Ch 11


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  • Salt does not cause high blood pressure. Eating too much sodium does not cause hypertension, it is one contributing factor. Causation, infection with mycobacteriumtuberculiresults in tuberculosis
  • Cardiovascular disease refers to diseases of the heart and the blood vessels. When we refer to heart disease, typically we are referring to atherosclerosis, the most common form of heart disease. Atherosclerosis is characterized by the buildup of plaques along the walls of the arteries.
  • Cardiovascular disease refers to diseases of the heart and the blood vessels. When we refer to heart disease, typically we are referring to atherosclerosis, the most common form of heart disease. Atherosclerosis is characterized by the buildup of plaques along the walls of the arteries.
  • As the heart pushes blood into the circulation, it is forced into large arteries, which then turn to smaller arteries and capillaries. More blood pushing with more force, will increase the pressure. Narrow blood vessels (or those which cannot expand due to hardening of the arteries – eg: arteriosclerosis) will increase the pressure. Increased volume in the circulation; eg: more sodium = more water = more volume = more pressure. The kidneys maintain fluid volume.
  • The top number is the systolic pressure. This means the pressure when the heart is contracting. As the heart relaxes, the pressure lowers, and this is the bottom number called diastole. This is when the heart is at rest.
  • Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension: Research has shown that following the DASH diet (increased fruits and vegetables, decreased red meat, increased legumes in addition to lowering sodium intake) decreases blood pressure in hypertension more than just reducing salt alone.
  • Tobacco is an example of a carcinogen that may initiate the event causing damage to the DNA. The mutated cells multiple and environmental factors (including diet) called promoters enhance the development of these cells. These cells are then considered malignant and they invade surrounding tissues and organs and release into the bloodstream. This is called metastasis.
  • Body’s defense mechanism to free radical damage (carcinogens)
  • Obesity is associated with greater cancer risk - up to 50% greater risk of death from cancer in one study) Regular alcohol intake is associated with head and neck cancer
  • Meats cooked to that crispy well done stage have been associated with colon cancer (BBQed or pan-fried). The browning reaction in meat forms heterocyclic amines, carcinogens. The meat drippings on the coals generate carcinogens in the smoke, which stick to the meat. The black char on the meat is carcinogenic.
  • Carbohydrate rich foods (like potatoes) which are cooked at high temperatures (eg: deep frying) will develop acrylamide, a carcinogenic byproduct. The health effects are still under investigation.
  • Nutrigenomics – how food and metabolites of food products impact gene expression
  • Commander genes are not influenced by environmental factors, for example eye and hair color. Peer pressure genes are subject to the surrounding environment.
  • Ch 11

    1. 1. Chapter 11 Diet Health DietHealth Diet health
    2. 2. chronic mostly irreversible characterized by degeneration of the organs • food choices • smoking • physical activity • alcohol use many contributing factors
    3. 3. • A correlation between a risk factor and a disease does not mean the risk factor causes the disease Correlation = association • An act or agent which results in an effect Causation = produces an effect Correlation does NOT equal Causation
    4. 4. Variables Associated with increased disease risk Correlational Not causal
    5. 5. Heart Disease Atherosclerosis Characterized by plaque Complex inflammatory process!
    6. 6. Damage to artery wall • Smoking • Aging • Hyperlipidemia Fatty streak • Body responds • Inflammation • LDL oxidation Plaque • Smooth muscle • macrophages • Lipoproteins Atherosclerosis
    7. 7. Increasingage Age Malegender Gender FamilyHistory Genetics
    8. 8. Increasingweight Obesity Tobacco Smoking Highbloodpressure HypertensionAbnormalbloodlipids dyslipidemia Insulinresistance Diabetes Lackofexercise Physical inactivity
    9. 9. Atherogenic Diet: modifiable risk factor High in saturated fat High in trans fat High in cholesterol Low in fruits Low in vegetables Low in whole grains
    10. 10. Hypertension: High Blood Pressure Heart pumping blood Size of the arteries Volume of fluid in vessels
    11. 11. Image from Sizer Whitney, 2012
    12. 12. Blood Pressure Normal: 120/80 High: > 130/85
    13. 13. Hypertension Risk Factors Atherosclerosis Obesity Insulin resistance Age Genetics
    14. 14. Lower Blood Pressure Lower sodium intake Lose weight Alcohol in moderation Increase intake of fresh fruit and vegetables Reduce intake of fat Increase calcium, potassium and magnesium Increase physical activity
    15. 15. DASHDiet Increase calcium Increase potassium Increase magnesium Increase Vitamin C
    16. 16. CancerGenetics Viral infections Lifestyle choices Environmental factors Nutrition
    17. 17. carcinogens cell damage cancer development
    18. 18. Cancer Development Carcinogensmoke DNA Damage cells Cells multiply multiply Promoterscells Metastasisinvade
    19. 19. Exposed to carcinogens daily Not all carcinogens cause damage Anti-oxidants quench free radicals Body can repair cell damage Damage not repaired -> cell self- destructs
    20. 20. Diet & Lifestyle to Reduce Cancer Risk High fruits, vegetables and whole grains Diets lower in calories (moderation) Healthy weight: Obesity is associated with some cancers Increased physical activity - lower risk of colon cancer Diets low in saturated fat (research is mixed) Limit red meats/processed meats Limit alcohol intake
    21. 21. BBQ Browning reaction Heterocyclic amines Carcinogenic Meat drippings Carcinogens (smoke) Stick to the meat Image from Wikipedia
    22. 22. Carbohydrate rich food Cooked at high temps Acrylamide Carcinogenic Image from Wikipedia
    23. 23. •Impact of food on gene expression Nutrigenomics
    24. 24. Commander Genes Peer Pressure Genes
    25. 25. Diet End Health The