The Central Business District A Basic Outline


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The Central Business District A Basic Outline

  1. 1. The Central Business District (CBD)
  2. 2. In pairs…. <ul><li>What do you think are the main functions of the CBD? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Main functions of the CBD <ul><li>Shops: </li></ul><ul><li>CBD at top of shopping hierarchy in a city. </li></ul><ul><li>Has widest range of shops and the largest department stores. </li></ul><ul><li>Shops mainly sell comparison goods and high order goods </li></ul><ul><li>Draw customer from a wide sphere of influence </li></ul><ul><li>Highest land costs in the centre </li></ul>
  4. 4. Bid rent theory
  5. 5. Main functions of the CBD <ul><li>2. Offices: </li></ul><ul><li>Banks, building societies, solicitors, insurance companies and government offices occupy high rise office blocks or the upper floors above shops in the CBD </li></ul>
  6. 6. Main functions of the CBD <ul><li>3. Culture and entertainment: </li></ul><ul><li>Theatres, cinemas (although now increasingly out of town), clubs, bars and restaurants </li></ul><ul><li>Some cities have certain areas famous for nightlife e.g. London’s West End and Newcastle’s Quayside </li></ul>
  7. 7. Transport <ul><li>CBD is usually very accessible. </li></ul><ul><li>The focus of roads </li></ul><ul><li>Usually train station and bus station nearby </li></ul><ul><li>Largest urban areas have underground systems </li></ul><ul><li>Trams are being reintroduced into some city centres </li></ul>
  8. 8. Diagram from ‘Understanding GCSE Geog’
  9. 9. What do you think the problems are in the CBD?
  10. 10. Problems and attempted solutions in the CBD <ul><li>Traffic congestion: </li></ul><ul><li>In UK towns grew and street patterns were established before widespread car ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Roads are often narrow </li></ul><ul><li>Grid lock </li></ul><ul><li>Attempted solutions include: </li></ul><ul><li>Ring roads and by-passes </li></ul><ul><li>Urban motorways and flyovers </li></ul><ul><li>Public transport schemes like ‘park and ride’ </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-storey car parks </li></ul><ul><li>Pedestrianisation of high streets </li></ul><ul><li>Congestion charge </li></ul>
  11. 12. Problems and attempted solutions in the CBD <ul><li>2. Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Water, air land and noise pollution are all common in CBDs. </li></ul><ul><li>Some illnesses such as asthma are exacerbated by urban living </li></ul><ul><li>Attempted solutions include: </li></ul><ul><li>Laws against the dumping of litter and sewage in rivers </li></ul><ul><li>Improved provision of litter bins and road sweeping (inc a relatively recent addition of different types of bins to encourage recycling) </li></ul><ul><li>Clean Air Acts </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicles which </li></ul><ul><li>will run on cleaner </li></ul><ul><li>fuels </li></ul><ul><li>Increased </li></ul><ul><li>planting of trees </li></ul><ul><li>and shrubs </li></ul>
  12. 13. Problems and attempted solutions in the CBD <ul><li>3. Lack of space and the high cost of land </li></ul><ul><li>Small retailers have been forced away </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Clone towns’ </li></ul><ul><li>Attempted solutions include: </li></ul><ul><li>High rise buildings to increase floor space </li></ul><ul><li>Out-of-town shopping centres </li></ul>
  13. 14. Problems and attempted solutions in the CBD <ul><li>4. Urban decline: </li></ul><ul><li>As CBDs compete with out of town centres they experience decline, inc vacant properties, vandalism etc </li></ul><ul><li>Growth of internet etc means CBD may no longer be the attractive location it once was, especially for those such as offices who do not need to attract passing trade </li></ul><ul><li>Attempted solutions include: </li></ul><ul><li>Redevelopment of certain zones in CBD e.g. Covent Garden in London </li></ul><ul><li>See whole section in a few lessons’ time on urban decline! </li></ul>
  14. 15. From ‘Advanced geography through diagrams’