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DISEASES OF RICE
Rice growing zones in West Bengal
Hill & Terai Zone : 2.4 – 2.7 t/ha
Alluvial Zone : 3.4 – 3.8 t /ha
Lateritic zone : 2.8 ...
Rice based cropping system in West Bengal
Jute -------- Rice ---------- Potato
Jute ----- Rice ----------- Vegetables
Jute...
Altered weather or
climatic conditions
Improper use
of pesticides
Wide host range of
the pathogens
Year round availability...
PLANT DISEASESPLANT DISEASES
SOIL BORNESOIL BORNE SEED BORNESEED BORNE AIR BORNEAIR BORNE VECTOR BORNEVECTOR BORNE
Nature ...
Disease appears in border rows ------- spread through infected weeds
Cynodon Pointed gourd
Amaranthus
Rhizoctonia solani infecting different host plants
Sugarcane Maize
Cabbage
Dolichos bean
Name of the
Products
Chemical Names
Diseases Used in
Rice
BATISTA CARBENDAZIM 46.27% SC
BINDASS TRICYCALZOLE 75% WP Blast
...
Name of the
Products
Chemical Names
Protectant/Systemi
c
BATISTA CARBENDAZIM 46.27% SC Systemic
BINDASS TRICYCALZOLE 75% W...
.
No.
Crops Disease
1. Rice Sheath blight, blast, brown spot, false smut
2. Onion Purple blotch
3. Banana Sigatoka
4. Chil...
Upto 1965Upto 1965 1965 - 19901965 - 1990 1990 - 20001990 - 2000 2000 – 20102000 – 2010
Major EmergingMajor Emerging
Brown...
SHEATH ROT Bacterial leaf blight
Sheath Blight
FALSE SMUTFALSE SMUT NARROW BROWN LEAF SPOT
GRAIN DISCOLORATION
Constraints of international
importance
Source: IRRI 2000 DRR. International Workshop on “Constraints to
Increasing Rice P...
Disease Severity of Paddy in West Bengal
Diseases
Season
Aus Aman Boro
Blast + + + + ++
Sheath Blight ++ + + + +
BLB + + +...
 
: Sheath blight disease of rice plant.
Soilborne diseases
Sheath blight of Rice
Wide Host Range
Edapho-climatic
factors / Wide use of
susceptible germplasms
Impr...
SHEATH BLIGHT OF RICESHEATH BLIGHT OF RICE
Affected PartAffected Part
Sheath Blight of RiceSheath Blight of Rice
Disease appears in border rows ------- spread through infected weeds
Dolichos bean
Rhizoctonia solani
Sclerotia of rice sheath blight disease.
Factors favoring disease
development
• From tillering to heading stage. The crop is more
susceptible at booting and flower...
Anastomosis group Diseases Host
AG 1-IA ‘sheath blight’, ‘sheath spot’ rice
  ‘sclerotial disease’, ‘leaf blight’,
‘banded...
 
‘damping off’' soybean
 
  flax
 
  pine
AG 2-1 ‘damping off’ crucifers
  ‘bud rot’ strawberry
  ‘leaf blight’ tulip
  ‘...
 
'target spot’ (slide 01, slide 02,
slide 03, slide 04, slide 05 )
tobacco
 
‘leaf blight tomato
 
‘brown spot’ egg plant...
AG 7 nonpathogenic  -
AG 8 ‘bare patches’ cereals
AG 9 weak pathogen crucifers
    potatoes
AG 10 nonpathogenic  -
AG 11  ...
MANAGEMENT
Cultural practices such as green maturing with Sesbania
aculeata, deep ploughing to bury infested plant residue...
Blast disease
• Most plant parts are susceptible to infection except
the roots.
• Disease usually develops during seedling...
The fungus produces many spores ,on
stalk like structures called sporangia, in
the presence of a favorable environment
and...
Rice Blast [Pyricularia grisea]
branches of panicles and on the spikelets.
P. oryzae can infect rice from the seedling stage to harvest during
seedling and tillering (leaf blast) and at heading (pa...
Head infections usually develop at the joint just below the head (neck
blast) or on individual panicle branches (panicle b...
The initial infections occurs on leaves usually around tillering
and appear as diamond, or spindle shape lesion with point...
Symptoms
• Rice blast is characterized
by the appearance of
lesions on the leaves,
nodes, and panicles.
• On the leaves, l...
Symptoms
• Large lesions usually
develop a greyish center,
with a brown margin on
older lesions.
Epidemiology
Application of excessive doses of nitrogenous fertilizers, intermittent
drizzles, cloudy weather, high relati...
Management Practices
Plant varieties resistant to blast.
Avoid late planting.
Plant as early as possible within the
rec...
MANAGEMENT
♣ Cloudy and foggy weather and high variation in day – night temperature
and if the night temp. 22o
C and below...
Rice bacterial leaf blight
• Damage to plants:
• wilting of seedlings
• yellowing and drying of leaves
• reduced yield
Signs and symptoms
• leaf blight
• Water-soaked to
yellowish stripes on
leaf blades or starting
at leaf tips then later
in...
Bacterial Leaf Streak
Factors favoring disease development
• presence of weeds
• presence of rice stubbles and ratoons of
infected plants
• pres...
Management principles
• Likewise, maintaining shallow water in
nursery beds, providing good drainage
during severe floodin...
Management principles
• Seed treatment with Fluorescent
Pseudomonads (10g /kg of seeds) reduce
bacterial blight.
• Control...
Rice Disease Fungicides
Sheath Blight, Blast,
Sheath rot
Hitazol (2 ml/l)
Sheath Blight, Blast,
Sheath rot
Predict (1-1.5 ...
Rice diseases hpm
Rice diseases hpm
Rice diseases hpm
Rice diseases hpm
Rice diseases hpm
Rice diseases hpm
Rice diseases hpm
Rice diseases hpm
Rice diseases hpm
Rice diseases hpm
Rice diseases hpm
Rice diseases hpm
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Rice diseases hpm
Rice diseases hpm
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Rice diseases hpm
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Rice diseases hpm

  1. 1. DISEASES OF RICE
  2. 2. Rice growing zones in West Bengal Hill & Terai Zone : 2.4 – 2.7 t/ha Alluvial Zone : 3.4 – 3.8 t /ha Lateritic zone : 2.8 – 3.3 t /ha Average : 3.2 t /ha A A C B B C Coastal belts
  3. 3. Rice based cropping system in West Bengal Jute -------- Rice ---------- Potato Jute ----- Rice ----------- Vegetables Jute ------ Rice --------- Rice Fallow ---- Rice ------ Rice Pulses/Til / Maize ------- Rice ----------- Rice Pulses/Til/ Vegetabls ------- Rice ---------- Wheat / Mustard 80 to 85 % of the cultivated area in West Bengal is under rice during Kharif season
  4. 4. Altered weather or climatic conditions Improper use of pesticides Wide host range of the pathogens Year round availability of the hosts Shift in varietal coverage & Lack of resistant cultivars Evolution of new biotypes Changes in cultivation practices Non-judicious application of NPK Why Biotic Stresses are major problem in rice & vegetables
  5. 5. PLANT DISEASESPLANT DISEASES SOIL BORNESOIL BORNE SEED BORNESEED BORNE AIR BORNEAIR BORNE VECTOR BORNEVECTOR BORNE Nature of Spread Diseases in Rice Diseases in Vegetables Soil Borne Sheath blight, sheath rot, False smut, Stem rot, root rot Damping off, Collar rot, Web blight, stem rot, wilt, Fruit & vine rot Seed Borne Brown spot, BLB, Blast, False smut, Anthracnose, Black rot, Blight, all potato diseases Phomopsis, etc. Air borne Brown spot, NLBS Blast, False smut, Late & early blight, leaf spot, blight powdery & downy mildew etc. Vector borne Tungro , grassy stunt Mosaic, leaf curl etc.
  6. 6. Disease appears in border rows ------- spread through infected weeds
  7. 7. Cynodon Pointed gourd Amaranthus Rhizoctonia solani infecting different host plants
  8. 8. Sugarcane Maize Cabbage Dolichos bean
  9. 9. Name of the Products Chemical Names Diseases Used in Rice BATISTA CARBENDAZIM 46.27% SC BINDASS TRICYCALZOLE 75% WP Blast HINDUSTAN M-45 MANCOZEB 75% WP HITAZOL HEXCONAZOLE 5% SC Blast, Sheath blight, BS HIVET SULPHUR 80% WDG NIDAR MYCLOBUTANIL 10% WP PANTHER GOLD CAPTAN 70%+HEXACONAZOLE 5%WP STUFF CARBENDAZIM 12 %+MANCOZEB 63% WP Blast, Sheath blight, BS & seed treatment BOND 007 TEBUCONAZOLE 25% EC False smut, Karnel smut, Sheath blight, KARISHMA PROPINEB 75% WP SAVER DIFENCONAZOLE 25% EC Blast, Sheath blight, BS SAMBA ISOPROTHILONE 40% EC Blast SUPERHIT CYMOXILIN 8% +MANCOZEB 64% WP Z SAFETY ZINEB 75%WP RECENT TEBUCONAZOLE 2% DS Seed treatment PREDICT                            AZOXYSTROBINE+ TEBUCONAZOLE Blast, Sheath blight, BS
  10. 10. Name of the Products Chemical Names Protectant/Systemi c BATISTA CARBENDAZIM 46.27% SC Systemic BINDASS TRICYCALZOLE 75% WP Systemic HINDUSTAN M-45 MANCOZEB 75% WP Protectant HITAZOL HEXCONAZOLE 5% SC Systemic HIVET SULPHUR 80% WDG Protectant NIDAR MYCLOBUTANIL 10% WP Systemic PANTHER GOLD CAPTAN 70%+HEXACONAZOLE 5%WP Protectant+Systemic STUFF CARBENDAZIM 12 %+MANCOZEB 63% WP Systemic + Protectant BOND 007 TEBUCONAZOLE 25% EC Systemic KARISHMA PROPINEB 75% WP Protectant SAVER DIFENCONAZOLE 25% EC Systemic SAMBA ISOPROTHILONE 40% EC Systemic SUPERHIT CYMOXILIN 8% +MANCOZEB 64% WP Systemic + Protectant Z SAFETY ZINEB 75%WP Protectant RECENT TEBUCONAZOLE 2% DS Systemic PREDICT                            AZOXYSTROBINE+ TEBUCONAZOLE Systemic Lower Fungi Higher Fungi Both
  11. 11. . No. Crops Disease 1. Rice Sheath blight, blast, brown spot, false smut 2. Onion Purple blotch 3. Banana Sigatoka 4. Chilli Die back, fruit rot, twig blight 5. Tomato / potato Early blight and late blight 6. Cucurbits Powdery and downy mildew 7. Groundnut Tikka 8. Brinjal Phomopsis, blight 9. Wheat Leaf blight, rust Efficacy of predict for management of following diseases
  12. 12. Upto 1965Upto 1965 1965 - 19901965 - 1990 1990 - 20001990 - 2000 2000 – 20102000 – 2010 Major EmergingMajor Emerging BrownBrown SpotSpot BLBBLB SheathSheath BlightBlight SheathSheath BlightBlight False SmutFalse Smut Stem rotStem rot TungroTungro BlastBlast BlastBlast (Summer(Summer Rice)Rice) GrainGrain DiscolouratioDiscolouratio nn BlastBlast BLBBLB BLBBLB Brown SpotBrown Spot && NBLSNBLS SheathSheath BlightBlight TungroTungro TungroTungro SeedlingSeedling blightblight (Summer(Summer Rice)Rice) SheathSheath RotRot
  13. 13. SHEATH ROT Bacterial leaf blight Sheath Blight
  14. 14. FALSE SMUTFALSE SMUT NARROW BROWN LEAF SPOT GRAIN DISCOLORATION
  15. 15. Constraints of international importance Source: IRRI 2000 DRR. International Workshop on “Constraints to Increasing Rice Production in Asia: Insights from a Study on Farmers’ Perception. Hyderabad, India, 7-9 June, 2000
  16. 16. Disease Severity of Paddy in West Bengal Diseases Season Aus Aman Boro Blast + + + + ++ Sheath Blight ++ + + + + BLB + + + ++ Stem Rot - + - Narrow Brown Leaf - + - Sheath rot - + - False Smut - ++ - (Anonymous, 2008)‘+ + +’ Severe ‘+ +’ Moderate ‘+’ Mild ‘-’ No infection.
  17. 17.   : Sheath blight disease of rice plant.
  18. 18. Soilborne diseases Sheath blight of Rice Wide Host Range Edapho-climatic factors / Wide use of susceptible germplasms Improper agro-techniques/ Non availability of resistant variety Infected Soil
  19. 19. SHEATH BLIGHT OF RICESHEATH BLIGHT OF RICE Affected PartAffected Part
  20. 20. Sheath Blight of RiceSheath Blight of Rice
  21. 21. Disease appears in border rows ------- spread through infected weeds
  22. 22. Dolichos bean
  23. 23. Rhizoctonia solani
  24. 24. Sclerotia of rice sheath blight disease.
  25. 25. Factors favoring disease development • From tillering to heading stage. The crop is more susceptible at booting and flowering. • presence of the disease in the soil • presence of sclerotia or infection bodies floating on the water • relative humidity from 96 to 100% • temperature from 28-32 °C • high levels of nitrogen fertilizer • presence of irrigation water • growing of high yielding improved varieties • late tillering or early internode elongation growth stages
  26. 26. Anastomosis group Diseases Host AG 1-IA ‘sheath blight’, ‘sheath spot’ rice   ‘sclerotial disease’, ‘leaf blight’, ‘banded leaf’ corn   ‘leaf blight’, ‘banded leaf’ sorghum   ‘leaf blight’ bean   ‘leaf blight’ soybean   ‘summer blight’ crimson clover   ‘southern blight’ camphor seedlings   ‘brown patch’ turfgrass AG 1-IB ‘web blight’ bean     rice     soybean     figs     leguminosous woody plants     hortensia   ‘rot’ cabbage   'bottom rot’ lettuce AG 1-IC ‘damping off’' buckwheat   'damping off and crown root rot' carrot
  27. 27.   ‘damping off’' soybean     flax     pine AG 2-1 ‘damping off’ crucifers   ‘bud rot’ strawberry   ‘leaf blight’ tulip   ‘root rot’ Japanese radish and     subterranean clover AG 2-2 IIIB ‘false sheath blight’ rice   ‘sheath blight’ mat rush     ginger     gladiolos   ‘black scurf’ edible burdock   ‘brown patch’ turf grass   ‘crown and brace rot’ corn   ‘damping off’ sugar beet     tree seedlings     crhysanthemum   ‘root rot’ konjak     chinese yam AG 2-2 IV ‘root rot’ and ‘leaf blight’ sugar beet   ‘large patch’ turfgrass AG 3   ‘black scurf’ and ‘stem/stolon cankers’ potatoes
  28. 28.   'target spot’ (slide 01, slide 02, slide 03, slide 04, slide 05 ) tobacco   ‘leaf blight tomato   ‘brown spot’ egg plant AG 4 (HG I, HGII and HGIII) ‘fruit rot’ tomato   ‘stem rot’ pea   ‘damping off ‘ and ‘stem canker’ potato   ‘damping off’ and ‘root rots’ soybean     lobolly pine seedlings     onion     stevia     pea     snap bean     cotton     peanuts     slash   'pod rot' snap bean AG 5 ‘black scurf’ potato   ‘brown patch’ turf grass   ‘root rot’ beans     soybeans     adzuki beans AG 6 nonpathogenic group  -
  29. 29. AG 7 nonpathogenic  - AG 8 ‘bare patches’ cereals AG 9 weak pathogen crucifers     potatoes AG 10 nonpathogenic  - AG 11   wheat AG BI nonpathogenic  -
  30. 30. MANAGEMENT Cultural practices such as green maturing with Sesbania aculeata, deep ploughing to bury infested plant residues into the soil. · Use of recommended seed rate and seed treatment · Weeds free or less fields. · Avoid excessive use of nitrogenous fertilizer Soil application of organic manure and Seed treatment with Pseudomonas fluorescens @ of 10g/kg of seed followed by seedling dip @ of 2.5 kg or products/ha dissolved in 100 litres and dipping for 30 minutes. Soil application of P.fluorescens @ of 2.5 kg/ha after 30 days of transplanting (This product should be mixed with 50 kg of FYM and then applied). Propiconazole 20% @ 1ml / lt Hexaconazole 5% @ 2.0 ml / lt Validamycin @ 2.5 ml/ lt Thifluzamide @ 0.75 ml/l Carbendazim 50% @ 1g /lt
  31. 31. Blast disease • Most plant parts are susceptible to infection except the roots. • Disease usually develops during seedling, tillering (leaf blast) and at heading (panicle blast). • The initial infections start as small water soaked areas on young leaves and enlarge into diamond shape with a blue gray cast which are the fungal spores. Lesions often dry out and turn tan with a brown border. Lesion shape and size can vary.
  32. 32. The fungus produces many spores ,on stalk like structures called sporangia, in the presence of a favorable environment and a susceptible host and causes numerous new infections in the field and neighboring fields. They are carried by wind and water over long distances.
  33. 33. Rice Blast [Pyricularia grisea] branches of panicles and on the spikelets.
  34. 34. P. oryzae can infect rice from the seedling stage to harvest during seedling and tillering (leaf blast) and at heading (panicle blast) stage
  35. 35. Head infections usually develop at the joint just below the head (neck blast) or on individual panicle branches (panicle blast). The head can break off at neck lesion can cause what is called rotten neck blast.
  36. 36. The initial infections occurs on leaves usually around tillering and appear as diamond, or spindle shape lesion with pointed ends. Lesions often dry out and turn tan with a brown border. Lesion shape and size can vary.
  37. 37. Symptoms • Rice blast is characterized by the appearance of lesions on the leaves, nodes, and panicles. • On the leaves, lesions are typically spindle-shaped-- wide in the center and pointed toward either end.
  38. 38. Symptoms • Large lesions usually develop a greyish center, with a brown margin on older lesions.
  39. 39. Epidemiology Application of excessive doses of nitrogenous fertilizers, intermittent drizzles, cloudy weather, high relative humidity (93-99 per cent), low night temperature (22-24ºC) more number of rainy days, longer duration of dew, cloudy weather, slow wind movement and availability of collateral hosts.
  40. 40. Management Practices Plant varieties resistant to blast. Avoid late planting. Plant as early as possible within the recommended planting period. For leaf blast, reflood if field has been drained. maintain flood at 4 -6 inches to ensure soil is covered. Do not over fertilize with nitrogen. Tricyclazole 75% @ 0.5g-0.7g/ lt Tricyclazole + Man @ 2.5 g /lt Ediphenphos 50% @ 1ml / lt Triamiphos 48% @ 1ml/ lt Isoprothiolane @ 1ml/ lt Carbendazim 50% @ 1g /lt
  41. 41. MANAGEMENT ♣ Cloudy and foggy weather and high variation in day – night temperature and if the night temp. 22o C and below ♣ 5 % leaf area of rice plant ; from tillering initiation to panicle initiaion stage. 1. Avoid over doses of application of N fertilizers. 2. Use vermi compost 1.0 q/ bigha for HYV and atleast 3.0 q/bigha for aromatic rice 3. Management Grow resistant varieties like KRH-2, DRRH-1, PA 6201, and NDRH-2. Remove and destroy the weed hosts in the field bunds and channels. Treat the seeds with Captan or Thiram or Carbendazim or Carboxin or Tricyclazole at 2 g/kg. Seed treatment with biocontrol agent Trichoderma viride@ 4g/kg or Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10g/kg of seed. Avoid close spacing of seedlings in the main field. Spray any one of the following fungicides Ediphenophos 50EC (1ml/l) or Tricyclazole75WP (0.6g/l) or Carbendazim 50WP (1g/l)
  42. 42. Rice bacterial leaf blight • Damage to plants: • wilting of seedlings • yellowing and drying of leaves • reduced yield
  43. 43. Signs and symptoms • leaf blight • Water-soaked to yellowish stripes on leaf blades or starting at leaf tips then later increase in length and width with a wavy margin
  44. 44. Bacterial Leaf Streak
  45. 45. Factors favoring disease development • presence of weeds • presence of rice stubbles and ratoons of infected plants • presence of bacteria in the rice paddy and irrigation canals • warm temperature, high humidity, rain and deep water • over fertilization
  46. 46. Management principles • Likewise, maintaining shallow water in nursery beds, providing good drainage during severe flooding, plowing under rice stubble and straw following harvest are also management practices that can be followed. • Proper application of fertilizer, especially nitrogen, and proper plant spacing are recommended for the management of bacterial leaf blight.
  47. 47. Management principles • Seed treatment with Fluorescent Pseudomonads (10g /kg of seeds) reduce bacterial blight. • Control of the disease with antibiotics has found effective. • Streptocycline (100 ppm)
  48. 48. Rice Disease Fungicides Sheath Blight, Blast, Sheath rot Hitazol (2 ml/l) Sheath Blight, Blast, Sheath rot Predict (1-1.5 ml/l) Sheath Blight, Brown spot Stuff (1.5-2 g /l) Blast Bindass (0.5-0.7 g / l) Blast Samba (1.5 g /l) Brown Spot Stuff (1.5-2 g /l) and Propineb 70% ( 3g/l) Sheath Rot Bond 007 (1-1.5 ml/l) BLB Streptocycline (1 g/ 10 l) Seed Treatment Stuff (2 g/ kg seeds)

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