Chapter 7 vitamins


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Chapter 7 vitamins

  1. 1. Nutrition HO-15
  2. 2. Vitamins Water Soluble – Vitamin C & B Fat Soluble – Vitamin A, D, E & K
  3. 3. Vitamins • Dissolve in water • Easily absorbed and transported • Not stored in significant quantities • Rarely toxic from food sources Water Soluble – Vitamin C & B • Do not dissolve in water • Need fat to be absorbed • Stored extensively • Can reach toxic levels Fat Soluble – Vitamin A, D, E & K
  4. 4. Fat Soluble Vitamin A Vitamin D Vitamin E Vitamin K
  5. 5. Vitamin E Antioxidant: quenches free radicals protects cellular structures from oxidative damage
  6. 6. Vitamin A Functions Vision • body linings and skin • For growth of bones and teeth Growth and maintenance Immune defenses
  7. 7. Vitamin A Deficiency Vision - > night blindness Growth and maintenance -> keratinization Immune defenses - > decreased immunity
  8. 8. Beta-carotene? Pigment in plants Antioxidant Precursor to Vitamin A Converted to Vitamin A Not absorbed at a high rate
  9. 9. Retinol Activity Equivalent Accounts for retinol (better absorbed/more active) Accounts for provitamin A carotenoids Differs from International Units (IU)
  10. 10. Sources • Animal foods: beef liver Retinol: yellow fat soluble substance • Plant sources: sweet potato, cantaloupe, red pepper Provitamin A carotenoids Differs from IU
  11. 11. Role of Vitamin D in the body? Regulation of blood calcium Regulation of phosphorus Raises blood calcium levels
  12. 12. Vitamin D Deficiency Softening of Bones Rickets
  13. 13. Vitamin D Deficiency CVD CA Cognitive Asthma DM MS HTN
  14. 14. Vitamin D Sources Sunshine! Seafood Fortified milk Egg yolk Mushrooms
  15. 15. Vitamin K K1: Synthesis of blood clotting proteins K2: Synthesis of bone proteins
  16. 16. Vitamin K Vitamin K is synthesized by bacteria in the intestines Vitamin K is given at birth because the intestines are sterile. The goal is to prevent bleeding in Vitamin K deficient newborns
  17. 17. The Gatekeeper and the Traffic Cop Vitamin D: Gatekeeper Vitamin K: Traffic Cop
  18. 18. Vitamin C Maintenance of connective tissues • Formation of collagen Cofactor in the production of carnitine Antioxidant Restores Vitamin E to it’s active form Supports the immune system Boosts Iron absorption
  19. 19. Vitamin C Deficiency Scurvy Breakdown of connective tissue
  20. 20. Vitamin C Does not prevent colds Vitamin C reduces histamine
  21. 21. B-Vitamins Work together Part of coenzymes Energy metabolism New cell synthesis
  22. 22. Thiamin deficiency results in what condition? Beriberi (affects nerves) Loss of sensation in hands and feet muscular weakness advancing paralysis
  23. 23. What condition develops in Niacin deficiency? Pellagra Diarrhea Dermatitis Dementia Death
  24. 24. Neural tube defects Fortification of food is important - Most women don’t know they are pregnant for weeks
  25. 25. B12 Deficiency Pernicious anemia Malabsorption Elderly Vegans
  26. 26. Who is at risk for Pernicious anemia? Vitamin B12 is only found in animal sources Elderly - most at risk Strict Vegetarians
  27. 27. THE END