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Chapter 1 Food Choices and Human Health

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Chapter 1 Food Choices and Human Health

  1. 1. Food Health Choices Human
  2. 2. Images from Wikipedia A: Egg McMuffin with sausage B: Starbucks Venti Mocha Frappuccino & bran muffin C: 1 cup of bran flakes with 1 cup 2% milk and ½ cup berries D: Large doughnut (4 ½” diameter) E: Bagel (4 ½” diameter) with cream cheese (3 tablespoons)
  3. 3. Images from Wikipedia A B C D E
  4. 4. Image from The Paleo Diet Loren Cordain, PhD Leading expert on evolutionary diets Paleo Diet: Eat like our ancestors
  5. 5. Fish Meat Vegetables Grains Sugar Dairy Legumes Consume Limit Image from The Paleo Diet
  6. 6. Image from NealBarnard.org Neal Barnard, MD Founder of the PCRM Advocates whole food, plant based diet
  7. 7. Image from NealBarnard.org Whole foods Plant foods Grains Legumes Animal foods * Meat * Fish * Dairy Consume Limit
  8. 8. William Davis, MD Cardiologist, author of Wheat Belly Modern wheat causes chronic disease Image from WheatBellyBlog.com
  9. 9. Image from WheatBellyBlog.com Fruit Vegetables Meat All wheat (bread, crackers, pastas, etc) Consume Limit
  10. 10. T. Colin Campbell, PhD Nutritional Biochemist: The China Study Animal protein causes chronic disease Image from Wikipedia
  11. 11. Image from Wikipedia Whole Foods Plant Foods Grains Legumes Animal foods * Meat * Fish * Dairy Consume Limit
  12. 12. Robert Lustig, MD Sugar: The Bitter Truth (video went viral) Sugar (fructose) is causing chronic disease Image from ucsfbenioffchildrens.org
  13. 13. Image from ucsf.edu “Real Food” Sugar * added sugar * fruit juice * soda Consume Limit
  14. 14. Caldwell Esselstyn, MD Author of Prevent and Reverse Heart Disease Reversed heart disease with a low fat/non fat diet Image from heartattackproof.com
  15. 15. Image from heartattackproof.com Whole grains Legumes Fruits Vegetables All fat * Plant fat * Animal fat Animal foods Consume Limit
  16. 16. Images from Wikipedia David Perlmutter, MD Neurologist and author of Grain Brain Avoid grains, eat fat and cholesterol
  17. 17. Images from Wikipedia Vegetables Fruits Meats Grains * Wheat Sugar Consume Limit
  18. 18. Avoid fat Avoid grains Avoid animal foods Avoid wheat Avoid animal protein Avoid sugar Avoid grains
  19. 19. Avoid fat Avoid grains Avoid animal foods Avoid wheat Avoid animal protein Avoid sugar Avoid grains Whole Foods Plant Based Diet
  20. 20. Avoid fat Avoid grains Avoid animal foods Avoid wheat Avoid animal protein Avoid sugar Avoid grains saturated fat is healthy whole wheat bread is not healthy
  21. 21. Avoid fat Avoid grains Avoid animal foods Avoid wheat Avoid animal protein Avoid sugar Avoid grains It’s not fat or grains, it’s sugar
  22. 22. Avoid fat Avoid grains Avoid animal foods Avoid wheat Avoid animal protein Avoid sugar Avoid grains Avoid sugar Avoid processed foods Eat vegetables
  23. 23. Image by The Bitten Word on FlickrCC "The Masai subsist on cattle blood and meat and milk and little else. Native Americans subsist on beans and maize. And the Inuit in Greenland subsist on whale blubber and a little bit of lichen. The irony is, the one diet we have invented for ourselves -- the Western diet -- is the one that makes us sick.” Michael Pollan
  24. 24. Image by The Bitten Word on FlickrCC
  25. 25. Image by The Bitten Word on FlickrCC Standard American Diet
  26. 26. Image by The Bitten Word on FlickrCC healthywhole veggies whole fruits whole grains good fats mod calories physical activity limit processed fats limit processed meats Limit refined grains limit alcohol intake avoid tobacco avoid food additives
  27. 27. DISEASE slow long lacks quick cure
  28. 28. Leading Causes of Death in US Related to Nutrition!
  29. 29. Wants Disease?
  30. 30. CHRONIC DISEASE diseaseGenetics Viral infections Lifestyle choices Environmental factors Poor nutrition Physical Inactivity Socio-economic Low birth weight Aging Stress
  31. 31. CHRONIC DISEASE diseaseGenetics Viral infections Lifestyle choices Environmental factors Poor nutrition Physical Inactivity Socio-economic Low birth weight Aging Stress
  32. 32. What Can We Do About It?
  33. 33. Image by The Bitten Word on FlickrCC Don’t eat anything your grandmother wouldn’t recognize Don’t eat anything with more than 5 ingredients Don’t eat anything with ingredients you wouldn’t recognize Don’t eat anything that won’t eventually rot • Modified from Food Rules by Michael Pollan If a product has to tell you it’s healthy, it probably isn’t
  34. 34. FOOD CHOICES FactorsAffectingChoice Availability Too many choices? Cost Environment Friends Music LightingConvenience Plate Size Cultural Religious Hunger Social values Animal rights Environment Advertising Taste
  35. 35. FOOD CHOICES FactorsAffectingChoice Nutrition
  36. 36. Nutrients needed by the body Necessary for health and/or survival Cannot be made by the body Cannot be made in sufficient amounts Must be obtained from food
  37. 37. Carbohydrates Fat Protein Vitamins Minerals Water
  38. 38. Macronutrients Carbohydrates Fat Protein Micronutrients Vitamins Minerals Water
  39. 39. Macronutrients Carbohydrates Starch Sugar Fiber Fat Mono Poly Protein Micronutrients Vitamins Minerals Water
  40. 40. Carbohydrates Fat Protein yielding
  41. 41. Carbohydrates: 4 calories/gram Fat: 9 calories/gram Protein: 4 calories/gram yielding
  42. 42. Unit of Food Energy
  43. 43. . of . . images from Wikipedia and Open Clip Art
  44. 44. . . . . images from Wikipedia and Open Clip Art
  45. 45. Carbohydrates Fat Protein Vitamins
  46. 46. Carbohydrates Fat Protein
  47. 47. Whole Foods Image by Yvon on FlickerCC
  48. 48. Packaged Packaged Processed Processed
  49. 49. Processed? . . . .
  50. 50. The further a food appears from how it existed in nature, the less nutritious
  51. 51. No legal definition Does NOT mean healthy Don’t be fooled
  52. 52. Variety Adequacy Balance Moderation Calorie Control Characteristics of Nutritious Diet
  53. 53. Variety Adequacy Balance Moderation Calorie Control Images by Anathea Utley and Anne Heathen on FlickrCC
  54. 54. Don’t supplements for real food substitute
  55. 55. Observation Hypothesis Test
  56. 56. Individual Too Little of Nutrient X Develops Illness Y
  57. 57. Child Mercury in diet Develops autism
  58. 58. Mercury Causes autism? Can’t make that conclusion
  59. 59. Disease & Lifestyle Connections Populations
  60. 60. Mediterranean Countries Diet high in olive oil Lower incidence of heart disease
  61. 61. Olive oil Prevents heart disease? Can’t make that conclusion
  62. 62. Two groups of peoples Provided two different diets Measure outcomes
  63. 63. Two groups of people High carb vs low carb diet Measure weight loss & blood lipids
  64. 64. Double Blind Placebo Controlled Randomized Interventional Trial
  65. 65. Academic journals University websites • Look for credentials, degrees, affiliations • Author of the article has been published by a University press • Author is associated with a University • Author has academic affiliations, has published in a scholarly journal Informational websites with reliable authors: • If the news source is reporting on a "new study" the study should ALWAYS be cited. Major news sources (eg: NPR, ABC, NBC, CNN) Look at the url, look for .gov, .edu or .org
  66. 66. • Always check the “About Us” page Sponsored by a Lobbyist Group • Eg: tobacco industry Site with an Agenda Trying to sell you something Author is not listed • A hyperlink or in AMA format No studies cited
  67. 67. Citations: AMA Format
  68. 68. THE END

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