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2011 certification prep workshop


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2011 certification prep workshop

  1. 1. WELCOME<br />HR FLORIDA 2011<br />PHR/SPHR CERTIFICATION <br />PREP COURSE<br />Sponsored by:<br />August 28, 2011<br />
  2. 2. SESSION AGENDA<br />
  3. 3. THE EXAM:<br /> EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO KNOW<br /><ul><li>Where Do the Questions Come From?
  4. 4. Cognitive Levels
  5. 5. The Dilemma: PHR or SPHR?
  6. 6. The Biggest Pieces
  7. 7. Exam Questions: The 225 Breakdown
  8. 8. Scoring the Test: Raw, Scaled & Equating
  9. 9. What to Expect
  10. 10. Test Taking Tips
  11. 11. Sample Test Question
  12. 12. Exam and Deadlines</li></li></ul><li>HRCI Certification Handbook<br />HR Certification Institute1800 Duke Street · Alexandria, Virginia 22314US Toll Free +1.866.898.4724HR Certification Institute is an affiliate of the Society for Human Resource Management<br /><br />
  13. 13. WHERE DO THE QUESTIONS COME FROM?<br />Teams of Certified HR Professionals With Special Training in Item Development<br />Every Question Passes 3 Levels of Review<br />Every Question Pre-tested Before Being Used to Score the Exam<br />
  14. 14. THE DILEMMA:PHR/SPHR?<br />Responsibility<br />Reporting<br />Breadth/Scope<br />Impact<br />Business Knowledge<br />Credibility<br />
  15. 15. THE BIGGEST PIECES<br />PHR Emphasis: <br />Workforce Planning & Employment 26% <br />Employee & Labor Relations 22% 48% <br />SPHR Emphasis:<br />Strategic Management 29%<br />Employee & Labor Relations 18%<br /> 47%<br />
  17. 17. SCORING THE TESTSRAW, SCALED & EQUATING<br />Raw Scores<br />Number answered correctly (129-144)<br />Scaled Scores<br />Scores 100 – 700 (Minimum 500 is passing)<br />Equating the Scores<br />No two tests the same<br />Ensures comparable proficiency<br />Adjusts minimum raw score<br />PHR – 67% to 56% pass<br />SPHR – 60% to 50% pass<br />
  18. 18. WHAT TO EXPECT<br /> No Trick Questions<br /> No Trivia Questions<br /> No Dates<br /> No All of the Above<br /> No None of the Above<br /> Know Acronyms<br />
  19. 19. TEST TAKING TIPS<br />Relax - Don’t Study the Night Before<br />Won’t Know All of the Answers<br />Arrive on Time<br />Dress Comfortably - Bring Sweater<br />No Extra Credit for Finishing Early<br />1.07 Per Question<br />
  20. 20. TEST TAKING TIPS (cont)<br />The Basics:<br />Read each question carefully!<br /> The Answer is NOT always “C”<br /> Read All of the Choices<br /> Answer All Questions<br /> First Chosen Answers are Usually Correct<br />
  21. 21. TEST TAKING TIPS (cont)<br />Fine Distinctions Between Correct and Nearly Correct Statements<br /><ul><li>Process of Elimination
  22. 22. Echo Options
  23. 23. Negatives
  24. 24. Absolutes
  25. 25. Qualifiers</li></ul>B<br />A<br />C<br />
  26. 26. Sample Test Question<br />The owner of a growing authentic Japanese Steak house is looking to hire his 10th employee. The amount of applicants overwhelm him. In frustration, the owner suddenly announces that only Japanese applicants may apply. One Caucasian applicant remains. The applicant states that the owner has acted illegally and that he is going to report the owner to the EEOC. The owner _________<br />A. Has nothing to fear from this EEOC complaint <br />B. Should just hire the applicant to keep him quiet<br />C. Must go ahead and interview this applicant<br />D. Should interview the applicant and make a contingent offer<br />
  27. 27. EXAM & DEADLINES<br />
  28. 28. TOTAL REWARDS<br />Presented by<br />Don C. Works, III, JD, SPHR<br />Jackson Lewis LLP<br />Orlando<br />407-246-8433<br /><br />
  29. 29. LAWS GOVERNING COMPENSATION<br />Davis-Bacon Act, 1931<br />Copeland "Anti-Kickback" Act, 1934<br />Walsh-Healey Act, 1936<br />Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), 1938<br />Equal Pay (EPA), 1963<br />
  30. 30. FLSA<br />Establishes Minimum Wage<br />Requires Overtime Pay - 1.5 hours over 40<br />Establishes exemptions from overtime & minimum wage (“exempt” v. “non-exempt”)<br />Limits employment of child labor<br />
  31. 31. FLSA EXEMPTIONS<br /> Exempt Employees Must Generally Meet Two Tests Requirements:<br />Paid on a Salary Basis, With a Salary of At Least $455/week and Without Improper Deductions<br />Perform Exempt Duties<br />
  32. 32. EXECUTIVE EXEMPTION<br />Employee’s Primary Duty Must be the Management of an Enterprise or a Department or Subdivision and:<br />– Direct the Work of at Least Two or More FTE’s <br /> (or Equivalent PTE’s) <br />– Authority to Hire, Fire or Make Recommendations<br />– Recommendations are Given Particular Weight<br />
  33. 33. ADMINISTRATIVE EXEMPTION<br />Primary Duty – Office or Nonmanual Work Directly Related to the Management or General Business Operations of the Employer or the Employer’s Customers<br />Requires Exercise of Discretion and Independent Judgment in <br /> Matters of Significance<br />
  34. 34. PROFESSIONAL EXEMPTIONS<br />Learned Professionals:<br />Requires Advanced Knowledge Acquired by Prolonged Instruction in a Field of Science or Learning<br />Intellectual in Nature<br />Requires Exercise of <br /> Discretion and Judgment<br />
  35. 35. PROFESSIONAL EXEMPTIONS<br />Creative Professionals:<br /><ul><li>Have a Primary Duty Performing Work That Requires Invention, Imagination, Originality, or Talent
  36. 36. Perform in a Recognized </li></ul> Field of Creative or <br /> Artistic Endeavor<br />
  37. 37. HIGHLY COMPENSATED EMPLOYEE EXEMPTION<br />A Highly Compensated Employee Must:<br />Minimum Compensation of at least $100,000.00 ($455/week of which must be paid on a salary basis)<br />Perform One of the Job Duties of an Exempt Administrative, Executive, or Professional<br />
  38. 38. COMPUTER RELATED OCCUPATIONS<br />Salary of $455 Per Week or $27.63 Per Hour<br />Performs higher level computer work involving design, analysis and implementation of systems<br />“Help desk” positions not exempt<br />
  39. 39. OUTSIDE SALES EXEMPTION<br />An Employee Must:<br />Have a Primary Duty Involving Making Sales or Obtaining Orders and Contracts<br />Be Customarily and Regularly Engaged Away From the Employer’s Place of Business<br />Note: No salary requirement<br />
  40. 40. PERMISSIBLE DEDUCTIONS FROM SALARY<br />Full day absences due to sickness or disability if deductions under a bona fide plan, policy or practice of providing wage replacement benefits for these types of absences<br />Good faith full day disciplinary suspensions for infractions of written workplace conduct rules<br />First or last week of employment, as long as the employee is paid a proportionate share of salary for time actually worked<br />Penalties imposed in good faith for violating safety rules of “major significance”<br />FMLA leave including both partial and full day absences<br />To offset amounts received as payment for jury fees, witness fees or military pay<br />
  41. 41. SAFE HARBOR<br />“Salary Basis” will not be destroyed if:<br />Employer Has a Clearly Communicated Policy Prohibiting Improper Pay Deductions<br />Employees Are Reimbursed for Any Improper Deductions<br />Employer Makes a Good-Faith Effort to Comply in the Future<br />
  42. 42. FLSA MINIMUM WAGE REQUIREMENTS<br />$7.25 July 24, 2009<br />$2.13 Per Hour Tip Credit Unchanged<br />– Cash Wage Plus Tips = Minimum Wage<br />
  43. 43. FLSA BASIC OVERTIME REQUIREMENTS<br />Sets Rate of Overtime Pay <br /> (1.5 X Regular Pay)<br />Requires Overtime for “Hours Worked”<br />Workweek Is Any Fixed, Recurring Period of 168 Hours (7 Days X 24 Hours)<br />
  44. 44. COMPENSATORY TIME<br />Overtime Usually Must Be Paid in Cash<br />Public-Sector Employers May Grant Compensatory Time Off<br />Private-Sector Employers May Not Pay With “Comp” Time<br />
  45. 45. PORTAL-TO-PORTAL ACT <br />Defines the Beginning and End of the Workday <br />Provides Guidelines On:<br />On-call/standby Time<br />Preparatory/Concluding Activities<br />Waiting Time<br />Meals and Breaks<br />Travel Time<br />Training Time<br />
  46. 46. EQUAL PAY ACT<br />Equal Pay for<br />Equal Work:<br />Effort<br />Working<br />conditions<br />Responsibility<br />Skills<br />
  47. 47. DIRECT VERSUS INDIRECT COMPENSATION<br />Base Pay<br />Differential Pay<br />Incentive Pay<br />Selected Employees<br />Cash Recognition<br />Legally Required Benefits<br />Income Replacement<br />STD/LTD<br />Medical<br />Deferred Pay<br />Pay for Time Not Worked/Unpaid Leave<br />
  48. 48. ECONOMIC FACTORS THAT IMPACT COMPENSATION SYSTEM<br />Inflation – COLA’s<br />Salary Compression<br />Interest Rates<br />Foreign Competition<br />Wage/Price Spiral<br />Economic Growth<br />Productivity/Labor Market Trends<br />
  49. 49. COMPENSATION SYSTEM OBJECTIVES<br />Attract<br />Motivate<br />Retain<br />Competitive<br />Equitable<br />
  50. 50. MEASURES OF PAY EQUITY<br />Internal<br />Equal Work = Equal Pay<br />Comparable Worth<br />External<br /> Match, Lead, Lag<br /> Industry<br /> Occupation<br /> Geography<br />
  51. 51. COMPA-RATIOS<br />Divide Employee Pay Level by the Midpoint<br />Example: <br />Pay Range $10 - $15/Hour<br />Midpoint $12.50<br />Employee Salary $11.00<br />Compa-Ratio .88%<br />
  52. 52. LEAD VERSUS LAG STRATEGIES<br />Compa-Ratios - Indicators How Actual Wages <br />Lead, Lag or Match Market<br />Compa-Ratio Below 1.0 Means Employee Wages are Less Than Midpoint (Lag)<br />Compa-Ratio Above 1.0 Means Wages Exceed the Midpoint (Lead)<br />
  53. 53. JOB EVALUATION<br />Used to Determine Relative Worth Of Jobs<br />Derived from Job Analysis<br />Non-Quantitative/Quantitative<br />
  54. 54. JOB EVALUATION METHODOLOGY<br />Job Ranking<br />Paired Comparison<br />Point-Factor <br />Factor Comparison<br />Market Based<br />
  55. 55. SELECTED EMPLOYEES<br />
  56. 56. GLOBAL COMPENSATION APPROACHES<br />Home Leaves<br />Travel Allowances<br />Educational Allowances for Children<br />Tax Equalization<br />COLA’s<br />Housing & Utilities Allowance<br />Relocation & Moving <br />ForeignService & Hardship Premiums<br />
  57. 57. GLOBAL COMPENSATION APPROACHES<br />Balance Sheet<br />Global Market<br />Tax Equalization Plan<br />
  58. 58. INDIRECT COMPENSATION<br />Designed to:<br />Reward Continued Employment<br />Retain Good Employees<br />Improve Productivity, Work Quality, Competitiveness<br />Protect Employees’ Physical/Financial Well-Being<br />Affordable for Employers<br />Attractive to Employees<br />
  59. 59. Review Organizational Strategy<br />Review Compensation Philosophy<br />Review Employee Needs<br />Review Current Benefits<br />Conduct Gap Analysis<br />BENEFIT NEEDS ASSESSMENT<br />
  60. 60. GAP ANALYSIS<br /> Revise Benefits That Are Not Meeting<br /> Employee or Organizational Needs<br />
  61. 61. LEGALLY MANDATED BENEFITS<br />Social Security/Medicare<br />Unemployment Insurance<br />Workers’ Compensation<br />COBRA<br />FMLA<br />
  62. 62. WORKERS’ COMPENSATION<br />StateInsurance Program Paid for by the<br /> Employer According to the State by Its Own State Law and by the Federal Government for Federal Workers<br />Provides Income Continuation and<br /> Reimbursement of Accident Expenses for<br /> Employees Who Are Injured on the Job<br />
  63. 63. CATEGORIES OF WORKERS’ COMPENSATION BENEFITS<br />1. Permanent and Total Disability<br />2. Permanent and Temporary Partial Disability<br />3. Survivor’s Benefits in Cases of Fatal Injuries<br />4. Medical Expenses<br />5. Rehabilitation<br />
  64. 64. EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT (ERISA)<br />Applies to Retirement Plans, Medical<br /> Plans, Group Life Insurance, Long Term Disabilities<br />Basic Standards must be Met for Benefit<br /> Programs to Maintain their Tax-Favored Status<br />Designed to Protect Employees in Private<br /> Sector<br />
  65. 65. ERISA (continued)<br />Two minimum options for vesting:<br />1. Cliff Vesting<br />2. Graded<br />
  66. 66. ERISA (continued)<br />Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (PBGC)– Guarantee of Payment (With Limits) to Employees Covered by Terminated Pension Plans<br />Revenue Act Of 1978<br /> – Section 125 - Can Offer Favorable Tax Treatment on Benefits<br /> – Section 401k - Allow Tax Favored Pay Deferrals Toward Retirement<br />Retirement Equity Act (REA), 1984- Legal Protection for Spousal Beneficiaries<br />
  67. 67. REQUIRED COMMUNICATION<br />ERISA Requires:<br />Summaries of the Plan Description, Annual Report, and Material Modifications<br />Filing Form 5500 With the IRS<br />Other Required Communications Include:<br />Continuation of Benefits’ Notice<br />Explanation of Stock Options (SEC Regulation)<br />Posting of Workers’ Compensation Benefits (Required by States)<br />
  68. 68. Consolidated Omnibus BudgetReconciliation Act (COBRA)<br />Employers Who Provide Health Care and<br /> Employ More Than 20 People Must Provide Continuation Benefits<br />Exception: Employment Terminated Due to Gross Misconduct<br />
  69. 69. COBRA QUALIFYING EVENTS<br />Voluntary Termination<br />Involuntary Termination of Employment for any Reason Other Than Gross Misconduct<br />Disability as Determined by the SSA<br />Reduction in Hours Resulting in Loss of Benefits<br />Divorce or Legal Separation From the Employee<br />Employee Becomes Eligible for Medicare<br />Dependent Ceases to Be a “Dependent Child” Under Plan Rules<br />Death of the Employee<br />
  70. 70. CONTINUATION PERIODS<br />(Months)<br />Termination of Employment <br /> for Gross Misconduct 0<br />Termination of Employment for any<br /> Reason other than Gross Misconduct 18<br />Reduction in Hours 18<br />Employee Is Disabled at the Time of <br /> Reduction in Hours or Termination 29<br />Divorce or Death of the Employed Spouse 36<br />Dependent Child Loses Eligibility Status 36<br />
  71. 71. WHEN DOES A COBRA COVERAGE END?<br />Premium for Coverage Is Not Paid<br />Employer Terminates Group Health<br /> Coverage<br />Beneficiary Becomes Covered Under<br /> Another Group Health Plan<br />Qualified Beneficiary Is Entitled to Medicare Benefits<br />
  72. 72. COBRA(continued)<br />Four Notices Employers Must Provide:<br />1. General Notice<br />2. Election Notice<br />3. Notice of Unavailability<br /> of Continuation Coverage<br />4. Notice of Termination of Continuation<br />
  73. 73. FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT (FMLA)<br />Provides 12 Weeks of Unpaid Leave for: Serious Health Condition of Employee, Spouse, Parent or Child; Birth, Adoption or Placement & To Care for Child; A Qualifying Exigency; Being the Spouse, Child, Parent or Next of Kin of a Covered Service Member with a Serious Injury or Illness.<br />Covered Employers - 50+ Employees<br />Eligible Employees – 12 Months/1,250 Hours at Worksite with 50 or more employees within 75 miles<br /> a. Health Benefit Continuation<br /> b. Reinstatement Rights<br /> c. Intermittent Leave (right to transfer to accommodate)<br />
  74. 74. Uniformed Services Employment & Reemployment Rights Act “USERRA”<br />Provides protected leave for up to 5 years of military service<br />Guarantees reinstatement to job individual would have held but for leave (escalator principle)<br />Must permit continuation of health care coverage for up to 24 months (can require payment of up to 102% of premiums)<br /> <br />
  75. 75. OLDER WORKERS BENEFITPROTECTION ACT (OWBPA) 1990<br />Covers Compensation, Terms, Conditions and Privileges Provided Under Employee Benefit Plans<br />Must Be Given 21 or 45 Days to Consider Any<br /> Agreement Under ADEA<br />Group Terminations or Retirement Programs -Provide 7 Days to Revoke Agreement After Signing <br />Eligible Employees Must Be Provided With<br /> Certain Demographic Information As a Part of<br /> Group Term Release or ADEA Claims<br />
  76. 76. OMNIBUS BUDGET RECONCILIATION ACT (OBRA) <br />Reduces Compensation Limits in Qualified<br /> Retirement Programs<br />Require That Health Plans Honor Qualified<br /> Medical Child Support Orders for Dependent<br /> Children of Employees When Issued by a Court<br />Group Health Plans Must Provide Coverage for<br /> Dependent Adopted Children When Those Children Are Placed for Adoption in a Covered Employee’s Home<br />
  77. 77. Health Insurance Portability &Accountability Act (HIPAA)<br />Limits Exclusion for Preexisting Conditions<br />Ensures Availability of Coverage<br />Guarantees Renewability<br />Allows Employees to Change Jobs Without<br /> Concern of Losing Coverage<br />Restricts "Actively at Work" Requirements to<br /> Health Plan Eligibility<br />Established Anti-discrimination Rules for<br /> Plan Participants<br />
  78. 78. QUALIFIED DEFERREDCOMPENSATION PLANS<br />Help to Recruit and Retain Employees<br />Allow People to Retire, Creating New Employment Opportunities<br />Provide Tax Deferrals for Owners and Highly Compensated Employees (HCEs)<br />
  79. 79. CHARACTERISTICS OFQUALIFIED PLANS<br />Under ERISA, Plans Must:<br />Be in Writing and Be Communicated to Employees<br />Be Established for Exclusive Benefit of Employees/beneficiaries<br />Satisfy Rules Concerning Eligibility, Vesting, and Funding<br />Not Favor Officers, Shareholders, or HCEs<br />
  80. 80. DEFINED BENEFIT PLANS<br />Flat-Dollar Formula<br />Cash Balance Plan<br />Career-Average Formula<br /> Final-Pay Formula<br /><ul><li>Benefit Amount - Based on a Formula
  81. 81. Employer Funded
  82. 82. Employer Bears the Risk
  83. 83. Insured by the PBGC</li></li></ul><li>DEFINED CONTRIBUTION PLANS<br />Profit-Sharing Plans<br />Money Purchase Plans<br />ESOPs and 401 (k) Plans<br /> Thrift Plans<br /><ul><li>Employees and Employers Pay a Specific Amount Per Person Into the Fund
  84. 84. Fund Performance</li></ul> Determines Benefits<br />
  85. 85. CASH BALANCE PLAN<br />Type of Defined Benefit Plan<br />Defines Benefit in Terms of Stated Account Balance<br />Employers Assume Investment Risks and Rewards<br />Is Portable<br />At Retirement Employees Receive:<br />Lifetime Annuity<br />Lump Sum<br />
  86. 86. NONQUALIFIED DEFERREDPLANS<br />Provide Additional Benefits to Key Executives <br />Employees Defer Reporting Income; Not Subject to the Limits Placed on Qualified Plans<br />Employer Contributions Are Not Deductible <br />Funds Are not protected by ERISA<br />
  87. 87. HEALTH-CARE PLANS<br />Indemnity (Fee-for-service) Plans<br />Full-choice Plan<br />Employees Can Go to Any Qualified Physician<br />Fees Are Generated When Services Are Used<br />Managed Care Plans<br />Prepaid Health-care Plans<br />Physician Is Paid Per Capita (Per Head) Rather Than for Actual Treatment Provided<br />Members Enroll and Pay a Set Monthly or Annual Fee<br />
  88. 88. TYPES OF MANAGED CARE PLANS<br />Health Maintenance Organizations<br />Group, Staff, and IPA Models<br />Preferred Provider Organizations <br />Point-of-service Organizations<br />Exclusive Provider Organizations<br />Physician Hospital Organizations<br />
  89. 89. OTHER HEALTH CARE OPTIONS<br />Dental Plans<br />Vision Care Plans<br />Prescription Drug Plans<br />Employee Assistance Programs<br />Alternative health care<br />
  90. 90. INCOME REPLACEMENTPROTECTION<br />Sick Leave<br />Long-Term Disability<br />Short-Term Disability<br />
  91. 91. CAFETERIA PLANS SECTION 125 <br />Premium-only Plans<br />Employees Receive Favorable Tax Treatment on Benefits Already Offered<br />Flexible Spending Accounts<br />Pretax Dollars Are Set Aside to Pay for Dependent Care or Unreimbursed Expenses<br />Must “Use It or Lose It”<br />Full Cafeteria Plans<br />Benefit Credits Are Used to Purchase Benefits<br />Unused Credits Can Be Cashed Out<br />
  92. 92. CAFETERIA PLANS – ADVANTAGES<br />Tailored to Employee’s Needs; Change as Employees’ <br /> Lives Change<br />Efficient Use of Benefits<br />Employer Sensitivity to All Program Costs and Employee Cost Sharing<br />Employee’s Awareness of Benefits and Cost<br />Favorable Tax Treatment<br />Employer’s Cost of Benefits Can Be Lowered Over Time<br />
  93. 93. CAFETERIA PLANS – DISADVANTAGES<br />Inappropriate Benefits Chosen<br />Complicated Record Keeping<br />Adverse Selection (Benefits Selected Only by Employees Who Fully Utilize Those Benefits)<br />NondiscriminationRequirementsIRSCode<br />
  94. 94. LIFE INSURANCE PROTECTION<br />Salary Continuation<br />Group-Term Life Insurance<br />Excess Group-Term Life Insurance<br />Dependent Group Life Insurance<br />Split-Dollar Plans<br />
  95. 95. PAID LEAVE<br />Paid Leave for Events:<br />Holiday Pay<br />Vacation Pay<br />Community Service Pay<br />Leave of Absence<br />Bereavement Leave<br />Paid-Time-Off Banks<br />Lumped Into One Account<br />
  97. 97. WORKFORCE PLANNING<br />Presented by<br />Don C. Works, III, JD, SPHR<br />Jackson Lewis LLP<br />Orlando<br />407-246-8433<br /><br />
  98. 98. EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY<br />Decisions Must Be <br />Job and Business Related<br />Hiring<br />Work Assignments<br />Compensation<br />Promotions<br />Terminations<br />
  99. 99. PURPOSE OF EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY INITIATIVES<br />Prevent Employee Discrimination In The Workplace<br />Take Remedial Action To Offset Past Employee Discrimination<br />
  100. 100. TWO TYPES OF DISCRIMINATION<br />Disparate Treatment – <br />Intentional Act<br />Direct Discrimination<br />Unequal Treatment <br />Decision Based on Protected Characteristic <br />Prejudiced Actions <br />Different Standards For Different Groups <br />Disparate Impact – <br />Unintended or Intentional<br />Indirect Discrimination<br />Unequal Consequences Or Results <br />Decision Not Based on Protected Characteristic <br />Unintentional Discrimination <br />Neutral Actions <br />Same Standards But Different Consequences <br />
  101. 101. ADVERSE IMPACT<br />Occurs When There Is A Substantially Different Rate Of Selection In Hiring, Promotion, or Other Employment Decisions Which Works To The Disadvantage Of Members Of Protected Groups<br />4/5ths Rule – success rate of protected group less than 80% of other group<br />
  102. 102. 2007 EEO-1 REPORT OVERHAUL<br />"Two or more races, not Hispanic or Latino"; <br />"Asians, not Hispanic or Latino"; <br />"Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, not Hispanic or Latino"; <br />"Asian and Pacific Islanders" Category Deleted<br />
  103. 103. EEO-1 REPORT OVERHAUL<br />"Officials and Managers" Divided Into Two Levels Based on Responsibility and Influence Within the Organization: (1) “Executive/Senior Level Officials and Managers” (2) “First/Mid-Level Official and Managers”<br />Non-Managerial Business and Financial Occupations Moved From the "Officials and Managers" Category to the "Professionals" Category<br />
  104. 104. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act<br />Prohibits discrimination against protected classes.<br />Makes it unlawful to deny career advancements to protected classes.<br />Prohibits discrimination because of pregnancy, childbirth, or related conditions. <br />
  105. 105. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act<br />Provides equal opportunity for training.<br />Prohibits sexual harassment.<br />Prohibits compensation discrimination.<br />
  106. 106. Age Discrimination in Employment Act<br />Age 40 and over<br />Older Workers Benefit Protection Act<br />Release language<br />Group versus individual releases<br />
  107. 107. Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)<br />Protects qualified individuals with a disability<br />Prohibits medical exams or inquiries about a disability, except in certain situations<br />Requires reasonable accommodation that enables employees to perform essential functions as long as there is no undue hardship<br />
  108. 108. Who Is Protected By ADA?<br />Individual with a physical/mental impairment that substantially limits a major life activity<br />Record of impairment<br />Regarded as having an impairment<br />Associated with a disabled person<br />Can perform the essential functions of the job with or without reasonable accommodation<br />
  109. 109. Other Legislation Which Impacts Workforce Planning<br />Pregnancy Discrimination Act<br />Immigration Reform & Control Act<br />Rehabilitation Act (contractors - $2,500+)<br />Worker Adjustment & Retraining Notification Act (“WARN”)<br />EPPA<br />Fair Credit Reporting Act<br />
  110. 110. FORCES WHICH IMPACT PLANNING<br />Organization’s Direction<br />Internal Labor<br />External Labor<br />Business Change<br />
  111. 111. JAC FITZ-ENZ – P.E.R.M. MODEL<br />Projections<br />Evaluate - Key Group Review<br />Recruitment Plan<br />Measurement - ROI<br />
  112. 112. P.E.R.M. ROI – INDICATORS<br />Planning - % of Jobs Filled Internally<br />Evaluation – Past Source Performance & Tenure<br />Recruitment – Future Source Cost, Time, Quality<br />Measurement – Business KPI’s Affected<br />
  113. 113. ANALYSIS OF RECRUITMENT SOURCES<br />Sourcing Media<br />Advertising<br />Agencies<br />Referrals<br />Events<br />Selection Methods<br />Screening<br />Assessment<br />Interviews<br />Testing<br />
  114. 114. INCREASING INTERVIEWING ACCURACY<br />All Voters Must Know Position<br />Delay Yes/No Decision<br />Multi-Factor Assessment<br />Give Each Interviewer 2-3 Traits to Assess<br />Panel Interviews<br />Formal Debriefing <br />~ Lou Adler<br />
  115. 115. WORKFORCE PLANNING METRICS<br />Cost Per Hire<br />Time to Fill<br />Yield Ratios – Used to evaluate recruiting sources<br />Adverse Impact<br />
  116. 116. JOB ANALYSIS DEFINED<br />Systematic study of a job to determine qualifications, responsibilities, conditions and relationship to other jobs<br />Identify Tasks, Duties & Responsibilities<br />Evaluate KSAs (Knowledge, Skills and Abilities)<br />
  117. 117. ORGANIZATIONAL LEVEL<br />Organizational Development<br />Function & Responsibilities<br />Development of Organizational Divisions<br />
  118. 118. ORGANIZATIONAL LEVEL<br />Classification & Compensation<br />Creation of Job Families <br />Pay Equity<br />
  119. 119. JOB LEVEL<br />Recruitment & Selection<br />Job Description<br />Job Specifications - KSAs<br />
  120. 120. JOB LEVEL<br />Training & Performance Management<br />Job Relevant Goals<br />Standards of Performance<br />
  121. 121. DISSECTING TASKS<br />Job Category<br />Responsibility<br />Task Statement<br />What Makes a Good Task Statement?<br />
  122. 122. TASK STATEMENT<br />Behaviorally Based<br />Action<br />Target<br />How<br />Why<br />
  123. 123. TASK STATEMENT<br /> Analyzes jobs using various methodologies within federal, local, and professional standards in efforts to define levels of responsibility & specific tasks; as well as the level of specific KSAs, necessary for successful performance.<br />
  124. 124. KSAs vs. Competencies<br />Knowledge – Specific<br />Skill – Degree of Performance<br />Ability – Mental or Physical Capacity<br />Competencies: Groupings of KSAs that <br />Relate to a Particular Purpose or Function<br />
  125. 125. METHODOLOGY<br />5 PHASES OF JOB ANALYSIS<br />Identification of Function & Responsibilities<br />Task Statement Data Collection<br />Task Statement Development & Refinement<br />KSA Development & Refinement<br />Documentation Report<br />
  126. 126. JOB ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY CLOSE UP<br />PHASE I – ORGANIZATIONAL LEVEL<br />Purpose & Responsibilities of Job<br />Place in Organizational Hierarchy<br />Location & Work Environment<br />
  127. 127. JOB ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY CLOSE UP<br />PHASE II – INITIAL TASK STATEMENT<br />Collect Existing Task Statement Information<br />Develop List of Tasks & Responsibilities<br />– Strategic Tools: Surveys, Questionnaires, <br /> Round Tables, Workplace Shadowing<br />
  128. 128. Job Analysis MethodologyCLOSE UP<br />PHASE III – TASK DEVELOPMENT & <br /> REFINEMENT<br />Consolidate & Refine<br />Frequency & Duration<br />Importance Levels<br />
  129. 129. Job Analysis MethodologyCLOSE UP<br />PHASE IV – KSA DEVELOPMENT & <br /> REFINEMENT<br />Determine KSAs Needed to Effectively Perform Each Task<br />Minimum Qualifications<br />Competency Model Development<br />
  130. 130. Job Analysis MethodologyCLOSE UP<br />PHASE V – DOCUMENTATION REPORT<br />Statistically Analyze All Task & KSA Data<br />Create Written Job Descriptions & Specs<br />Determine Classification & Compensation<br />Develop Plans for Selection & Performance Management<br />Prepare Report Documenting Methodology & Results<br />
  131. 131. USES OF JOB ANALYSIS<br />Recruiting<br />Compensation<br />Career Paths<br />Succession Planning<br />Training<br />Organizational Design<br />Performance Standards<br />Performance Evaluations<br />Time Management<br />Compliance<br />AAP<br />Legal Defense<br />
  132. 132. JOB DESIGN<br />Rational Approach – Frederick Taylor – work should be arranged so that employees can be efficient & output maximized<br />Job Enrichment – Frederick Hertzberg – design work for employees’ personal enrichment<br />
  133. 133. RELIABILITY & VALIDITY<br />Reliability is the Ability of an <br /> Instrument to Measure Consistently and with Relative Absence of Error<br />
  134. 134. RELIABILITY & VALIDITY<br />Validity is the Ability of an Instrument to Measure What it is Intended to Measure <br />Validation Answers Two Questions:<br />What does the instrument measure?<br />How well does the instrument measure it?<br />
  135. 135. RELIABILITY & VALIDITY<br /> A Reliable Item is Consistent <br /> May Not Be Valid <br />
  136. 136. RELIABILITY & VALIDITY<br />Reliability Can Be Measured By : <br />Parallel Forms – uses two forms with different items – scores correlated for each individual<br />Test/Retest – measures degree to which scores are the same over time<br />Internal Consistency – equivalent parts of test taken separately and results correlated<br />
  137. 137. RELIABILITY & VALIDITY<br />Content Validity – Simplest<br /> Job Analysis Key<br />Construct Validity – Most Complex Measures Theoretical Construct or Trait<br />Criterion-Related Validity – (Preferred) Trait of Work Behavior that is Predicted by a Test<br />
  138. 138. CRITERION RELATED VALIDITY<br />Concurrent Validity – Test is Given to <br /> Current Employees<br />– Scores Correlated <br /> with Performance <br /> Ratings<br />Predictive Validity<br /> – Before the Fact Measure<br /> – Test Results Correlated<br /> with Subsequent Job <br /> Performance Usually <br /> After 12 Months<br /> (Preferred by EEOC)<br />
  139. 139. RISK MANAGEMENT<br />Presented by<br />Don C. Works, III, JD, SPHR<br />Jackson Lewis LLP<br />Orlando<br />407-246-8433<br /><br />
  140. 140. Definition<br />Risk Management is the use of insurance and other strategies in an effort to prevent or minimize an organization's exposure to liability in the event a loss or injury occurs.<br />
  141. 141. Categories of Operational Risk<br />Personnel Risk<br />Physical Assets<br />Technology<br />Relationships <br />External/Regulatory <br />
  142. 142. OSHA General Duty Clause<br /> Each employee has the right to “a place of employment which is free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm.”<br />
  143. 143. Employee Responsibilities & Rights<br />Comply with rules<br />Right to safety & health<br />Right to request inspection<br />Right to file complaint<br />Right to be informed of workplace hazards<br />Right to request action to correct hazards<br />Right to file a discrimination/retaliation complaint<br />Right to receive training<br />
  144. 144. Best Known OSHA Standard<br />Hazard Communication (also known as the Employee Right-to-Know Law) It requires:<br />An inventory of hazardous chemicals <br />An evaluation of chemical hazards<br />Communication / Training<br />MSDS<br />
  145. 145. OSHA Inspection Priorities<br />Imminent danger<br />Catastrophes & fatal accidents<br />Employee complaints<br />High-hazard industries<br />Follow-up inspections<br />Are they in order of priority?<br />
  146. 146. Purpose of Safety Programs<br />Prevent work-related injuries, accidents or incidents<br />Definitions:<br />Incident – deviation from any acceptable standard<br />Hazard – incident without adequate controls applied<br />
  147. 147. Classification of Incidents<br />Unsafe Acts<br />Failing to use protective equipment<br />Removing safety devices<br />Using equipment improperly<br />Dressing improperly<br />Operating equipment at unsafe speeds<br />Performing unauthorized procedures<br />Unsafe Conditions<br />Defective equipment<br />Hazardous process<br />Noise, heat, dust<br />Fumes, chemicals<br />Poor ventilation<br />Improper lighting<br />Unsafe floor surfaces<br />Unsafe stacking, storing<br />Inadequate personal protection equipment<br />
  148. 148. Accident Investigation<br />Purpose of investigations?<br />Most important result of investigations?<br />Priorities at the scene?<br />
  149. 149. Health<br />Health Hazards<br />Infectious Diseases<br />Environmental Health Hazards<br />Fetal Protection Policies<br />Employee Assistance Programs<br />Can you require EAP treatment?<br />Employee Wellness & Fitness Programs<br />Chemical Dependency<br />
  150. 150. Security<br />Fire<br />Industrial Sabotage<br />Trespassing<br />Employee Theft <br />Natural Disasters<br />Theft/Sabotage of Classified Information<br />Violence <br />Terrorism<br />
  151. 151. Theft and Fraud<br />30% of employees admit stealing<br />40% hits companies under 100 workers<br />Technology has made it easier<br />Goes up in a down economy<br />Why some organizations make employees take 1 – 2 weeks off<br />
  152. 152. Security Risk Analysis<br />Vulnerabilities are considered first<br />Specific or generic<br />Probability of occurrence <br />Virtually certain<br />Highly probable<br />Moderately probable<br />Improbable<br />Assessment of impact or cost<br />Level 1 (fatal to org.), 2, 3, or 4 (negligible)<br />
  153. 153. Business Continuity & Recovery<br />Disaster Recovery Plan <br /> procedures to recover lost data in the event of a disaster<br />Emergency Response/Preparedness Plan<br />describes the action to be taken by all personnel to respond to natural or human disasters <br />
  154. 154. Can the Workplace Cause Stress & Violence?<br />Harassment<br />Poor management style<br />Pressure for increased productivityunrealistic job expectations<br />Mis-handled job terminations<br />Untrained supervisors<br />Lack of zero tolerance for inappropriate behavior<br />
  155. 155. Workplace Privacy<br />Employer Privacy Concerns<br />Protection of Propriety Information<br />Identify what needs protecting<br />Get confidentiality & nondisclosure agreements<br />Technology Security Risks<br />Employee Privacy Concerns<br />Identify Theft<br />Monitoring employees <br />
  156. 156. Employee & Labor Relations<br />
  157. 157. Impact of the Law on Employee Relations<br />Employee Rights under the NLRA<br />Can organize themselves<br />Can discuss their salaries<br />EEO Laws<br />Common Law<br />Employment-at-Will<br />Public policy exceptions<br />Implied contract<br />
  158. 158. Impact of the Law on Employee Relations (con’t)<br />Common Law Tort Claims<br />Negligent foursome<br />Defamation<br />Fraudulent misrepresentation<br />Others<br />Contract Issues<br />Oral contracts<br />Non-compete agreements<br />Others<br />
  159. 159. Characteristics of Union-Free Organizations<br />Fair and consistent treatment<br />Access to career opportunities<br />Feedback mechanisms<br />Communication programs<br />Problem-solving procedures<br />Trained supervisors/ managers<br />Rewards and recognition<br />
  160. 160. Employee Involvement Strategies<br />Job Design<br />Alternative Work Schedules<br />Teams<br />Employee Suggestion Systems<br />Employee Surveys<br />Focus Groups<br />
  161. 161. Problem-Solving Procedures<br />Discipline Process<br />Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR)<br />Prevents escalation of issues<br />Private forum<br />Cost-effective<br />An umbrella term for over 23 options<br />Must have basic elements of due process<br />Becomes a condition of employment<br />
  162. 162. The MOST beneficial outcome of an effective <br />employee discipline process is:<br />A structured method for addressing substandard performance.<br />A productive workforce with high levels of personal accountability<br />A reduction of legal challenges to termination decisions.<br />Workforce compliance with rules and performance standards.<br />
  163. 163. Labor Relations Legislation<br />National Labor Relations Act (NLRA)<br />Pro-union<br />Labor-Management Relations Act (LMRA)<br />Established balance of power<br />Union shops, right-to-work states<br />Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act (LMRDA)<br />Protect employees from corrupt unions<br />Others <br />
  164. 164. Labor Relations Terms<br />
  165. 165. Union Organizing<br />Initial contact may occur via: <br />A union organizer contacting employees<br />Management contacting a union<br />Employees contacting a union<br />
  166. 166. Union Organizing Tactics<br />Inside organizing<br />Salting<br />Leafleting<br />Meetings<br />Home visits<br />Internet campaigns<br />Others<br />
  167. 167. Picketing<br />A form of free speech<br />Organizational picketing<br />Induce employees to accept the union<br />Recognitional picketing<br />Obtain the employer’s recognition of the union<br />Informational picketing<br />Advise the public<br />
  168. 168. Union Organizing Campaign<br />Petition for<br />Certification<br />Authorization<br />Cards <br />Election<br />Campaign<br />Election<br />Certification <br />Of Results<br />(no union elected)<br />Certification<br />of Representative<br />(union elected)<br />Contract <br />Negotiation<br />(collective bargaining)<br />
  169. 169. Managements Rights in a Campaign<br />Take the initiative<br />State an opinion<br />Point out the consequences of a strike<br />Communicate through supervisors & meetings<br />State that improvements are notdependent on unionization<br />Point out the financial costs of a union<br />
  170. 170. Employer Unfair Labor Practices (ULPs)<br />Threaten<br />Interrogate<br />Promise<br />Spy<br />Known as “TIPS” or “SPIT”<br />Don’t forget discrimination or retaliation<br />
  171. 171. Union Organizing Campaign<br />Authorization Cards<br />Primary method of employees showing interest<br />Union must have 30% of eligible employees sign to proceed<br />Usually will not petition for an election until more than one-half of employees sign<br />Are legal documents<br />Don’t touch the cards if presented <br />
  172. 172. Petition for Certification<br />Election is most traditional route toward union recognition – 90%<br />Authorization cards are primary example of supporting evidence<br />Consent Election(waive pre-election hearing)<br />Directed Election<br />Voluntary recognition can occur, but happens infrequently<br />
  173. 173. NLRB Pre-Election Hearing<br />After determining validity of signatures and sufficient interest, the following are issues are decided:<br />Voter eligibility<br />Determination of the bargaining unit<br />Community of interests<br />Geography<br />Others<br />Time, date or place of the election<br />
  174. 174. Election<br />Excelsior List<br />Names and addresses of all eligible bargaining unit employees<br />Voter Eligibility<br />On payroll for at least 3 payroll periods<br />Campaign<br />Not within 24 hours of election<br />
  175. 175. Election Process<br />Looks like a general election<br />No campaigning around polling area<br />Both parties have representatives<br />Either party may challenge voter eligibility<br />NLRB counts unchallenged ballots<br />Simple majority of voting employees wins <br />50% plus one person<br />
  176. 176. Other Paths to Unionization<br />Employer volunteers recognition<br />Union convinces the employer to grant recognition<br />Union convinces the employer to witness its majority status<br />Counting the authorization cards<br />ULPs<br />
  177. 177. Unfair Labor Practices by the Employer<br />TIPS <br />Employee committees<br />Electromation Case<br />Crown Cork and Seal Company Case<br />No negotiating or proposing<br />Discouraging union membership illegally<br />Retaliation<br />Refusal to bargain<br />
  178. 178. Unfair Labor Practices by the Union<br />Restraints and coercion<br />Failure to provide fair representation<br />Discrimination against non-members<br />Excessive membership fees<br />Featherbedding<br />Refusal to bargain<br />
  179. 179. Collective Bargaining<br />Definition – the process by which management and union representatives negotiate the employment conditions for a particular bargaining unit<br />Must be done in good faith<br />Results in (ideally) – a collective bargaining agreement (CBA)<br />
  180. 180. Collective Bargaining Subjects<br />Mandatory Subjects <br />Issues identified specifically by labor laws or court decisions as subject to bargaining<br />Wages, benefits, working conditions, overtime, etc.<br />Can only strike legally over mandatory subjects<br />Permissive Subjects <br />Those that may be bargained but are not obligatory<br />Benefits for retirees, settlement of ULPs, etc.<br />Illegal subjects<br />Those that are unlawful by statute<br />
  181. 181. Collective Bargaining – Public Sector<br />Subjects are limited – why?<br />No mandatory subjects<br />Public sector employees generally not permitted to strike<br />No negotiation over wage rates<br />States may differ<br />
  182. 182. Collective Bargaining Patterns<br />Pattern (parallel) Bargaining<br />Union focuses on one employer and then negotiates similar contracts with competitors<br />Auto industry<br />Coalition (multiple employer) Bargaining<br />More than one employer negotiates with union<br />Trucking industry / coal mining industry<br />Coordinated Bargaining<br />Employer bargains with two or unions simultaneously<br />Airline industry<br />
  183. 183. Contract Clauses<br />Union security clauses<br />Union shop<br />Agency shop<br />Management rights<br />Bumping<br />Strikes and lockouts<br />Zipper clause<br />
  184. 184. Enforcement Provisions<br />Grievance procedure<br />Specific steps<br />Weingarten rights<br />Arbitration<br />Voluntary<br />Compulsory<br />Binding<br />
  185. 185. Protected Concerted Activities<br />Lockout <br />When management shuts down operations<br />Strikes<br />A refusal by employees to work<br />Economic strikes (can replace strikers)<br />Unfair labor practices strikes (must reinstate strikers)<br />Wildcat strikes (unprotected)<br />Sympathy strikes<br />
  186. 186. Protected Concerted Activities (con’t)<br />Picketing<br />Informational<br />Common situs picketing<br />Consumer picketing<br />Secondary Boycotts<br />Generally illegal<br />Exceptions:<br />Ally doctrine<br />Double breasting<br />Others<br />
  187. 187. Decertification<br />Very similar to election process<br />30% of employees sign a petition<br />Majority of voting employees decide<br />Reasons:<br />Inability to negotiate the first contract<br />Fair treatment of employees by employers<br />Poor job of unions providing service<br />Others<br />
  188. 188. Questions?<br />
  189. 189. Human Resource Development<br />
  190. 190. Legislation Affecting HRD<br />Copyright Act<br />Public domain<br />Who owns copyrights?<br />Fair use<br />U.S. Patent Act<br />Trademark Act<br />Title VII, Civil Rights Act<br />Age Discrimination in Employment Act<br />American with Disability Act<br />
  191. 191. Functions of HRD<br />Provides employees with the skills to meet current & future job demands<br />Aligns & links HRD learning objectives, activities, and outcomes with organization’s goals & business needs<br />Includes:<br />Organizational Development <br />Training & Development<br />Career Development<br />
  192. 192. The Learning Organization<br />Learning is tied to business objectives <br />Change is embraced<br />Assumptions are always questioned<br />Learning is both a part of work & a part of everyone's job description<br />Failures become opportunities to learn<br />Employees take responsibility for their own learning <br />
  193. 193. Knowledge Management<br />The process of creating, acquiring, sharing and managing knowledge to augment individual & organizational performance <br />Facilitates information exchange & transfer between employees<br />Taps expertise of those leaving the organization<br />
  194. 194. Global Issues for HRD<br />Organization change and knowledge management become more complex<br />Western motivation models and leadership theories may not apply<br />Demand for multilingual/multicultural training is increasing<br />Cultural issues have a greater influence on the selection of appropriate training <br />
  195. 195. Competency Models<br />A set of behaviors encompassing skills, knowledge, abilities, and personal attributes<br />May be defined on an organizational or individual basis<br />Core competencies differentiate an organization from its competition and provides for a competitive advantage<br />
  196. 196. Organizational Development<br />Enhances the effectiveness of an organization and the well-being of its members<br />Occurs on both a large & small scale <br />Is change management<br />Primary roles for HR professionals:<br />Serve as change agents<br />Conduct evaluations of OD interventions<br />
  197. 197. OD Intervention Strategies<br />Interpersonal strategies<br />Deal with work relationships<br />Technological strategies <br />Focus on processes<br />Include job design & work flow analysis<br />Structural strategies<br />Look at how the structure of the organization is helping or hindering the organization<br />
  198. 198. Quality InitiativesISO 9000+ / Six Sigma / LeanQuality Tools<br />Process-flow analysis<br />Control chart<br />Cause-and-effect diagram<br />Scatter diagram<br />Histogram<br />Check sheet<br />Pareto chart<br />
  199. 199. Training & Development<br />The ADDIE Model<br />Assessment or Analysis<br />Design<br />Development<br />Implementation<br />Evaluation<br />
  200. 200. Types of Training Programs<br />Orientation and on-boarding<br />Skill development<br />Supervisory/managerial <br />Defense in lawsuits<br />Corporate responsibility<br />Other<br />
  201. 201. Evaluation of Training Programs<br />Don Kirkpatrick’s Model<br />Level One – did you like it?<br />Reaction<br />Level Two – did you learn anything?<br />Measuring learning<br />Level Three – did anything change?<br />Measuring behavior<br />Level Four – any affect on organization?<br />Measuring results<br />
  202. 202. Learning and Motivation<br />Assumptions about adult learning<br />Obstacles <br />Learning styles<br />Auditory<br />Visual<br />Kinesthetic<br />Learning levels<br />Intrinsic vs. extrinsic factors<br />
  203. 203. Which of the following intrinsic factors affect an <br />employee’s willingness to do the job?<br />Opportunities for recognition and relationships with co-workers<br />Opportunities for personal growth and achievement<br />Working conditions and job security<br />Job environment and pay<br />
  204. 204. Motivational Theories<br />Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs<br />Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory<br />Vroom’s Expectancy Theory<br />Skinner’s Behavioral Reinforcement Theory<br />Equity Theory<br />McClelland’s Theory<br />Theory X and Theory Y<br />
  205. 205. A first-line supervisor desires a management position.<br />However, only college graduates seem to be promoted.<br />The employee decides not to enroll in college since <br />balancing work and school would be too hard. According <br />to Vroom, the employee<br />Does not believe that a college degree will lead to a management job.<br />Does not want a management position badly enough.<br />Does not trust company management.<br />Lacks confidence in himself.<br />
  206. 206. Career Development<br />Career Planning<br />Focus on the individual<br />Career Management<br />Focus on the organization<br />Talent Management<br />Integration of HR processes that attract, develop & retain employees that will meet current & future business needs<br />
  207. 207. Career Development Programs<br />Employee self-assessment tools<br />Coaching<br />Mentoring<br />Continuing education<br />Committee/team participation<br />Apprenticeship<br />Job rotation, enlargement and enrichment<br />Fast-track programs<br />
  208. 208. Career Development Programs (con’t)<br />Internal mobility<br />Promotions<br />Relocations<br />Transfers<br />Demotions ???<br />Dual ladder programs<br />Succession planning / replacement planning<br />Expatriation and repatriation<br />
  209. 209. Leadership & Management<br />Which is more important?<br />Are leaders born or made?<br />How are leaders developed?<br />Can leadership be taught and learned?<br />What are some obstacles to developing leaders?<br />
  210. 210. Leadership Theories<br />Trait Theories <br />Behavioral Theories<br />Situation Leadership Theory<br />Hersey-Blanchard’s Theory<br />Behavioral Leadership Theories<br />Blake-Mouton’s Theory<br />Contingency Theories<br />Fiedler’s Theory<br />Transformational/Transactional Leaders<br />
  211. 211. Issues Affecting Leadership<br />Gender differences<br />Generational characteristics<br />Cross-cultural differences<br />Emotional intelligence<br />
  212. 212. Performance Management<br />Organizational values and goals<br />Provide a sense of purpose and priorities<br />Performance standards<br />Set expectations <br />Identify and measure behaviors <br />Provide a direct relationship between job description, job competencies and performance goals and objectives<br />Point out important aspects of the job<br />
  213. 213. Measurement & Feedback<br />Performance appraisals<br />Provide feedback and counseling<br />Help in allocating rewards and opportunities<br />Help in determining employees’ aspirations and planning developmental needs<br />Should be formal and informal<br />Should be conducted continuously, not as an annual event<br />Should never be a surprise<br />
  214. 214. Appraisal Methods<br />Category rating methods<br />Graphic scale<br />Checklist<br />Forced choice<br />Comparative methods<br />Ranking<br />Paired comparison<br />Forced distribution<br />
  215. 215. Appraisal Methods (con’t)<br />Narrative methods<br />Essay<br />Critical incidents<br />Field review<br />Special methods<br />Management by objectives<br />Behaviorally anchored rating scale<br />
  216. 216. Errors in Performance Appraisal<br />Halo/horn effect<br />Recency<br />Primacy<br />Bias<br />Strictness<br />Leniency<br />Central tendency<br />Contrast<br />
  217. 217. Other Considerations in PerformanceManagement<br />Legal ramifications<br />The appraisal meeting<br />Trained supervisors<br />Documentation<br />
  218. 218. Questions?<br />
  219. 219. Strategic Management<br />
  220. 220. The Evolving Role of HRM<br />HR Models<br />Advice / Service / Control<br />Strategic / Operational / Administrative<br />Dimensions of Change<br />Workplace environment<br />Globalization<br />Offshoring vs. outsourcing<br />Ethics<br />Mergers & acquisitions<br />
  221. 221. Management Functions by Fayol<br />Planning<br />Organizing<br />Directing<br />Controlling<br />
  222. 222. Critical Management Skills <br />Managing Projects<br />Interpersonal responsibilities<br />Informational responsibilities<br />Decisional responsibilities<br />Project planning tools<br />Managing Change<br />Managing Third-Party Contractors<br />Managing Technology<br />
  223. 223. Transformational change differs from change <br />initiatives in that it:<br />affects qualitative processes and their results.<br />challenges deeply held values, beliefs, and assumptions.<br />permits individual modification of some elements.<br />stems from market branding strategies.<br />
  224. 224. Strategic Planning<br />
  225. 225. Strategic Planning<br />Phase 1<br />Mission<br />Vision <br />Values<br />Phase 2<br />SWOT Analysis<br />Environment Scanning<br />Long Term Objectives<br />Strategy Identification<br />
  226. 226. Strategic Planning(con’t)<br />Phase 3<br />Short-term objectives<br />Action plans<br />Allocation of resources<br />Employee engagement<br />Phase 4<br />Review strategies<br />Measure performance<br />Take corrective action<br />
  227. 227. Which of the following activities best <br />prepares HR to participate in the strategic<br />planning process?<br />Evaluating a new HRIS system<br />Restructuring HR’s recruiting system<br />Training line managers on interviewing techniques<br />Reviewing the company’s key financial data<br />
  228. 228. Internal Business Partners<br />Finance and Accounting<br />Marketing and Sales<br />The 4 P’s<br />Operations<br />Information Technology<br />Employees<br />Human Capital vs. Human Resources<br />
  229. 229. The Evolution of Organizations<br />
  230. 230. Competitive Advantage Strategies<br />Cost Leadership (operational excellence)<br />Differentiation<br />Focus<br />Human Capital Advantage<br />Customer Intimacy<br />
  231. 231. Organizational Structures<br />Functional<br />Divisional<br />Matrix<br /><ul><li>Most common?
  232. 232. In which do “silos” frequently appear?</li></li></ul><li>Other Organizational Structural Issues<br />Span of Control<br />Centralization of decision-making<br />Economies of scale<br />Decentralization of decision-making<br />Quicker responses to problems<br /><ul><li>Which do employees usually like better?</li></li></ul><li>Environmental Scanning<br />Demographic Factors<br />Economic Factors<br />Employment Factors<br />International Factors<br />Political Factors<br />Social Factors<br />Technological Factors<br />
  233. 233. Measuring HR’s Contributions<br />Financial Measures<br />Cost-benefit analysis<br />Break-even analysis<br />Performance Measures<br />Balanced scorecard<br />Performance audits<br />Other Indicators<br />Key organizational metrics<br />Turnover <br />Others<br />
  234. 234. Research<br />Primary Research<br />Experimental <br />Pilot projects<br />Surveys/questionnaires<br />Interviews (exit, individual, and panel)<br />Focus groups<br />Direct observation<br />Testing<br />Secondary Research<br />Historical data<br />Benchmarking/best practices<br />Purchased data<br />Professional journals, books and other media<br />Secondhand reports (e.g., grapevine reports)<br />
  235. 235. Quantitative Analysis<br />Charts and graphs<br />Measures of central tendency<br />Mean<br />Mode<br />Median<br />Measures of variation<br />Measures of association<br />Inferential statistics<br />
  236. 236. Qualitative Analysis<br />Individual or panel interviews<br />Surveys and questionnaires<br />Focus groups<br />SWOT analysis<br />Small groups<br />
  237. 237. How valid and reliable is the data?<br />Reliability: the ability of an instrument to measure consistently<br />Test/retest<br />Rater agreement<br />Others<br />Validity: the ability of an instrument to measure what it is intended to measure<br />Content<br />Construct<br />Concurrent<br />
  238. 238. Ethics<br />Not synonymous with legality<br />Must begin at top of organization<br />HR plays important role<br />Organizational culture influences<br />Must walk the talk<br />Training is important<br />
  239. 239. Ethical Issues<br />Privacy<br />Drug testing<br />Surveillance<br />Technology<br />Whistleblowing<br />Conflict of interests<br />Insider trading<br />Bribes, payoffs and kickbacks<br />Cultural clashes<br />Copyrights<br />
  240. 240. Corporate Citizenship Programs<br />
  241. 241. Questions?<br />