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Hilaire Ananda Perera
http://www.linkedin.com/in/hilaireperera
BIOMASS Based Power (Electrical & Thermal)
Electricity has ...
Hilaire Ananda Perera
http://www.linkedin.com/in/hilaireperera
Gasification is a form of pyrolysis that uses more air duri...
Hilaire Ananda Perera
http://www.linkedin.com/in/hilaireperera
.
Great to get
Heat &
Electricity from
the Same Plant
for O...
Hilaire Ananda Perera
http://www.linkedin.com/in/hilaireperera
The above figure illustrates the advantages of operating a ...
Hilaire Ananda Perera
http://www.linkedin.com/in/hilaireperera
CHP offers a number of benefits compared to conventional el...
Hilaire Ananda Perera
http://www.linkedin.com/in/hilaireperera
The CHP Plant is designed to receive and process different ...
Hilaire Ananda Perera
http://www.linkedin.com/in/hilaireperera
What are the benefits of Biomass? What are its drawbacks an...
Hilaire Ananda Perera
http://www.linkedin.com/in/hilaireperera
COST REDUCTION POTENTIALS FOR BIOMASS-FIRED ELECTRICITY
GEN...
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BIOMASS Based Power ( Electrical & Thermal )

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Biomass refers to a group of organic materials that can be used to generate electric and thermal power. Sources of biomass are: herbaceous and woody plants, agriculture and forestry wastes and residues, landfill gases, animal wastes, municipal wastes, and other organic material.

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BIOMASS Based Power ( Electrical & Thermal )

  1. 1. Hilaire Ananda Perera http://www.linkedin.com/in/hilaireperera BIOMASS Based Power (Electrical & Thermal) Electricity has today become a basic necessity for not just the developed world, but also for the developing and underdeveloped countries. Diminishing supply and environmental concerns have been brought to light in recent years, exposing fossil fuels, currently the world’s primary source of energy, as unsustainable and potentially harmful to the environment. Because of this, clean renewable energy sources are controlling more of the available market and Biomass is one of the leading options on this front. Biomass refers to a group of organic materials that can be used to generate electric and thermal power. Sources of biomass are: herbaceous and woody plants, agriculture and forestry wastes and residues, landfill gases, animal wastes, municipal wastes, and other organic material. Biomass materials can reliably provide electricity, but due to their naturally high water content, Biomass materials burn less efficiently than coal because they require more energy input to produce a given amount of energy. Biomass producers can increase the energy efficiency of Biomass materials by "densifying" them though so costly Energy crops compete for land that would otherwise be used for food crops and wood, but agricultural and forest residues can be a practical use of waste resources. The availability of residues, however, can be unpredictable. In addition, residues can be expensive to collect. Biomass can predictably generate electricity, differentiating it from other renewable electricity sources, but its reliability can be affected by costs of Biomass materials and the ability of power facilities to effectively use Biomass fuel. Because of the variety of sources, there are a variety of ways that electricity can be generated using Biomass. Direct combustion is a process that involves burning Biomass, such as wood and solid waste from forestry and agriculture. The burning Biomass creates heat that is used to boil water and make steam. The steam turns a turbine to generate electricity. Anaerobic digestion makes use of the microorganisms living in wastes that break down organic matter and produce biogas. The Biogas that is created is a combustible fuel that can be used in an electricity generation plant. Co-firing refers to adding Biomass to coal-fired electricity generation plants. Burning Biomass and coal together means less coal is used, minimizing the overall consumption of coal and its environmental impact. Pyrolysis is a process that converts solid Biomass into a liquid fuel. This is achieved through heating Biomass in an oxygen-free tank to produce a gas. The gas is quickly cooled to create an oil-like liquid rich in hydrocarbons. This liquid fuel can be used to generate electricity.
  2. 2. Hilaire Ananda Perera http://www.linkedin.com/in/hilaireperera Gasification is a form of pyrolysis that uses more air during the heating process. It creates a producer gas, which is burned to heat water and make steam. The steam turns turbines and generates electricity. Biomass power makes up only a small fraction of Canada's total electricity generation, but its use in Ontario is expected to increase with Provincial incentives to make the price of Biomass power comparable to traditional sources of electricity (fossil fuels and hydro). The use of Biomass will increase as Ontario works to phase out coal: there are plans to co-fire Biomass and coal, and to convert some coal-fired plants to Biomass-fired plants. http://www.electricalindustry.ca/latest-news/778-opg-opens-north-america-s-largest-100- biomass-fueled-power-plant Biomass can reliably provide baseload power, unlike other renewable energy sources like wind and solar, but the main drawback of biomass fuel is its inefficiency. Although Biomass can be used to produce electricity to meet consumer demand, Biomass contains large amounts of water per unit of weight, which means it does not contain as much energy potential as fossil fuels. Additionally, transportation costs for Biomass are higher per unit of energy than fossil fuels because of its low energy density. Biomass Power Overview Biomass power technologies convert renewable biomass fuels to heat and electricity using processes similar to that used with fossil fuels. Next to hydropower, more electricity is generated from Biomass than any other renewable energy resource in the United States. A key attribute of Biomass is its availability upon demand - the energy is stored within the Biomass until it is needed. Other forms of renewable energy are dependent on variable environmental conditions such as wind speed or sunlight intensity. Today in parts of the developing world, Biomass is primarily used to provide heat for cooking and comfort. Technologies have now been developed which can generate electricity from the energy in Biomass fuels. Biomass technologies are highly scaleable - small enough to be used on a farm or in remote villages, or large enough to provide power for a small city. There are four primary classes of biopower systems: direct-fired, co-fired, gasification, and modular systems. Most of today's biopower plants are direct-fired systems that are similar to most fossil-fuel fired power plants. The Biomass fuel is burned in a boiler to produce high- pressure steam. This steam is introduced into a steam turbine, where it flows over a series of aerodynamic turbine blades, causing the turbine to rotate. The turbine is connected to an electric generator, so as the steam flow causes the turbine to rotate, the electric generator turns and electricity is produced. Biomass power boilers are typically in the 20-50 MW range, compared to coal-fired plants in the 100-1500 MW range. The small capacity plants tend to be lower in efficiency because of economic trade-offs; efficiency-enhancing equipment cannot pay for itself in small plants. Although techniques exist to push Biomass steam generation efficiency over 40%, actual plant efficiencies are often in the low 20% range.
  3. 3. Hilaire Ananda Perera http://www.linkedin.com/in/hilaireperera . Great to get Heat & Electricity from the Same Plant for Other Use * Fischer–Tropsch process is a collection of chemical reactions that converts a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen into liquid hydrocarbons. It was first developed by Franz Fischer and Hans Tropsch at the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für Kohlenforschung in Mülheim an der Ruhr, Germany, in 1925. The process, a key component of gas to liquids technology, produces a synthetic lubrication oil and synthetic fuel, typically from coal, natural gas, or biomass.
  4. 4. Hilaire Ananda Perera http://www.linkedin.com/in/hilaireperera The above figure illustrates the advantages of operating a CHP system. The Sankey diagram clearly depicts the vastly superior efficiency and subsequent cost savings inherent to operating a CHP system in place of individual and separate power and boiler plants. . Combined heat and power (CHP) is an efficient and clean approach to generating electric power and useful thermal energy from a single fuel source. CHP places power production at or near the end-user’s site so that the heat released from power production can be used to meet the user’s thermal requirements while the power generated meets all or a portion of the site electricity needs. Applications with steady demand for electricity and thermal energy are potentially good economic targets for CHP deployment. Industrial applications particularly in industries with continuous processing and high steam requirements are very economic and represent a large share of existing CHP capacity today. Commercial applications such as hospitals, nursing homes, laundries, and hotels with large hot water needs are well suited for CHP. Institutional applications such as colleges and schools, prisons, and residential and recreational facilities are also excellent prospects for CHP. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) is the simultaneous generation of two or more forms of energy from a single fuel source. By recycling valuable heat from the combustion process, CHP results in far greater efficiencies than centralized power generation. The recovered thermal energy may be used for industrial processes, space heating, and refrigeration or space cooling through an absorption chiller. CHP is considered the most viable and economical use of distributed generation (DG) when implemented at or near the point of use. This Evaluation of Combined Heat and Power Technologies was for Wastewater Treatment Facilities, and prepared for Columbus Water Works, Georgia, Dec 20, 2010
  5. 5. Hilaire Ananda Perera http://www.linkedin.com/in/hilaireperera CHP offers a number of benefits compared to conventional electricity and thermal energy production, including: Efficiency Benefits CHP requires less fuel to produce a given energy output and avoids transmission and distribution losses that occur when electricity travels over power lines. Environmental Benefits Because less fuel is burned to produce each unit of energy output and because transmission and distribution losses are avoided, CHP reduces emissions of greenhouse gases and other air pollutants. Economic Benefits CHP can save facilities considerable money on their energy bills due to its high efficiency, and it can provide a hedge against electricity cost increases. Reliability Benefits Unreliable electricity service represents a quantifiable business, safety, and health risk for some companies and organizations. CHP is an on-site generation resource and can be designed to support continued operations in the event of a disaster or grid disruption by continuing to provide reliable electricity. Catalog of CHP Technologies provides an overview of how combined heat and power systems work and the key concepts of efficiency and power-to-heat ratios. It also provides information and performance characteristics of five commercially available CHP prime movers. https://www.epa.gov/chp/catalog-chp-technologies
  6. 6. Hilaire Ananda Perera http://www.linkedin.com/in/hilaireperera The CHP Plant is designed to receive and process different types of segregated clean and treated biomass and wood-waste fuels. The plant can operate on a single source feedstock basis or on a variable and mixed feedstock basis where differently source feedstock is blended together, which will allow for maximum feedstock flexibility now and in the future. The thermal energy created by combusting Biomass is turned into electricity via the CHP plant. This works by using some of the heat created to drive a turbine and the excess thermal energy is then used to provide either process heat or distinct heating The design of a Biomass CHP plant should focus on meeting the thermal load requirements, as any plant will produce roughly 5 times more than electricity. The size of the biomass boiler will typically be 6 times the electrical output. This means that a 6MW Biomass boiler can produce roughly 5MW of heat and 1MW of electricity. The traditional technology used in thermal power plants involves the production of superheated steam. Pressure is produced at 28 to 36 bar at temperatures between 320 and 260 deg C. This steam then drives the turbine which transfers the energy to the generator via gears and coupling With the single-stage turbine used in small power plants, it is possible to obtain an electrical efficiency of 12-14% of the input energy. The steam turbines are generally suitable for Biomass CHP plants with an electrical output of greater than 2MW.
  7. 7. Hilaire Ananda Perera http://www.linkedin.com/in/hilaireperera What are the benefits of Biomass? What are its drawbacks and environmental impact? BENEFITS Biomass is a carbon-neutral source The amount of carbon dioxide (a greenhouse gas) released when Biomass is burned to generate electricity is less than the amount it captured through photosynthesis when it was a living plant. For this reason, it's considered carbon-neutral. It makes use of wastes Biomass power uses organic wastes and residues from the forestry and agriculture industries, as well as gases produced by landfills, and animal and human wastes to generate electricity. It's a renewable source of electricity Organic materials are replenished by natural plant growth cycles. DRAWBACKS AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT Meanwhile, the forestry and agriculture industries continue to produce organic wastes and municipalities generate their own wastes. All can be used for Biomass power. Biomass power needs a constant supply of organic materials There are worries that tracts of land will be used to grow Biomass rather than food, and that natural environments will be converted to monoculture Biomass crops, destroying habitats and biodiversity in order to meet the supply needs of Biomass electricity generation. It involves collection and transportation challenges It is difficult to collect enough Biomass to generate electricity. Large quantities are needed, and they typically come from a variety of places. It releases pollutants when burned Although Biomass is considered carbon-neutral, it still releases Green House Gases and other air pollutants when burned to generate electricity. Its emissions are far less than those caused by burning fossil fuels, but they are still harmful. Ash is created by burning Biomass and can contain the same metals and other harmful substances present in the original waste.
  8. 8. Hilaire Ananda Perera http://www.linkedin.com/in/hilaireperera COST REDUCTION POTENTIALS FOR BIOMASS-FIRED ELECTRICITY GENERATION Analysing the potential for cost reductions in biomass power generation equipment is complicated by the range of technologies available, from the mature to those still at the pilot or R&D stage, and by the often significant variations in local technology solutions. However, some analysis has examined potential cost reductions in the future. There is currently little discussion about learning curves for biomass power generation. This is in part due to the range of technologies available and to their different states of commercialisation but also due to a lack of authoritative time series cost data. Combustion technologies are well-established and are generally bankable if the project economics are solid. Gasification with low gas energy content and internal combustion engines are an established niche technology in India, but shifting from these simple gasifiers to ones with greater efficiency, using oxygen as a reactive agent, gas clean-up and gas turbines to scale-up this technology to larger power plants still requires more demonstration, especially because it requires expensive gas clean-up, which is currently the main focus of gasification technology improvements. In anaerobic systems, the main technological development needed is linked to the digesters (as better control of the process: enzymes, pH, temperature) and the clean-up of the biogas before combustion. The main question regarding the viability of biomass power plants lies in the development of a reliable feedstock supply chain, especially because long-term feedstock agreements are essential for financing any biomass project. Predicting biomass cost reduction potentials is challenging because many factors are involved, such as the local supply chain, resource potential, land availability, competitive industrial uses (e.g. biochemical), risks of deforestation, sustainability criteria, etc.

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