Åij gSA nks cPpksa dk fl)kar yksxksa ds chp vlekurk dh [kkbZ dks vkSj pkSM+h dj nsxk D;ksafd igys ls gh oafpr leqnk;ksa ij dh tkus okyh naMkRed dkjZokbZ mUgsa vkSj Hkh fujhg dj nsxhA ;g fyax pquko ds fy, Hkh yksxksa dks izsfjr djrk gS vkSj eknk Hkzw.k gR;k dks c+kok nsrk gSA bl rjg cky fyaxuqikr esa [krjs dh gn rd fxjkoV dk dkj.k curs gSaA bl rF; dk [kqyklk 2001 dh tux.kuk ls gks pqdk gSA Hkkjr esa dqy tuu{kerk nj 1951 ds Ng ds eqdkoys 2001 esa fxjdj 3-2 ij vk pqdk gSA tula[;k laosx dks de djus dk ,dek= izHkkoh rjhdk gS fd fookg dh mez c+k nh tk,A phu esa dqy tuu{kerk nj 1979 ds 2-8 ds eqdkcys 1991 esa fxjdj nks ij vk xbZA bl fxjkoV dks f'k{kk ij tksj nsdj fpfàr fd;k tk ldrk gSA Hkkjr dks pkfg, fd og yksxksa dh fxurh djus dh ctk; mls egRo nsA 17
  33. 33. iapk;rksa esa nks cPpksa ds dkuwu dks ysdj vke vkneh ds vuqHko fueZyk cqp* t ula[;k dks ysdj fpark,a 1952 esa jkVªh; ifjokj fu;kstu dk;ZØe ds lkFk gh 'kq: gks xbZ FkhaA 2000 esa jkVªh; tula[;k uhfr] tula[;k vkSj fodkl ij gq, varjkZVªh; lEesyu 1994 ¼vkbZlhihMh½ dh Hkkouk ds vuq:i cuk;h x;hA ftlesa tula[;k] fodkl vkSj L=hiq#k HksnHkko ds chp laca/kksa dh ckr dh x;hA dqN jkT;ksa esa gkykafd LFkkuh; fudk;ksa ¼iapk;rksa vkSj uxj fudk;ksa½ ds izfrfuf/k;ksa ij ml tula[;k uhfr ds rgr vadq'k yxkus ds dkuwu Hkh cuk, x, gSa] ftls eksVs rkSj ij nks cPpksa dk dkuwu dgk tkrk gSA ;s dkuwu ,d le;lhek ds ckn rhu ¼;k mlls vf/kd½ larku okys yksxksa ij ykxw gksrs gSaA blds ihNs ekU;rk ;g gS fd ;g ck/;rk yksxksa dks ifjokj cM+k djus ls jksdsxh vkSj LFkkuh; fudk;ksa ds fuokZfpr izfrfuf/k vius leqnk; esa vuqdj.kh; cusaxsA nks cPpksa ds dkuwu dks iz'kklfud lsok esa izos'k vkSj fodkl rFkk dY;k.kdkjh dk;ZØeksa ds vfrfjDr ykHkksa ls oafpr djus ds fy, Hkh ykxw dj fn;k x;k gSA blls lcls T;knk çHkkfor lekt dk og oxZ gqvk gS] ftls jktuhfrd thou esa gky gh esa izos'k dk ekSdk feyk gS vkSj tks eksyrksy esa detksj gSA ;gh ugha] de gSfl;r okyh vkSjrsa Hkh blls çHkkfor gqbZ gSaA ;g 'kks/ki= iapk;rksa esa ck/;dkjh nks cPpksa ds dkuwu dks ysdj vka/kz izns'k] gfj;k.kk] fgekpy çns'k] e/; çns'k] mM+hlk vkSj jktLFkku tSls jkT;ksa esa vke yksxksa ds vuqHko ij vk/kkfjr gSA buesa nks dks NksM+dj ckdh lHkh jkT;ksa esa nks cPpksa dk dkuwu 1994 esa ykxw gqvkA ;s nks jkT; e/; çns'k vkSj fgekpy çns'k gSa tgka bls 2000 esa ykxw fd;k x;kA okZ 2003 esa egkjkVª esa Hkh ;g ykxw dj fn;k x;kA bl rjg ;g dkuwu vkB jkT;ksa esa ck/;dkjh cu x;kA bu vkB jkT;ksa esa NÙkhlx+ Hkh 'kkfey gS tks e/; çns'k ls VwVdj cuk gS vkSj mlds fu;e ogka ykxw gSaA ;g 'kks/k i= vka/kz çns'k] gfj;k.kk] e/; çns'k] mM+hlk vkSj jktLFkku esa la;qDr jkVª tula[;k dksk ¼;w,u,Qih,½ dh enn ls efgyk psruk eap ds 2001 vkSj 2002 esa fd, x, foLr`r v/;;u ij vk/kkfjr gSA1 bu v/;;uksa esa yksxksa ds thou esa nks cPpksa ds fl)kar ds vlj vkSj mlds ifj.kke dks n'kkZus dh dksf'k'k dh xbZ gSA bl 'kks/ki= esa e/; * fueZyk cqp efgyk psruk eap] Hkksiky dh v/;{k vkSj tkuhekuh lkekftd dk;ZdrkZ gSa 1 Hkkxhnkfj;ksa dh igpku dks Nqikus ds fy, lkjs uke cny fn;s x;s gSa
  34. 34. tula[;k uhfr;ka vkSj jktuhfrd Hkkxhnkjh çns'k] jktLFkku vkSj mÙkj çns'k esa iapk;rksa dks ysdj efgykvksa ds vuqHko laca/kh v/;;u ds rF; vkSj vkadM+s Hkh 'kkfey fd, x, gSaA nks cPpksa ds fl)kar lac/kh dkuwu dks 1992 ds 73osa vkSj 74osa lafo/kku la'kks/kuksa ds lanHkZ esa ns[kk tkuk a pkfg,] ftlesa xzkeh.k vkSj LFkkuh; fudk;ksa esa vf/kdkf/kd tuHkkxhnkjh vkSj L=hiq#k HksnHkko feVkus dh laonu'khyrk ij tksj fn;k x;kA geus fofHkUu jkT;ksa esa nks cPpksa ds fl)kar ij vyxvyx rjg ls vey s dks ns[kk vkSj çkIr fofHkUu oxks± ds yksxksa ds utfj;ksa dk fo'ysk.k Hkh fd;kA ftuesa uhfrfuekZrk] fØ;kUo;u esa yxs yksx] ehfM;kdehZ] odhy vkSj ukxfjd laxBuksa ds yksx 'kkfey gSA geus bl fok; ij ;g LiV gS fd nks cPpksa dk a dkuwuh O;k[;kvksa ds #kuksa ij Hkh xkSj fd;k] tks çko/kku xSj okfto ax ls lekt lqçhe dksVZ ds 2003 ¼tkosn cuke gfj;k.kk ljdkj½2 ds QSlys esa tkfgj gksrk gS vkSj mlds ckn nks ds mu oxks± dks çHkkfor djrk gS cPpksa ds dkuwu ls çHkkfor iapk;r çfrfuf/k;ksa ds ftls eq[;/kkjk esa 'kkfey djus dh vuqHko Hkh ntZ fd,A var esa nks cPpksa ds dkuwu dk ckr lafo/kku djrk gSA jktuhfrd yksdrkaf=d fodsæhdj.k] L=h Hkkxhnkjh] detksj a çfØ;k esa 'kkfey bu u;s rcdks]a ekuokf/kdkjksa vkSj L=hiq#k HksnHkko feVkus ds mís';ksa ij iM+us okys çHkko ij Hkh xkSj fd;kA mEehnokjksa ds f[kykQ iwokZxzg ls geus nks cPpksa ds fl)kar ds ?kksfkr mís'; xHkZ ySl gksdj gh nks cPpksa ds çko/kku fujks/kd mik;ksa dk bLrseky c+kdj tula[;k dks dk dkuwu rS;kj fd;k x;k gS fLFkj djuk vkSj NksVk ifjokj j[kus esa mldh mi;ksfxrk dh Hkh iM+rky dhA nks cPpksa ds fl)kar dh 'kq#vkr 1991 dh tux.kuk vkSj mlds ckn uhfrfuekZrkvksa dk yxkrkj tula[;k o`f) ij tksj nsus ls gksrh gSA okZ 1992 esa jkVªh; fodkl ifjkn }kjk xfBr tula[;k lfefr us flQkfj'k dh fd nks ls T;knk larku okyksa dks iapk;r ls ysdj laln rd fdlh Hkh jktuhfrd in ds fy, v;ksX; ?kksfkr fd;s tkus dh [kkfrj laln ls dkuwu ikl djk;k tk,A ;g flQkfj'k tula[;k vkSj fodkl ij varjkZVªh; lgefr] dkfgjk] 1994 ¼vkbZlhihMh½ vkSj jkVªh; tula[;k uhfr] 2000 ls igys dh gSA ml le; ;g ekuk x;k Fkk fd lHkh jktuhfrd inksa ds fy, ;ksX;rk ds rkSj ij nks cPpksa ds çko/kku dks viukus ls yksx bl ckr dks lesaxs fd jkT; NksVs ifjokj dks ysdj fdruk xaHkhj gSA jktLFkku ds rRdkyhu eq[;ea=h us tks jkVªh; fodkl ifjkn ds lnL; Hkh Fks] nks cPpksa ds çko/kku dks jkT; ds iapk;rksa vkSj uxj fuxeksa dk pquko yM+us ds fy, ;ksX;rk ds rkSj ij 'kkfey dj fy;k vkSj lqko fn;k fd ifjkn Hkh bls viuk ysA oLrqr% ,slk flQZ jktLFkku esa gh gks ldk D;ksafd 1994 esa bls iapk;rh dkuwu esa 'kkfey djus ds ckn 1995 esa iapk;r ds pquko ds ckn bldk Hkkjh fojks/k gqvkA fQj Hkh vkxs pydj gfj;k.kk] mM+hlk vkSj vka/kz çns'k jkT;ksa us bldk vuqlj.k fd;k vkSj vius ;gka ds iapk;r dkuwu esa nks cPpksa ds çko/kku dks 'kkfey dj fy;kA ogka iapk;r dkuwu ewyr% 73osa vkSj 74osa laoS/kkfud la'kks/ku ds vuq:i cuk;k x;k FkkA 2 tSlk fd mPpre U;k;ky; us fVIi.kh dh Þge ;g ugha le ik jgs gSa fd ftl izdkj dh psruk Hkkjrh; efgykvksa esa vk jgh gS ,sls esa dSls mUgsa etcwjh esa vkSj bPNk ds fo#) rhljs cPps dk Hkkj ogu djus dks etcwj fd;k tk ldrk gSAß ¼tkosn ,oa vU; cuke gfj;k.kk jkT; ,oa vU;] 31 tqykbZ] 2003 dk QSlyk] i`B 37½ mPpre U;k;ky; us ;g Hkh ik;k fd Þyksdra= ds uke ij tula[;k fu;a=.k ds dke esa ;wa gh larksk dj ysus ls ns'k dks Hkkjh dher pqdkuh iM+ ldrh gS vkSj ns'k ladV dh vksj c+ ldrk gSAß ¼mijksDr QSlys ls m)`r] i`B 22½ lqizhe dksVZ us ;g Hkh fVIi.kh dh] Þcsgrj ;g gksxk fd laoS/kkfud y{; dh izkfIr ds fy, vius drZO;ksa dk fuoZgu dj iapk;r izfrfuf/k Lo;a mnkgj.k izLrqr djsaß ¼i`B25] mijksDr fu.kZ; ls m)`r½ 19
  35. 35. neu ;k l'kfDrdj.k 73osa vkSj 74osa laoS/kkfud la'kks/ku ls iapk;r dh cukoV esa Hkkjh cnyko dh 'kq#vkr gqbZA bu la'kks/kuksa }kjk iapk;r esa vuqlwfpr tkfr] vuqlwfpr tutkfr vkSj fL=;ksa ds fy, vkj{k.k dh O;oLFkk dh x;h rkfd lekt ds gkf'k;s ij yksxksa dk jktuhfr esa çfrfuf/kRo gks ldsA lkFk gh iapk;r ds lnL;ksa ds fy, U;wure mez lhek dks 25 ls ?kVkdj 21 dj fn;k x;k rkfd ;qok jktuhfr esa vkus dks çksRlkfgr gks ldsaA cgjgky] nks cPpksa ds çko/kku dks ykxw dj jktuhfrd Hkkxhnkjh esa tks vojks/k [kM+k fd;k x;k gS og 73osa vkSj 74osa la'kks/ku }kjk vkxs c+k;s x;s dne ds foijhr gSA ;g LiV gS fd nks cPpksa dk çkoËkku xSjokftc ax ls lekt ds mu oxks± dks çHkkfor djrk gS ftls 'kkfey djus dh ckr lafo/kku djrk gSA jktuhfrd çfØ;k esa 'kkfey bu u;s mEehnokjksa ds f[kykQ iwokZxzg ls izsfjr gksdj nks cPpksa ds çko/kku dk dkuwu rS;kj fd;k x;k gSA mnkgj.k ds rkSj ij fuf'pr rkjh[k ls igys ds ifjokj ds vkdkj dks v;ksX;rk dk dkj.k ugha ekuk x;k vkSj bls flQZ ;qokvksa ij ykxw fd;k x;k tks çtud mez lewg esa vkrs gSaA vU; jkT;ksa esa rS;kj fd;k x;k nks cPpksa ds çko/kku dk dkuwu ewy :i ls jktLFkku ds dkuwu dh udy gh gSA bu jkT;ksa esa ls vf/kdka'k esa nks cPpksa ds dkuwu dks ykxw djus dh tokcnsgh vf/kdkfj;ksa ¼vk;qDrksa] ftyk/kh'kksa] vuqeaMykf/kdkjh½ dh gSA vka/kz çns'k esa eqaflQ eSftLVªsV dks ;g ftEesnkjh nh x;h gS fd og bu f'kdk;rksa dks nhokuh eqdnes dh rjg fuiVk;sA bl rjg bl dkuwu dks ç'kkldh; vkSj U;kf;d rjhds ls ykxw fd;k tkrk gSA vkjksi i= ds ckn dk;Zokgh 'kq: gksrh gS ;|fi dk;Zdkjh vf/kdkjh fcuk fdlh vkjksi i= ds Hkh dkjZokbZ 'kq: dj ldrk gSA ifj.kkeLo:i] nks cPpksa ds çko/kku dk dkuwu ifjokj dks NksVk j[kus ds lk/ku dh txg jktuSfrd çfr}a}h ds f[kykQ ,d gfFk;kj dh rjg gks x;k gSA ;gh yxrk gS fd nks cPpksa ds dkuwu dks ykxw djus dk eq[; mís'; çfr}a}h dks pquko yM+us ls jksduk ;k pqus gq, çfr}a}h dks ckgj dk jkLrk fn[kkuk gks x;k gSA lkekU;r;k dk;Zdkjh vf/kdkjh bl fn'kk esa vius vf/kdkj dk bLrseky ugha djrs ysfdu jkT; ljdkj dk ,d vkns'k mUgsa dkjZokbZ djus dks çsfjr dj nsrk gSA okLro esa] 2003 ds ckn ls vf/kdkjh flQZ blfy;s eqLrSn fn[krs gSa D;ksafd os ;g lkfcr djuk pkgrs gSa fd tula[;k fLFkjhdj.k ds ç;kl esa os Hkh ;ksxnku ns jgs gSaA gekjs v/;;u esa tks eqf'dysa vkSj lhek,a Fkha mldk mYys[k djuk t:jh gSA ckotwn blds fd ^jkVªh; fgr* vkSj ^tula[;k foLQksV* dk mYys[k nks cPpksa dk dkuwu cukus ds fy, vk/kkj ds :i esa fd;k tkrk gSA oLrqr% bl dkuwu dks rksM+us dh otg ls fdrus yksx v;ksX; djkj fn;s x;s bldk dksbZ vkadM+k miyC/k ugha gSA ;|fi blds fy, dkuwuh dk;Zokgh dh tkrh gS fQj Hkh bl ij yxkrkj utj j[kuk t:jh gSA tc dHkh v;ksX; djkj fn;s x;s yksxksa dh la[;k crk;h tkrh gS vkSj tc ge ogka igqaprs gSa rks ikrs gSa fd nh x;h lwpuk v/kwjh gSA blds vykok v/;;u ds fy, le; dh deh dh otg ls Hkh uewuk pquus dk dke eqf'dy gks x;kA njvly Vhlh,u ¼nks cPpksa dk dkuwu½ ekeys ds nLrkost ,dne v/kdpjs ax ls rS;kj fd;s x;s gSa vkSj tks ljdkjh vkadM+s rS;kj fd;s x;s gSa mls reke nwljs v/;;u qBykrs gSaA mnkgj.kkFkZ] ljdkjh ,tsafl;ka nkok djrh gSa fd ekpZ 2004 rd e/; izns'k vkSj jktLFkku esa nks cPpksa ds dkuwu ls 852 yksx izHkkfor gq, Fks tcfd lek fjlkslZ xzqi vkSj foesu ,saM gsYFk uked xSjljdkjh laxBu dk fjdkMZ crkrk gS fd Qjojh] 2003 rd gh nks cPpksa ds dkuwu ls 866 yksx izHkkfor gks pqds FksA bl dkuwu dh tks vkarfjd çd`fr gS vkSj çh dUlsI'ku ,saM çh uSVy Mk;xksukfLVd VsfDuDl ¼çksfgch'ku vkWo lsDl lysD'ku½ ,sDV] 1994 ¼ihlh,saM ih,uMhVh ,sDV½ dks rksM+rs gq, tks fyax pquko tkap vkSj xHkZikr dh vka/kh jkT;jkT; vkSj ftysftys esa cg pyh gS] og ,d xaHkhj leL;k gSA nks 20
  36. 36. tula[;k uhfr;ka vkSj jktuhfrd Hkkxhnkjh cPpksa ds dkuwu ds f'kdkj gq, yksxksa ds fojksf/k;ksa dks NksM+dj vkSj dksbZ Hkh bl fok; ij ckr ugha djuk pkgrk gSA ,slk ekywe iM+rk gS fd ifjokj ds vkdkj dks ysdj ^O;fDrxr* vkSj ^jkVªh;* le esa vkilh fojks/k gS vkSj ;g ckr bl :i esa lkeus vkrh gS fd yksx c;kuckth esa rks bl dkuwu dk leFkZu djrs gSa ysfdu O;ogkj esa bls rksM+rs gSaA blfy, tc ,d iwoZ efgyk ljiap us 2005 dk pquko fQj ls yM+us dh bPNk trk;h rks og nks cPpksa ds dkuwu ds leFkZu esa cksyh vkSj tc mlls dgk x;k fd og xHkZorh gS ftl otg ls og v;ksX; djkj nh tk ldrh gS rc mlus dgk fd mi;qDr le; vkus ij og lc laHkky ysxhA jkVªh; ifjokj fu;kstu dk;ZØe dk dke gS NksVs ifjokj ds fopkj dks çpkfjr djukA blds dqN eq[; ukjs gSa % ^nks ;k rhu cPps ?kj esa jgrs vPNs*3] ^ge nks gekjs nks*4] vkSj ^nks ;k rhu cPps cl*5A bu ukjksa ds lkFk ,d fp= gksrk gS ftlesa ekrkfirk vkSj nks cPps ¼,d yM+dk vkSj ,d yM+dh½ gksrs gSa tks yksxksa ds fny esa yM+ds ds izfr pkgr dks vkSj etcwr djrh gSA yksx bu ukjksa ls HkyhHkkafr ifjfpr gSaA nks cPpksa ds dkuwu ls lacaf/kr muds fopkj tc geus tkuus pkgs rks mudh çfrfØ;k tks gesa feyh og bu ukjksa ls dkQh çHkkfor FkhA yksx bl ckr ij vpafHkr Fks fd dksbZ NksVs ifjokj dh t:jr ;k mldh okaNuh;rk dks ysdj loky [kM+s dj ldrk gSA njvly os nks cPpksa ds dkuwu dh rqyuk lkekftdfodkl vkSj L=hLora=rk tSls eqíksa ls djrs gSaA cgjgky] nks cPpksa ds dkuwu dh t:jrksa dks iwjk djus ds Øe esa ;s ukjs vkSj fp= dqN lansgkLin vkpj.kksa dks tUe nsrs gSaA tc yksx csfV;ksa dks ysdj lkaLd`frd ,oa lkekftd fjoktksa vkSj iwokZxzg ls xzLr fopkjksa ls [kqn dks vyx ugha dj ikrs gSaA cPpksa dh vkn'kZ la[;k dks ysdj ljdkj dh lksp ij Hkh os fopkj çdV djrs gSa tks LokHkkfod :i ls yksxksa dh lksp dks çHkkfor djrk gSA bl xyr /kkj.kk ls fd phu us ,d cPps dk fl)kar ykxw dj tula[;k o`f) ij fu;a=.k dj fy;k gS] nks cPpksa ds dkuwu dks dkQh leFkZu feyk gSA lkekU; :i ls] ,dne ckgj ls Fkksis x;s ekud ftls dkuwu }kjk ykxw djuk iM+rk gS vkSj tokcnsgh ds lkFk pquus ds fopkj ds chp varj dkQh /kqa/kyk gSA vius losZ{k.k esa geus ftu ikap jkT;ksa dks 'kkfey fd;k Fkk] ;gh ço`fÙk ns[kus esa vk;hA bl losZ{k.k ds nkSjku geus 272 yksxksa ls loky fd;s ftuesa nl leqnk;lnL; Fks ftUgksaus Qksdl xzqi fMld'ku esa fgLlk fy;k Fkk] 56 ljdkjh vf/kdkjh Fks vkSj 70 fHkUu yksx Fks ftuesa odhy] ehfM;k ds yksx vkSj xSjljdkjh laxBu ds dk;ZdrkZ FksA geus çR;sd jkT; ds nksnks ftyksa ds 136 iapk;r çfrfuf/k;ksa ¼vka/kz çns'k vkSj mM+hlk dks NksM+dj tgka ds flQZ ,d,d ftys ds çfrfuf/k;ksa ls loky fd;s x;s½ ls Hkh ckrphr dh tks ;k rks v;ksX; djkj fn;s x;s Fks ;k Vhlh,u ds rgr dkjZokbZ dk lkeuk dj jgs FksA ckrphr vkSj ifjçs{; dk fo'ysk.k uhps fd;k tk jgk gSA vf/kdkfj;ksa vkSj ukxj lekt ds ifjçs{; vkSj fopkj ljdkjh vf/kdkjh nks cPpksa ds çko/kku dh egÙkk dks ysdj lHkh jkT;ksa ds ofjB ljdkjh inkf/kdkfj;ksa ds fopkjksa esa ,d:irk FkhA mUgksaus ^tula[;k leL;k* vkSj ^jkVªh; fgr* dks bldh otg crkrs gq, viuh jk; j[khA ,d ofjB LokLF; uhfr fuekZrk us dgk] ^lkekftd fodkl ds fy, ge fdruk bartkj dj ldrs gSa tula[;k csgn xaHkhj leL;k gSA ^iapk;rksa dks ysdj uhfr rS;kj djus okys nwljs us dgk] ^tula[;k ,d xaHkhj jkVªh; leL;k gSA blls tSls Hkh fuiVk tk, tk;t gSA* 3 Þn gkse bt gSih fon Vw Vq Fkzh fpYMªuß 4 ßoh Vw] voj VwÞ 5 Þvksuyh Vw vkWj Fkzh fpYMªuß 21
  37. 37. neu ;k l'kfDrdj.k muds fopkjksa esa bl vçekf.kr dYiuk dks ysdj Hkh ,d:irk Fkh fd nks cPpksa dk çko/kku ykxw gksus ls iapk;r ds lnL; NksVk ifjokj j[kus yxsaxs vkSj rc leqnk; esa O;kid :i ls Hkh yksx NksVk ifjokj j[kus yxsaxsA vf/kdkfj;ksa us bl /kkj.kk dks tjk Hkh egRo ugha fn;k fd nks cPpksa ds çko/kku dh otg ls djk;s tkus okys xHkZikr vkSj fL=;ksa dks NksM+ nsus dh ?kVuk ls mudh ftanxh vkSj Hkh [krjs esa iM+ tkrh gSA blds foijhr os bl xyr /kkj.kk dks viuk;s gq, gSa fd iapk;r pquko thr dj efgyk;sa bruh l'kDr gks tkrh gSa fd os Lo;a r; dj ldrh gSa fd cPps dc gks vkSj fdrus gksa vkSj csVk iSnk djus ds ikfjokfjd@lkekftd ncko dk Hkh lkeuk dj ldrh gSaA fØ;kUo;u Lrj ij fn[kk;h ;g nsrk gS fd iapk;r esa in ikus dh ;ksX;rk ds fy, tks X;kjg ;k ckjg 'krs± j[kh x;h gSa muesa ls ,d gS nks cPpksa ds dkuwu dk ikyu djukA mijksDr fVIif.k;ksa ds vykok dqN vkSj Hkh fVIif.k;ka gSa tks /;ku nsus ;ksX; gSaA gfj;k.kk ds ,d vf/kdkjh us dgk fd fdlh dks ijs'kku djus ds fy, Vhlh,u ,d egRoiw.kZ vkStkj gSA mlus bl dkuwu dks mRihM+u dkuwu dgkA mM+hlk esa esfMdy dkyst ds ,d çksQslj us dgk fd phu ds ,d cPps ds dkuwu dh rjg ;gka Hkh dksbZ l[r dkuwu pkfg,A fnypLi ckr ;g gS fd mM+hlk esa tula[;k o`f) nj de gSA vka/kz çns'k esa tks nf{k.k dk ,dek= jkT; gS tgka Vhlh,u dkuwu ykxw gS] ,d ftyk LokLF; vf/kdkjh us nkok fd;k fd ;g dkuwu vuko';d gS D;ksafd NksVk ifjokj j[kus dh bPNk lkoZHkkSfed ¼lHkh dh½ gSA vf/koDrk ikap jkT;ksa ds mPp U;k;ky;ksa dk odhy leqnk; bl ckr ij lger Fkk fd nks cPpksa dk dkuwu U;k;ksfpr gSA mÙkj Hkkjrh; jkT;ksa esa nks cPpksa ds dkuwu dks lgh crkus dh eq[; otg ^jkVªh; fgr* FkkA jktLFkku mPp U;k;ky; us dbZ ekeyksa esa bl dkuwu ds leFkZu esa QSlys lquk;s vkSj odhy Hkh blls lger FksA cgjgky] vka/kz çns'k dh fupyh vnkyr esa odkyr dj jgk ,d odhy ,slk Hkh feyk tks Vhlh,u dkuwu dks ykxw djus ds fy, viuk;h tkus okyh vkifÙktud çfØ;k dks ysdj dkQh LiV FkkA mlus dgk] ^;g dkuwu xjhcksa ds lkFk /kks[ksckth dj jgk gSA f'kf{kr yksx vui+ksa ds lkFk Ny dj jgs gSaA xyr çek.ki= fn[kk;s tkrs gSaA dqN yksx dgrs gSa fd mUgksaus xksn ysus ds fy, cPps dks ns fn;k gS rks nwljs badkj djrs gSa fd ogka cPpk gSA gj çdkj dh pht ;gka gks jgh gS vkSj fdlh u fdlh çdkj ls T;knkrj mEehnokj blds igys fd dksVZ dk QSlyk vk,] viuk dk;Zdky iwjk dj ysrk gSA* mM+hlk ds ,d odhy dk ekuuk Fkk fd ;g dkuwu ukxfjd vf/kdkj dk guu djrk gS vkSj futhRo dk vfrØe.k djrk gSA Vhlh,u ekeyksa dks ns[kus okys odhyksa ds fy, ;g egt ,d vkSj dkuwu Hkj gSA T;knkrj yksxksa dk ekuuk Fkk fd nks cPpksa ds dkuwu dks ykxw djus esa vkus okyh leL;kvksa ls cpk tk ldrk gS vxj bldh tkudkjh dks csgrj ax ls çpkfjr fd;k tk,A ehfM;k çR;sd jkT; esa ehfM;k dh Hkwfedk cl brus rd gh lhfer Fkh fd nks cPpksa dk dkuwu ogka ykxw gS vkSj T;knk ls T;knk bruh Hkj fjiksVZ gksrh Fkh fd fdruh f'kdk;rsa feyha vkSj fdruksa dks v;ksX; ?kksfkr fd;k x;kA lHkh jkT;ksa ds ehfM;kdfeZ;ksa dk ekuuk Fkk fd bl dkuwu ij vkSj yksxksa fo'kskdj fL=;ksa ds yksdrkaf=d vf/kdkjksa ij iM+us okys blds çHkko dks ysdj ehfM;k esa FkksM+h cgl gksuh pkfg, FkhA mudk ;g Hkh er Fkk fd bl dkuwu dks fo/kk;dksa vkSj lkalnksa ds fy, Hkh ykxw fd;k tkuk pkfg,A xSjljdkjh laxBu xSjljdkjh laxBu leqnk; ls fefJr çfrfØ;k feyhA dqN us bldk leFkZu fd;k tcfd dbZ ,sls Hkh Fks ftudk ekuuk Fkk fd ;g L=h fojks/kh gS vkSj blds nq#i;ksx dh vikj laHkkouk gSA xSjljdkjh laxBu 22
  38. 38. tula[;k uhfr;ka vkSj jktuhfrd Hkkxhnkjh ds dqN usrkvksa dk ekuuk Fkk fd ;g dkuwu nfyrksa vkSj xjhcksa ds fy, cqjk gS D;ksafd os dbZ otgksa ls cM+k ifjokj j[kuk pkgrs gSaA mUgksaus Lohdkj fd;k fd vHkh mUgksaus nks cPpksa ds dkuwu ds fufgrkFkks± dh O;k[;k ugha dh gS vkSj u iapk;r çfrfuf/k;ksa ds fy, gq, çf'k{k.k dk;ZØe esa bls mtkxj fd;k gSA lkeqnkf;d lnL; lekt ds lnL;ksa esa nks cPpksa ds dkuwu dks ysdj fHkUu fopkj ns[kus dks feysA mPp oxZ ds iq#kksa esa bl ckr ij lgefr fn[kkbZ nh fd ;g dkuwu mi;ksxh gS] tcfd fL=;ka vkSj xjhc yksx fpafrr fn[ksA mudh fpark Fkh fd D;k [kjkc LokLF; lsok dh otg ls muds cPps thfor jg ik,axsA lekt ds lnL;ksa us bl dkuwu ds nq#i;ksx fd;s tkus ij dVk{k djrs gq, dgk fd bldk bLrseky vkilh ;k jktuhfrd cnyk pqdkus ds fy, gksrk gS vkSj ;g Hkh lPpkbZ gS fd lEiUu yksx bl dkuwu ls vklkuh ls cp fudyrs gSaA Qksdl lewg okrkZ esa lnL;ksa us LiV :i ls dgk fd çHkko'kkyh yksx vxj bl dkuwu dks rksM+rs Hkh gSa rks bl ckr dh laHkkouk dkQh de gksrh gS fd mUgsa dksbZ pqukSrh ns vkSj vxj fdlh us pqukSrh ns Hkh nh rks eqdnes ds tfj;s os vklkuh ls pqukSrh dk lkeuk dj ysrs gSaA blds foijhr xjhc] vkSj fo'kskdj fL=;ka bl fLFkfr esa ugha gksrh gSaA mudh fLFkfr bruh detksj gksrh gSa fd os pqukSfr;ksa dk lkeuk ugha dj ikrsA vius v/;;u esa Hkh geus ;gh ik;kA mnkgj.k ds rkSj ij ,d çHkko'kkyh efgyk ljiap ds f[kykQ f'kdk;r ij lquokbZ jksd nh x;h tc mldh cPph chekjh vkSj ykijokgh dh otg ls ej x;h] ysfdu vk;qDr us ,d nwljs O;fDr dks v;ksX; djkj ns fn;k tcfd mldk e`r cPpk iSnk gqvk FkkA bl eqís ij O;kid cgl 'kk;n blfy, ugha gks ikrh gS D;ksafd vnkyrsa 'kq: ls gh bl dkuwu dks yxkrkj tk;t Bgjk jgh gSa vkSj vius QSlyksa esa foLrkj ls ^tula[;k foLQksV* vkSj tula[;k fu;a=.k ds ladV* dk rdZ xrh gSaA v;ksX;rk dh pqukSrh sy jgs iapk;r çfrfuf/k;ksa ds vuqHko gekjs v/;;u esa dqy 136 iapk;r izfrfuf/k izfrHkkxh ds :i esa 'kkfey Fks tks v;ksX; ?kksfkr fd;s x;s FksA lHkh ls ckrphr ds vk/kkj ij 43 foLr`r v/;;u izi= rS;kj fd;s x;sA blls ;g rLohj mHkjdj lkeus vk;h „„ efgyk izfrHkkfx;ksa esa ls 41 izfr'kr ¼yxHkx vk/ks½ dk iapk;rksa esa vkuqikfrd izfrfuf/kRo ,dfrgkbZ gS „„ lekt ds detksj rcdksa tSls vuqlwfpr tkfr] vuqlwfpr tutkfr vkSj vU; fiNM+s oxks± ¼vkschlh½ ls 80 izfr'kr izfrfuf/k FksA ekpZ 2004 ls ykxw nks cPpksa ds dkuwu ls lHkh izHkkfor gSaA buesa ls 72 izfr'kr blh oxZ ls gSaA „„ ipkl izfr'kr izfrHkkfx;ksa dh okfkZd vk; 20]000 #i;s ls de gSA vf/kdrj izfrHkkxh 21 ls 49 vk;q oxZ ds ;qok gSaA cM+h la[;k esa ¼yxHkx 95 izfr'kr½ tks xzke lHkk Lrj dk izfrfuf/kRo djrs gSa] vkfFkZd vkSj 'kSf{kd :i ls detksj gSaA CykWd ;k ftys dk izfrfuf/kRo djus okys buls Bhd fLFkfr esa gSA ljiapksa ¼49 izfr'kr½ dh fLFkfr iapksa ¼46 izfr'kr½ ls csgrj FkhA xHkZ fujks/kd mi;ksx vkSj ifjokj fu;kstu nks cPpksa ds dkuwu dk eq[; mís'; xHkZ fujks/k ds pyu dks c+kok nsuk gS rkfd ifjokj NksVk jgsA çHkkfor çfrfuf/k;ksa esa ls T;knkrj yksx ¼80 çfr'kr½ NksVs ifjokj dh egÙkk dks lers Fks vkSj vk/ks ls T;knk yksx ¼53 çfr'kr½ LFkk;h xHkZ fujks/k ds rjhds dk bLrseky djrs Fks ysfdu ,slk os rHkh djrs Fks tc mudh viuh 23
  39. 39. neu ;k l'kfDrdj.k bPNk ds vuq:i ifjokj dk vkdkj gks tkrk Fkk ;kuh fd nks ls T;knk cPps ftuesa de ls de ,d ;k nks csVA yxHkx ,d pkSFkkbZ ¼23 çfr'kr½ çfroknh fdlh u fdlh çdkj ds xHkZ fujks/k dk bLrseky djrs FksA s X;kjg ekeys xHkZikr ds feys vkSj çloiw.kZ fyaxfu/kkZj.k tkap ds pkj ekeys fn[ksA vka/kz çns'k esa ftu 23 iapk;r çfrfuf/k;ksa ls eqykdkr dh x;h muesa ls v;ksX; djkj fn;s x;s T;knkrj yksxksa ¼17 esa 15½ us nkok fd;k fd mUgksaus rHkh LFkk;h xHkZ fujks/kd dks viuk;k tc mUgksaus viuh bPNk ds vuq:i viuk ifjokj cuk fy;kA T;knkrj çfroknh ifjokj fu;kstu ds rjhdksa vkSj NksVs ifjokj ds ykHk ls okfdQ FksA mudk dguk Fkk fd ca/;kdj.k ds muds QSlys dk muds pquko yM+us ds QSlys ls dksbZ laca/k ugha gSA nwljh rjQ] e/; çns'k esa v;ksX; djkj fn;s x;s yksxksa esa ls ckuxh ds rkSj ij ftu chl yksxksa ls ckrphr dh x;h muesa ls flQZ ckjg yksx ifjokj fu;kstu ds rjhdksa ls okfdQ FksA buesa ls flQZ 8 yksx fdlh u fdlh çdkj ds xHkZ fujks/kd dk bLrseky djrs FksA ;g ns[kus esa vk;k fd ifjokj okLrfod la[;k ls de djds cPpksa dh la[;k fn[kkus dh dksf'k'k djrk Fkk rkfd nks cPpksa ds dkuwu ds mYya?ku dh otg ls v;ksX; ?kksfkr fd;s tkus ls cp tk;saA uyxksaMk esa dqEgkj tkfr ds ,d 35 okhZ; ljiap dks nks ifRu;ksa ls pkj cPps FksA mldk rdZ Fkk fd mlus nks cPpksa ds dkuwu dk mYya?ku ugha fd;k gS D;ksafd mlus nwljh iRuh dks NksM+ fn;k gSA ;g nwljh iRuh mlds nks cPpksa dh eka Fkh vkSj mlh xkao esa jgrh FkhA mlh ftys esa vuqlwfpr tkfr ds pkyhl okhZ; ,d vU; ljiap us pquko ds oDr viuh iRuh dks ek;ds Hkst fn;k tks rhljh ckj eka cuus tk jgh FkhA mlds f[kykQ f'kdk;r dh x;h ysfdu f'kdk;r dks okil ysuk iM+k D;ksafd nfyr laxBu us /kedh nh fd os bl ckr dk inkZQk'k djsaxs fd ftys esa fdl rjg çHkko'kkyh yksxksa us nks cPpksa ds dkuwu dks rksM+k gSA ckn esa vuqlwfpr tkfr ds ml mEehnokj us pqipki ,d nwljh vkSjr ls 'kknh dj yhA okZ 1995 esa jktLFkku esa ,d iapk;r lfefr ds ç/kku ds in ij ferok uke dh ,d fiNM+h tkfr dh L=h dk pquko gqvkA og ifjokj esa lcls T;knk i+h fy[kh FkhA og rhljk cPpk ugha pkgrh Fkh ysfdu mldk ifr pkgrk Fkk fd ,d vkSj csVk gksA pquko ds ckn mldk rhu ckj xHkZikr gqvkA og Lruiku djkus okyh eka Fkh ysfdu vius v?kksfkr cPps dks og u rks lcds lkeus nw/k fiyk ldrh Fkh vkSj u mls ysdj lHkkvksa esa tk ldrh FkhA ;g lc 1998 rd pyk tc rd fd Vhlh,u dkuwu rksM+us ij dh x;h f'kdk;r vkSj fn;s x;s QSlys us mls dVq cuk fn;k vkSj mldk eksg Hkax gks x;kA e/; çns'k esa eqjSuk ftys esa xzke iapk;r ds ljiap eaxrjke dh iRuh us uoacj 2001 esa rhljs cPps dks tUe fn;kA mlus nkok fd;k fd cPpk mldk ugha gks ldrk gS D;ksafd mldh iRuh uoacj] 1999 ls gh mÙkj çns'k esa vius firk ds ?kj jg jgh FkhA mlus ijxeu ds vk/kkj ij iRuh dks rykd nsus gsrq vfrfjDr ftyk naMkf/kdkjh ls vuqefr ekaxhA6 lokbZ ek/kksiqj ftys dh ,d rhl okhZ; laiUu jktiwr ljiap dh ,d csVk vkSj nks csfV;ka FkhA tc og ljiap ds in ij Fkh rHkh mls pkSFkk cPpk gksus dks FkkA njvly mldk ifjokj ,d vkSj csVk pkgrk Fkk D;ksafd muds chp ;g ekU;rk çpfyr Fkh fd ,d csVk flQZ ,d vka[k ds leku gksrk gSA og viuh uun ds uke ls vLirky esa HkrhZ gqbZ vkSj cPps dks tUe fn;kA mls csVh iSnk gqbZ ftls mlus 'kgj esa NksM+ fn;kA Ng eghus ds Hkhrj lw[k dj og ej x;hA bl rjhds ls mlus vius f[kykQ f'kdk;r ij dkjZokbZ can djok;hA mlds ifr dks nwljh iRuh ls Hkh nks cPps FksA vxLr] 2001 esa gksus okys iapk;r pquko esa ljiap ds in ds fy, ekgs'ojh [kM+k gksuk pkgrh Fkh blfy, mlus xHkZikr djk;kA og pquko gkj x;h vkSj ckn esa mlds nks okZ ds csVs us nq?kZVuko'k feêh 6 uo Hkkjr] Hkksiky laLdj.k] 16 vizSy 2002 24
  40. 40. tula[;k uhfr;ka vkSj jktuhfrd Hkkxhnkjh rsy ih fy;k vkSj ej x;kA cgjgky] mlus xHkZikr djokus ls badkj fd;kA 'kk;n mls tkapiM+rky dk Mj FkkA gekjs losZ{k.k ds le; og ,d ckj fQj xHkZorh FkhA mM+hlk ds vaxqy ftys esa vuqlwfpr tutkfr dh 26 okhZ;k esudk ljiap FkhA mldh rhu csfV;ka Fkha ftuesa ,d dk tUe nks cPpksa ds dkuwu ds ykxw gksus dh fu/kkZfjr frfFk ds ckn gqvk FkkA og dksbZ Hkh xHkZ fujks/kd dk bLrseky ugha djrh Fkh vkSj u gh mlus ca/;kdj.k djok;k Fkk D;ksafd og ,d csVk pkgrh FkhA tc og rhljh ckj xHkZorh gqbZ Fkh rks mlus fyax fu/kkZj.k tkap djkbZ vkSj MkWDVj us dgk Fkk fd mlds xHkZ esa csVk gSA ysfdu MkWDVj ls xyrh gqbZ FkhA mldh yM+dh iSnk gqbZ FkhA mlus dgk fd vxj og tkurh fd csVh gS rks og xHkZikr djk nsrhA vc eSa viuk in Hkh [kks pqdh gwa vkSj eqs csVk Hkh ugha gSA* xyr çek.ki= ysdj fd ,d cPph mldh cgu dh gS mlus vlQy dksf'k'k dh fd mls v;ksX; u Bgjk;k tk,A nks cPpksa ds dkuwu ds ckotwn ,sls cgqr ls yksx gSa ftUgsa dbZ O;fDrxr dkj.kksa ls T;knk cPps gSaA vuqlwfpr tkfr dh iSarhl okhZ; jpuk vf'kf{kr gS] etnwjh djrh gS vkSj Qjhnkckn ftys esa ljiap gSA mldk ifr Hkh vf'kf{kr gS vkSj jktfeL=h dk dke djrk gSA mlus 2000 esa iapk;r dk pquko yM+k vkSj vulwfpr tkfr ds fy, vkjf{kr lhV ij mls fot;h ?kksfkr fd;k x;kA ljiap ds in ij jgrs mlus vkBosa cPps dks tUe fn;kA mls tc v;ksX; ?kksfkr fd;s tkus laca/kh uksfVl tkjh fd;k x;k rks mlus dksbZ çfrokn ugha fd;kA mlus lkekU; ax ls dgk] ^^,d xjhc vkneh Hkyk dSls ukjktxh fn[kk ldrk gS ljiap dk in vxj pyk Hkh tkrk gS rks D;k QdZ iM+rk gSA eSa igys Hkh etnwjh dk dke djrh Fkh] vc fQj d:axhA** cSrwy] e/; çns'k esa vuqlwfpr tutkfr dk jkek ljiap gSA mls rhu ifRu;ksa ls Ng csVs gSaA lcls NksVk csVk Qjojh] 2001 esa iSnk gqvk FkkA tc mlls Vhlh,u dkuwu ds ckjs iwNk x;k rks mlus bls dkQh gYds ls fy;k vkSj dgk fd iapk;r ds lfpo ls blds ckjs esa dqN lquk gSA tc geus mls crk;k fd csVs ds dkj.k mls in ds fy, v;ksX; ?kksfkr fd;k tk ldrk gS rc mlus dgk] ^^cq+kis esa ljiap dk in gekjk lkFk ugha nsxk ysfdu esjk csVk nsxkA vxj ljiap dk in pyk Hkh tkrk gS rks blls dksbZ QdZ ugha iM+rk gSA** vius v/;;u ds nkSjku geus nks cPpksa ds dkuwu ds mYya?ku ds dbZ ekeys ns[ks ysfdu dkuwu rksM+us okys dbZ izfrfuf/k;ksa ds f[kykQ dksbZ dkjZokbZ dHkh 'kq: ugha dh x;hA ysfdu tc 2004 esa cSrwy ftys esa dbZ izfrfuf/k;ksa dks v;ksX; djkj fn;k x;k rc Hkh çfrfuf/k;ksa ds fopkj esa dksbZ cnyko ugha vk;kA mudk ekuuk Fkk fd cq+kis esa csVk gh muds dke vk,xk vkSj mudh ,dek= fpark csVksa ds thfor cps jgus dks ysdj FkhA iap ds in ij vklhu rhl okhZ;k l:ih us ikapos cPps dks tUe nsus ds ckn ca/;kdj.k djok;k ysfdu mls Vhlh,u dkuwu ds rgr v;ksX; ekus tkus dk uksfVl ugha fd;k x;k D;ksafd mldk vafre cPpk 2001 dh fu/kkZfjr frfFk ls igys iSnk gqvk FkkA cgjgky] xzke iapk;r ljiap ls uksfVl feyus ij mlus dgk] Þgeus T;knk cPps blfy, iSnk fd;s rkfd buesa ls ,dnks ej Hkh tk,a rks dqN rks cpsaxs tks cq+kis esa lq[k nsaxsAß vuqlwfpr tkfr dh rhl okhZ;k jk/kk 1997 esa iap ds in ij fuokZfpr gqbZA tc og iap ds in ij Fkh rHkh pkSFkh ckj xHkZorh gqbZA mlus Hkzw.k dk fyax ijh{k.k djok;kA mlls dgk x;k fd xHkZ esa eknk Hkzw.k gSA mlus xHkZikr djok fy;kA vxyh ckj tc og fQj xHkZorh gqbZ rks mlus fQj fyax tkap djok;hA bl ckj yM+dk FkkA mlus xHkZikr ugha djok;k vkSj csVs dks tUe fn;kA blds ckn mls iap ds in ls gVk fn;k x;kA jk/kk ds fy, bl jktuhfrd in ls dgha T;knk egRoiw.kZ csVk FkkA bl rjg dh dgkfu;ka gj jkT; esa ns[kus esa vk;haA 25

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