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FINAL REVIEW
Intro to Nutrition
98 questions, 220 points
Multiple choice true / false & matching
2.75 hours to take the ex...
Essential
A necessary nutrient that can be
obtained only from the diet
Nutrient Density
A high proportion of micronutrients
and fiber with a low proportion of
calories, saturated fat and sugar
Organic - contains carbon
fat
mineral
vitamin carbohydrate
protein
Energy Yielding Nutrients
Energy Yielding Nutrients
Malnutrition
Nutritious Diet
DRI
Research Designs
Research Designs
Leading Causes of Death
RDA
RDA vs AI
EER: Energy Requirement
Energy Requirement
Food Groups
Phytochemicals
Fruit vs Vegetable
Fruit or Vegetable?
Fruit or Vegetable?
Fruit!
Illusions
Dr. Wansink tested Nutrition Experts
by giving them big bowls and big
scoops or small bowls and small
scoops.
...
Daily Values
• Great for comparing
products
• Not a good tool for
recommendations for
individuals
•Same on every label
ACSM Exercise Guidelines
Digestion and Absorption
Most Important Digestive Organ?
Most Important Digestive Organ?
How does the
stomach avoid
getting burned by
stomach acid?
Secrete mucus which
protects the cells from the
acidic contents...
Digestion:
Breakdown of
nutrients
Absorption:
passage of
nutrients from the
digestive tract to
the bloodstream
Digestion &...
Heartburn Recommendations
• Smaller, more
frequent meals
• Drink before
and after meals,
not during
• minimize fiber
• Don...
Storage Systems
Storage Systems
Alcohol
Simple Carbohydrates
monosaccharides
disaccharides
Carbohydrates
fiber
Simple Carbohydrates
Complex Carbohydrates
glycogen
Fiber
Fiber
Blood Sugar
Blood sugar :
results in insulin
secretion by the
pancreas
Blood sugar :
results in glucagon
secretion by th...
Wheat Kernel
Wheat Kernel
A: Husk - removed
B: Bran - most of fiber
C: Endosperm - starch
D: Germ - nutrients/
protein
Diabetes
Diabetes
Type I Diabetes
 Autoimmune disease
 Cells of the pancreas do not secrete insulin
 Typical onset is childhood...
Gluten
Lipids
Three classes of lipids
 Triglycerides (TG)
≈95% of all lipids in
 foods and the human body.
 TG = FAT
 Phosp...
Lipids
Fatty Acids
Essential Fatty
Acids
• Omega - 6
• Omega - 3
Lipoproteins
LDL
Transport cholesterol
and other lipids to body
tissues
HDL
Carry cholesterol from
body cells to the liver...
Trans Fatty Acids
Trans fats are a byproduct of hydrogenation
Cholesterol
Proteins
1. Genes determine
the sequence
2. String of amino
acids
3. Peptide bond
4. Not a straight
chain
5. Shape determi...
Proteins: Multiple Functions
Using Proteins for Energy
Nitrogen is wasted when protein is
used for energy
Digestibility
Dry heat  digestibility: BBQ
Moist heat  digestibility
 Crock pot / stew
Meat - better digestibility
...
Denaturing Protein
Uncoiling and unfolding protein
• acid (stomach acid)
• heavy metals (ie:
mercury)
• base
• heat (cook...
PEM
•KWASHIOKOR
•Older infants ( 1-3 yr)
Rapid onset
•Inadequate protein
intake
•Some weight loss and
muscle wasting (not
...
Vegetarian/Vegan Diet
• A healthy vegetarian diet is associated with
a lower risk of chronic disease
• Both a vegetarian d...
Vitamins
Vitamin A
Beta - carotene
Other Fat Soluble Vitamins
Other Fat Soluble Vitamins
Other Fat Soluble Vitamins
Other Fat Soluble Vitamins
Vitamin D
Water Soluble: Vitamin C
Water Soluble: B Vitamins
Water Soluble; B Vitamins
Neural Tube Defects
Spina bifida
Anencephaly Folate
Pernicious Anemia
Vitamins Destroyed by Head
Supplements
Sodium and Potassium
Iron
Iron absorption
•Heme (23%)
•Non- heme (2-20%)
Increase absorption (non-heme)
•Vitamin C
•MFP
Inhibit absorption (non...
Iron
Iron absorption
•Heme (23%)
•Non- heme (2-20%)
Increase absorption (non-heme)
•Vitamin C
•MFP
Inhibit absorption (non...
Iron Deficiency
Calcium
Calcium - Osteoporosis
• Loss of bone mineral density
• Not achieving peak bone mass increases
the risk of developing oste...
Iodine
Phosphorus
P
Overweight & Obese
• 65% of Americans are
overweight or obese
• 30% of Americans are
obese
Central Obesity
BMI: Body Mass Index
Risk for heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, stroke
Determine risk: BMI, Waist, Disease Profile, A...
Hunger & Satiety
Hunger: physiologic need for food/
energy
Appetite: psychological desire for
food
Satiety: feeling of ...
Calorie
a unit of measurement for the energy
in food
Energy Expenditure
Energy In:
Food + beverages
Energy Out:
Physical Activity + BMR + TEF
Thrifty Gene
Female Athlete Triad
1. Disordered Eating
2. Amenorrhea
3. Osteoporosis
Risk Factors and Disease
Heart Disease & Smoking
Atherosclerosis
Atherogenic Diet
Hypertension
Hypertension
DASH diet lowers BP more than
decreasing sodium intake alone
Cancer development
Damage
to DNA 
Cells
multiply
Promoters
enhance 
metastasis
Cancer development
• Free radicals cause damage to DNA,
protein and lipid membranes
• Antioxidants quench free - radicals ...
Antioxidants
Infant Birthweight
Iron: During pregnancy
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Nutritional Deficiency in Pregnancy
Nutritional Deficiency in Pregnancy
Benefits of Breastfeeding
Nutrients for Toddlers
Allergy, aversion, intolerance
Teenagers
What are the 2 most important
nutrients for teenagers?
Teenagers
Physical Changes with Aging
Vitamin A and D with aging
Physical Activity in Elderly
Food Poisoning
Food Safety
Food Safety: Foodborne illness
Preserving Foods
Natural & Artificial Flavors
Pesticides
Organic Foods
Genetic Engineering of Food
Genetic Engineering of Food
Exam Format
Exam Format
THE END
Final review summer2013
Final review summer2013
Final review summer2013
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Final review summer2013

  1. 1. FINAL REVIEW Intro to Nutrition 98 questions, 220 points Multiple choice true / false & matching 2.75 hours to take the exam
  2. 2. Essential A necessary nutrient that can be obtained only from the diet
  3. 3. Nutrient Density A high proportion of micronutrients and fiber with a low proportion of calories, saturated fat and sugar
  4. 4. Organic - contains carbon fat mineral vitamin carbohydrate protein
  5. 5. Energy Yielding Nutrients
  6. 6. Energy Yielding Nutrients
  7. 7. Malnutrition
  8. 8. Nutritious Diet
  9. 9. DRI
  10. 10. Research Designs
  11. 11. Research Designs
  12. 12. Leading Causes of Death
  13. 13. RDA
  14. 14. RDA vs AI
  15. 15. EER: Energy Requirement Energy Requirement
  16. 16. Food Groups
  17. 17. Phytochemicals
  18. 18. Fruit vs Vegetable
  19. 19. Fruit or Vegetable?
  20. 20. Fruit or Vegetable? Fruit!
  21. 21. Illusions Dr. Wansink tested Nutrition Experts by giving them big bowls and big scoops or small bowls and small scoops. These experts scooped 53% more ice cream with big bowls and big scoops!
  22. 22. Daily Values • Great for comparing products • Not a good tool for recommendations for individuals •Same on every label
  23. 23. ACSM Exercise Guidelines
  24. 24. Digestion and Absorption
  25. 25. Most Important Digestive Organ?
  26. 26. Most Important Digestive Organ?
  27. 27. How does the stomach avoid getting burned by stomach acid? Secrete mucus which protects the cells from the acidic contents of the stomach Stomach & Acid
  28. 28. Digestion: Breakdown of nutrients Absorption: passage of nutrients from the digestive tract to the bloodstream Digestion & Absorption
  29. 29. Heartburn Recommendations • Smaller, more frequent meals • Drink before and after meals, not during • minimize fiber • Don’t lie down immediately after meals • Wear loose clothing
  30. 30. Storage Systems
  31. 31. Storage Systems
  32. 32. Alcohol
  33. 33. Simple Carbohydrates monosaccharides disaccharides
  34. 34. Carbohydrates fiber Simple Carbohydrates Complex Carbohydrates glycogen
  35. 35. Fiber
  36. 36. Fiber
  37. 37. Blood Sugar Blood sugar : results in insulin secretion by the pancreas Blood sugar : results in glucagon secretion by the pancreas
  38. 38. Wheat Kernel
  39. 39. Wheat Kernel A: Husk - removed B: Bran - most of fiber C: Endosperm - starch D: Germ - nutrients/ protein
  40. 40. Diabetes
  41. 41. Diabetes Type I Diabetes  Autoimmune disease  Cells of the pancreas do not secrete insulin  Typical onset is childhood Type II Diabetes  Insulin resistance  Pancreas secretes enough or too much insulin  Typically adult-onset, now seen in children
  42. 42. Gluten
  43. 43. Lipids Three classes of lipids  Triglycerides (TG) ≈95% of all lipids in  foods and the human body.  TG = FAT  Phospholipids For example, lecithin emulsifiers  Sterols For example, cholesterol * Know functions of lipids
  44. 44. Lipids
  45. 45. Fatty Acids Essential Fatty Acids • Omega - 6 • Omega - 3
  46. 46. Lipoproteins LDL Transport cholesterol and other lipids to body tissues HDL Carry cholesterol from body cells to the liver for disposal (scavenges cholesterol)
  47. 47. Trans Fatty Acids Trans fats are a byproduct of hydrogenation
  48. 48. Cholesterol
  49. 49. Proteins 1. Genes determine the sequence 2. String of amino acids 3. Peptide bond 4. Not a straight chain 5. Shape determines function.
  50. 50. Proteins: Multiple Functions
  51. 51. Using Proteins for Energy Nitrogen is wasted when protein is used for energy
  52. 52. Digestibility Dry heat  digestibility: BBQ Moist heat  digestibility  Crock pot / stew Meat - better digestibility Grain - lower digestibility
  53. 53. Denaturing Protein Uncoiling and unfolding protein • acid (stomach acid) • heavy metals (ie: mercury) • base • heat (cooking) • alcohol
  54. 54. PEM •KWASHIOKOR •Older infants ( 1-3 yr) Rapid onset •Inadequate protein intake •Some weight loss and muscle wasting (not severe) •Edema (belly) •Belly often bulges with a fatty liver •MARASMUS •6 - 18 months of age •Protein and energy deprivation •Develops slowly •Severe wasting •No edema •Looks like a Little Old Man/matchstick arms •Can go to point of no return
  55. 55. Vegetarian/Vegan Diet • A healthy vegetarian diet is associated with a lower risk of chronic disease • Both a vegetarian diet and a meat eater’s diet should include a wide variety of fruits and vegetables and whole grains • A vegan diet needs to be supplemented with Vitamin B12 • Mutual supplementation is the combining of plant foods to form complete proteins
  56. 56. Vitamins
  57. 57. Vitamin A
  58. 58. Beta - carotene
  59. 59. Other Fat Soluble Vitamins
  60. 60. Other Fat Soluble Vitamins
  61. 61. Other Fat Soluble Vitamins
  62. 62. Other Fat Soluble Vitamins
  63. 63. Vitamin D
  64. 64. Water Soluble: Vitamin C
  65. 65. Water Soluble: B Vitamins
  66. 66. Water Soluble; B Vitamins
  67. 67. Neural Tube Defects Spina bifida Anencephaly Folate
  68. 68. Pernicious Anemia
  69. 69. Vitamins Destroyed by Head
  70. 70. Supplements
  71. 71. Sodium and Potassium
  72. 72. Iron Iron absorption •Heme (23%) •Non- heme (2-20%) Increase absorption (non-heme) •Vitamin C •MFP Inhibit absorption (non-heme) •Tannins, phytates •Calcium, phosphorus Iron heme hemoglobin
  73. 73. Iron Iron absorption •Heme (23%) •Non- heme (2-20%) Increase absorption (non-heme) •Vitamin C •MFP Inhibit absorption (non-heme) •Tannins, phytates •Calcium, phosphorus Iron heme hemoglobin
  74. 74. Iron Deficiency
  75. 75. Calcium
  76. 76. Calcium - Osteoporosis • Loss of bone mineral density • Not achieving peak bone mass increases the risk of developing osteoporosis Ca, Vit D, Vit K intake, gender, genetics, physical activity contribute to risk
  77. 77. Iodine
  78. 78. Phosphorus P
  79. 79. Overweight & Obese • 65% of Americans are overweight or obese • 30% of Americans are obese
  80. 80. Central Obesity
  81. 81. BMI: Body Mass Index Risk for heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, stroke Determine risk: BMI, Waist, Disease Profile, Activity Level Can be overweight and healthy!
  82. 82. Hunger & Satiety Hunger: physiologic need for food/ energy Appetite: psychological desire for food Satiety: feeling of fullness Hunger is a greater drive than satiety Stretch receptors in the stomach send a signal to the brain  satiety
  83. 83. Calorie a unit of measurement for the energy in food
  84. 84. Energy Expenditure Energy In: Food + beverages Energy Out: Physical Activity + BMR + TEF
  85. 85. Thrifty Gene
  86. 86. Female Athlete Triad 1. Disordered Eating 2. Amenorrhea 3. Osteoporosis
  87. 87. Risk Factors and Disease
  88. 88. Heart Disease & Smoking
  89. 89. Atherosclerosis
  90. 90. Atherogenic Diet
  91. 91. Hypertension
  92. 92. Hypertension DASH diet lowers BP more than decreasing sodium intake alone
  93. 93. Cancer development Damage to DNA  Cells multiply Promoters enhance  metastasis
  94. 94. Cancer development • Free radicals cause damage to DNA, protein and lipid membranes • Antioxidants quench free - radicals and prevent damage
  95. 95. Antioxidants
  96. 96. Infant Birthweight
  97. 97. Iron: During pregnancy
  98. 98. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
  99. 99. Nutritional Deficiency in Pregnancy
  100. 100. Nutritional Deficiency in Pregnancy
  101. 101. Benefits of Breastfeeding
  102. 102. Nutrients for Toddlers
  103. 103. Allergy, aversion, intolerance
  104. 104. Teenagers What are the 2 most important nutrients for teenagers?
  105. 105. Teenagers
  106. 106. Physical Changes with Aging
  107. 107. Vitamin A and D with aging
  108. 108. Physical Activity in Elderly
  109. 109. Food Poisoning
  110. 110. Food Safety
  111. 111. Food Safety: Foodborne illness
  112. 112. Preserving Foods
  113. 113. Natural & Artificial Flavors
  114. 114. Pesticides
  115. 115. Organic Foods
  116. 116. Genetic Engineering of Food
  117. 117. Genetic Engineering of Food
  118. 118. Exam Format
  119. 119. Exam Format
  120. 120. THE END

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