The Thalamus & Sensory Activities ► Sensory Cranial Nerves Sensory cranial nerves arise from groups of cells outside of the brain. These sensory nerves are:1. The olfactory (first cranial—sensory only)2. The optic (second cranial—sensory only)3. The trigeminal (fifth cranial—motor and sensory)4. The facial (seventh cranial—motor and sensory)5. The acoustic (eighth cranial—sensory only)6. The glossopharyngeal (ninth cranial—motor and sensory)7. The vagus (tenth cranial—motor and sensory)
The Thalamus & Sensory Activities ► The Eighth Cranial NerveIt is really more than an “acoustic” nerve. It alsotransmits peripheral information to the brainregarding balance.Balance performance is the vestibular portion ofthe labyrinth. Remember, the labyrinth includesthe semi-circular canals as well as the cochleawith both efferent and afferent informationtravelling through the eighth nerve.
The Thalamus & Sensory Activities ►The ThalamusIt is about the size of a walnut and located inthe mid-brain. It receives all peripheralsensory information except for olfaction(smell). It has five basic functions.
The Thalamus & Sensory Activities ► The Thalamus The five basic functions of the thalamus are:1. Relaying and processing all sensory input for conscious awareness (except olfactory/smell).2. Perception of crude aspects of pain, temperature, and touch sensations.3. Imparting pleasantness or noxiousness to sensations.4. Maintaining brain activity which influence arousal, attention, and sleep-wake cycles.5. Relay/integration station for input from the brain to the motor cortex.
The Thalamus & Sensory Activities ►The HypothalamusIt is located toward the posterior portion ofthe thalamus. It is a portion of the brainwhich provides an integration of endocrinefunction and nervous system function.It performs five basic integration functions.
The Thalamus & Sensory Activities ► The Hypothalamus It’s five basic integration functions regulate:1. Carbohydrate and fat metabolism and reabsorption of water by the kidneys.2. /mediate expressions of emotional behavior.3. States of sleep, wakefulness, and consciousness.4. Blood flow to regulate body temperature.5. Food intake.
The Thalamus & Sensory Activities►Sensory reaction by the cerebellumSensory activity of the cerebellum areusually found with an ipsilateral response bythe respective hemisphere.Motor control activity is usually revealed bya contralateral response of the respectivehemisphere.
The Thalamus & Sensory Activities►Sensory dominance of the cerebellumNinety percent of humans are lefthemisphere dominant i.e. most aspects oflanguage, handedness, calculation andmemory.
The Thalamus & Sensory Activities►Sensory dominance of the cerebellumThe right hemisphere perceives tactual,visual, and auditory information of whicheighty percent of the received informationtransmits to the left hemisphere.This hemisphere is also instrumental inartistic creativity.
The Thalamus & Sensory Activities ►Multiple SclerosisThe afferent and efferent informationreceived by the cerebellum through theperipheral sensory nuclei and the thalamushas been compromised (lesion). The triadof symptoms include:1. Intension tremor, 2. Scanning/slurred speech, 3.Nystagmus compromise.
The Thalamus & Sensory Activities ►ProprioceptionThis is the sensory combined withmotor/muscle control to assist with bodyposition, balance, and changes inequilibrium especially during locomotion(walking/running/moving).The sensory receptors originate within themuscles tendons, joints, and the vestibularapparatus of the inner ear.
The Thalamus & Sensory Activities►Sensory reaction by the cerebellumSlurred speech, beating eyes, poor gait,complaints of dizziness are commonsymptoms revealed in our assessment ofadult patient/clients.We will become more aware of hearingpathologies which may also contribute tothese described symptoms.
The Thalamus & Sensory Activities ► Sensory storage by the brain The brain has been assigned forty-seven areas regarding locations of brain storage activity. Hearing & Speech primarily reside in five of these areas. They are:1. #44 & #45 for speech aka Broca’s Area.2. #41 & #42 and #22 for hearing and auditory sensation aka Wernicke’s area.
The Thalamus & Sensory ActivitiesWe will listen to various stimuli atvarious intensity levels.Create a sound stimulus diarycomparing the stimulus withpsychoacoustic response andpsychological mood responses.