Sensors and Insensibility: Monitoring Anaesthetic Activity with RFID  Bryan Houliston 1 , Dave Parry 1 , Alan Merry 2 (1)A...
Outline <ul><li>Why monitor anaesthesia ? </li></ul><ul><li>Current approaches and problems </li></ul><ul><li>RFID  </li><...
Why Monitor Anaesthesia ? <ul><li>Deeper understanding   (Weinger et al, 1994) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better design equipme...
Monitoring Anaesthesia <ul><li>Self reporting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distraction, timing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Full ...
Theatre Gets Busy Introduction >  Anaesthesia  > RFID > Monitoring > Implementation > Conclusion HINZ 2008 Monitoring Anae...
Monitoring Anaesthesia <ul><li>Self reporting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distraction, timing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Full ...
RFID ? <ul><li>Radio Frequency Identification </li></ul><ul><li>See Dave Parry’s presentation </li></ul>Introduction > Ana...
RFID in Hospital <ul><li>Interest from 50% of US hospitals </li></ul><ul><li>But not for activity monitoring </li></ul>Int...
Use for Monitoring Activity Introduction > Anaesthesia >  RFID  > Monitoring > Implementation > Conclusion HINZ 2008 Monit...
RF+IDAS <ul><li>Reader under syringe tray, 1 read / second </li></ul><ul><li>Tags on syringes </li></ul><ul><li>Activity =...
Anaesthetic Skills Assessment <ul><li>Implements tagged </li></ul><ul><li>RFID reader on wrist,  antenna in glove </li></u...
For This Study ... <ul><li>Comparison of IDAS and current process </li></ul><ul><li>Manual observation + RFID </li></ul><u...
Anaesthetic Activities Introduction > Anaesthesia > RFID >  Monitoring  > Implementation > Conclusion HINZ 2008 Monitoring...
Limitations on RFID <ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can’t interfere with other medical devices  (van der Tog...
User-based Approach ? <ul><li>Don’t wear gloves much </li></ul><ul><li>Battery life < 2 hours </li></ul><ul><li>Short rang...
Location-based Approach <ul><li>Each activity associated with a location </li></ul>Introduction > Anaesthesia > RFID > Mon...
Readers <ul><li>Tracient UHF Padl </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Battery powered for  7 – 8 hours </li><...
Drug Trolley Introduction > Anaesthesia > RFID > Monitoring >  Implementation  > Conclusion HINZ 2008 Monitoring Anaesthet...
Clipboard Introduction > Anaesthesia > RFID > Monitoring >  Implementation  > Conclusion HINZ 2008 Monitoring Anaesthetic ...
Chair Introduction > Anaesthesia > RFID > Monitoring >  Implementation  > Conclusion HINZ 2008 Monitoring Anaesthetic Acti...
Operating Table and IV Introduction > Anaesthesia > RFID > Monitoring >  Implementation  > Conclusion HINZ 2008 Monitoring...
Tagging the Anaesthetist <ul><li>Tags worn on dominant hand  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be comfortable to wear </li></ul><...
Wristbands <ul><li>ver 1 - tag on outside of wrist </li></ul><ul><li>ver 2 – hanging tag  </li></ul><ul><li>ver 3 – 3 tags...
Data Analysis <ul><li>Turn data collected from RFID...  </li></ul><ul><li>...into same form as manual observation </li></u...
Identifying Activities <ul><li>Activity = sequence of RFID reads with  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Same location </li></ul></ul>...
Activities at Same Location Introduction > Anaesthesia > RFID > Monitoring >  Implementation  > Conclusion HINZ 2008 Monit...
Telling Activities Apart <ul><li>Planning to try three approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn RFID read sequences from obs...
Learn RFID Sequences <ul><li>Match on common element - Time </li></ul><ul><li>Simple, but </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How many s...
Telling Activities Apart <ul><li>Planning to try three approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn RFID read sequences from obs...
Characterising Activity <ul><li>Duration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Median 17s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Median 42s </li></ul>...
Characterising Activity <ul><li>Duration </li></ul><ul><li>Stage of case </li></ul>Introduction > Anaesthesia > RFID > Mon...
Characterising Activity <ul><li>Duration </li></ul><ul><li>Stage of case </li></ul><ul><li>Preceding activities </li></ul>...
Characterising Activity <ul><li>Duration </li></ul><ul><li>Stage of case </li></ul><ul><li>Preceding activities </li></ul>...
Telling Activities Apart <ul><li>Considering three approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn RFID read sequences from observa...
Future Work <ul><li>Refine activity characterisation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type 2 fuzzy sets  (Hagras, 2008) </li></ul></u...
Future Work <ul><li>Activity monitoring in real time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Siemens RFID middleware  (Wang & Liu, 2005) </l...
Conclusion <ul><li>There is RFID technology suitable for automated anaesthesia monitoring  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless,...
References <ul><li>Collins, J. (2004).  RFID Remedy for Medical Errors.  Retrieved June 1, 2004, from www.rfidjournal.com ...
References <ul><li>Kautz, H. (2005).  Recognizing Human Activity From Sensor Data.  Paper presented at the Conference on C...
References Introduction > Anaesthesia > RFID > Monitoring > Implementation >  Conclusion Philipose, M., Fishkin, K. P., Pe...
Acknowledgements <ul><li>Tracient Technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For providing RFID readers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ana...
Questions? Introduction > Anaesthesia > RFID > Monitoring > Implementation >  Conclusion Aura  Laboratory
 
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Sensors and Insensibility - Monitoring Anaesthetic Activity with RFID

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Bryan Houliston
AURA Laboratory
School of Computing and Mathematical Sciences
Auckland University of Technology
(P09, 16/10/08, RFID stream, 3.50pm)

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Sensors and Insensibility - Monitoring Anaesthetic Activity with RFID

  1. 1. Sensors and Insensibility: Monitoring Anaesthetic Activity with RFID Bryan Houliston 1 , Dave Parry 1 , Alan Merry 2 (1)AURA laboratory, School of Computing and Mathematical Sciences, Auckland University of Technology (2) Department of Anaesthesiology, School of Medicine, University of Auckland [email_address] Aura Laboratory
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Why monitor anaesthesia ? </li></ul><ul><li>Current approaches and problems </li></ul><ul><li>RFID </li></ul><ul><li>Automated monitoring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design and implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Future work and Conclusion </li></ul>Introduction > Anaesthesia > RFID > Monitoring > Implementation > Conclusion HINZ 2008 Monitoring Anaesthetic Activity with RFID
  3. 3. Why Monitor Anaesthesia ? <ul><li>Deeper understanding (Weinger et al, 1994) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better design equipment, processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve training </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Improve patient safety (Webster et al, 2001) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 error every 133 cases, ~ 5 / day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1% cause serious harm, ~ 18 / year </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More accurate anaesthetic record </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Audit trail for reviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drug reconciliation </li></ul></ul>Introduction > Anaesthesia > RFID > Monitoring > Implementation > Conclusion HINZ 2008 Monitoring Anaesthetic Activity with RFID
  4. 4. Monitoring Anaesthesia <ul><li>Self reporting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distraction, timing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Full and frank’ ? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Manual observation by trained staff </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intrusive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labour intensive, errors, subjective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long periods of inactivity </li></ul></ul>Introduction > Anaesthesia > RFID > Monitoring > Implementation > Conclusion HINZ 2008 Monitoring Anaesthetic Activity with RFID
  5. 5. Theatre Gets Busy Introduction > Anaesthesia > RFID > Monitoring > Implementation > Conclusion HINZ 2008 Monitoring Anaesthetic Activity with RFID
  6. 6. Monitoring Anaesthesia <ul><li>Self reporting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distraction, timing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Full and frank’ ? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Manual observation by trained staff </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intrusive, distraction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labour intensive, errors, subjective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long periods of inactivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theatre gets busy, views get blocked </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supplement with automated monitoring ? </li></ul>Introduction > Anaesthesia > RFID > Monitoring > Implementation > Conclusion HINZ 2008 Monitoring Anaesthetic Activity with RFID
  7. 7. RFID ? <ul><li>Radio Frequency Identification </li></ul><ul><li>See Dave Parry’s presentation </li></ul>Introduction > Anaesthesia > RFID > Monitoring > Implementation > Conclusion HINZ 2008 Monitoring Anaesthetic Activity with RFID
  8. 8. RFID in Hospital <ul><li>Interest from 50% of US hospitals </li></ul><ul><li>But not for activity monitoring </li></ul>Introduction > Anaesthesia > RFID > Monitoring > Implementation > Conclusion HINZ 2008 Monitoring Anaesthetic Activity with RFID Computer Economics, 2007 Gartner, 2005
  9. 9. Use for Monitoring Activity Introduction > Anaesthesia > RFID > Monitoring > Implementation > Conclusion HINZ 2008 Monitoring Anaesthetic Activity with RFID Location-based User-based Readers located... At fixed locations, ‘chokepoints’ Worn on hand, wrist, around neck Tags on... People, Objects Objects, Locations Activity determined by... Where people, objects are (or aren’t) What objects are being handled Examples Staff in an office (Khoussainova, Balazinska & Suciu, 2007) Activities of daily life (Philipose et al, 2004) Patients, staff and equipment (Collins, 2004) Assisted living (Parry, Symonds & Briggs, 2007) RF+IDAS - Automated drug record (Houliston, 2005) Anaesthetic skills assessment (Fishkin et al, 2004)
  10. 10. RF+IDAS <ul><li>Reader under syringe tray, 1 read / second </li></ul><ul><li>Tags on syringes </li></ul><ul><li>Activity = change in tags read </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New tag detected = ‘Drug Prep’ activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tag removed = ‘Drug Admin’ activity </li></ul></ul>Introduction > Anaesthesia > RFID > Monitoring > Implementation > Conclusion HINZ 2008 Monitoring Anaesthetic Activity with RFID
  11. 11. Anaesthetic Skills Assessment <ul><li>Implements tagged </li></ul><ul><li>RFID reader on wrist, antenna in glove </li></ul><ul><li>Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Damage to antenna from sweat, friction on skin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Initial results ‘positive’ </li></ul>Introduction > Anaesthesia > RFID > Monitoring > Implementation > Conclusion HINZ 2008 Monitoring Anaesthetic Activity with RFID
  12. 12. For This Study ... <ul><li>Comparison of IDAS and current process </li></ul><ul><li>Manual observation + RFID </li></ul><ul><li>Activities to monitor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparing drugs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administering injection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Updating manual anaesthetic record </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sitting down </li></ul></ul>Introduction > Anaesthesia > RFID > Monitoring > Implementation > Conclusion HINZ 2008 Monitoring Anaesthetic Activity with RFID
  13. 13. Anaesthetic Activities Introduction > Anaesthesia > RFID > Monitoring > Implementation > Conclusion HINZ 2008 Monitoring Anaesthetic Activity with RFID
  14. 14. Limitations on RFID <ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can’t interfere with other medical devices (van der Togt et al, 2008) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum of extra cables </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Logistics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can’t tag lots of stuff – syringes, injection ports </li></ul></ul>Introduction > Anaesthesia > RFID > Monitoring > Implementation > Conclusion HINZ 2008 Monitoring Anaesthetic Activity with RFID
  15. 15. User-based Approach ? <ul><li>Don’t wear gloves much </li></ul><ul><li>Battery life < 2 hours </li></ul><ul><li>Short range </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tagging all syringes </li></ul></ul>Introduction > Anaesthesia > RFID > Monitoring > Implementation > Conclusion HINZ 2008 Monitoring Anaesthetic Activity with RFID
  16. 16. Location-based Approach <ul><li>Each activity associated with a location </li></ul>Introduction > Anaesthesia > RFID > Monitoring > Implementation > Conclusion HINZ 2008 Monitoring Anaesthetic Activity with RFID Activity Reader located Observed activity Preparing drugs Drug trolley Drug Prep IV Updating manual anaesthetic record Clipboard on workstation Recording Sitting at rest Chair - Injection – neck Head of table Drug Admin IV Injection – wrist Arm of table Drug Admin IV Injection – IV line IV stand Drug Admin IV
  17. 17. Readers <ul><li>Tracient UHF Padl </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Battery powered for 7 – 8 hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bluetooth connection to PC </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low power, RF emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No interference with infusion pump </li></ul></ul>Introduction > Anaesthesia > RFID > Monitoring > Implementation > Conclusion HINZ 2008 Monitoring Anaesthetic Activity with RFID
  18. 18. Drug Trolley Introduction > Anaesthesia > RFID > Monitoring > Implementation > Conclusion HINZ 2008 Monitoring Anaesthetic Activity with RFID
  19. 19. Clipboard Introduction > Anaesthesia > RFID > Monitoring > Implementation > Conclusion HINZ 2008 Monitoring Anaesthetic Activity with RFID
  20. 20. Chair Introduction > Anaesthesia > RFID > Monitoring > Implementation > Conclusion HINZ 2008 Monitoring Anaesthetic Activity with RFID
  21. 21. Operating Table and IV Introduction > Anaesthesia > RFID > Monitoring > Implementation > Conclusion HINZ 2008 Monitoring Anaesthetic Activity with RFID
  22. 22. Tagging the Anaesthetist <ul><li>Tags worn on dominant hand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be comfortable to wear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must read from different angles, distances </li></ul></ul>Introduction > Anaesthesia > RFID > Monitoring > Implementation > Conclusion HINZ 2008 Monitoring Anaesthetic Activity with RFID
  23. 23. Wristbands <ul><li>ver 1 - tag on outside of wrist </li></ul><ul><li>ver 2 – hanging tag </li></ul><ul><li>ver 3 – 3 tags around wrist </li></ul><ul><li>ver 4 - 4 tags along wrist </li></ul><ul><li>+ tag on back of scrubs </li></ul>Introduction > Anaesthesia > RFID > Monitoring > Implementation > Conclusion HINZ 2008 Monitoring Anaesthetic Activity with RFID
  24. 24. Data Analysis <ul><li>Turn data collected from RFID... </li></ul><ul><li>...into same form as manual observation </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying activities in RFID data </li></ul>Introduction > Anaesthesia > RFID > Monitoring > Implementation > Conclusion HINZ 2008 Monitoring Anaesthetic Activity with RFID 10:01:15 Trolley E2003411B802011156202132 10:11:21 Workstation E2003411B802011156202131 10:12:26 IV E2003411B802011156202132 10:14:18 Trolley E2003411B802011156202132 10:14:24 Trolley E2003411B802011156202093 Airway Procedures 10:10:45 10:11:49 Using computer 10:12:03 10:12:57 Cleaning Up 10:13:04 10:13:38 Drug Prep IV 10:13:23 10:14:37 Drug admin IV 10:14:40 10:14:53
  25. 25. Identifying Activities <ul><li>Activity = sequence of RFID reads with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Same location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Same tags ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No sizable time gap </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Same tags ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unexpected reads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Missed reads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrist rotation hides tags </li></ul></ul>Introduction > Anaesthesia > RFID > Monitoring > Implementation > Conclusion HINZ 2008 Monitoring Anaesthetic Activity with RFID
  26. 26. Activities at Same Location Introduction > Anaesthesia > RFID > Monitoring > Implementation > Conclusion HINZ 2008 Monitoring Anaesthetic Activity with RFID Reader location Activities to monitor Other activities Drug trolley Drug Prep IV Cleaning Up Clipboard on anaesthetic workstation Recording Using Computer Drug Admin Gas Equipment Related Chair Sitting ? Head of table Drug Admin IV Line Placement Positioning Patient Airway Procedure Arm of table Drug Admin IV Line Placement Positioning Patient IV stand Drug Admin IV IV Setup/Adjustment
  27. 27. Telling Activities Apart <ul><li>Planning to try three approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn RFID read sequences from observation data </li></ul></ul>Introduction > Anaesthesia > RFID > Monitoring > Implementation > Conclusion HINZ 2008 Monitoring Anaesthetic Activity with RFID
  28. 28. Learn RFID Sequences <ul><li>Match on common element - Time </li></ul><ul><li>Simple, but </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How many samples ? Effect on real time monitoring ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Device times must be kept synchronised </li></ul></ul>Introduction > Anaesthesia > RFID > Monitoring > Implementation > Conclusion HINZ 2008 Monitoring Anaesthetic Activity with RFID Drug Prep IV 9:27:33 9:27:40 Drug Prep IV 9:30:03 9:31:00 Line Placement 9:31:03 9:32:53 09:28:13 Trolley E2003411B802011156202131 09:30:38 Trolley E2003411B802011156202132 09:30:39 Trolley E2003411B802011156202132 09:30:41 Trolley E2003411B802011156202132 09:30:48 Trolley E2003411B802011156202130 09:30:49 Trolley E2003411B802011156202132 09:30:53 Trolley E2003411B802011156202131 09:30:53 Trolley E2003411B802011156202132 09:30:55 Trolley E2003411B802011156202131 09:30:56 Trolley E2003411B802011156202132 09:30:58 Trolley E2003411B802011156202132 09:30:58 Trolley E2003411B802011156202093 09:30:58 Trolley E2003411B802011156202130 09:30:59 Trolley E2003411B802011156202131 09:31:01 Trolley E2003411B802011156202131 09:31:02 Trolley E2003411B802011156202093
  29. 29. Telling Activities Apart <ul><li>Planning to try three approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn RFID read sequences from observation data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Characterise activity from observation data, and apply to RFID data </li></ul></ul>Introduction > Anaesthesia > RFID > Monitoring > Implementation > Conclusion HINZ 2008 Monitoring Anaesthetic Activity with RFID
  30. 30. Characterising Activity <ul><li>Duration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Median 17s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Median 42s </li></ul></ul>Introduction > Anaesthesia > RFID > Monitoring > Implementation > Conclusion HINZ 2008 Monitoring Anaesthetic Activity with RFID
  31. 31. Characterising Activity <ul><li>Duration </li></ul><ul><li>Stage of case </li></ul>Introduction > Anaesthesia > RFID > Monitoring > Implementation > Conclusion HINZ 2008 Monitoring Anaesthetic Activity with RFID
  32. 32. Characterising Activity <ul><li>Duration </li></ul><ul><li>Stage of case </li></ul><ul><li>Preceding activities </li></ul>Introduction > Anaesthesia > RFID > Monitoring > Implementation > Conclusion HINZ 2008 Monitoring Anaesthetic Activity with RFID
  33. 33. Characterising Activity <ul><li>Duration </li></ul><ul><li>Stage of case </li></ul><ul><li>Preceding activities </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying characteristics per task more time consuming, but quicker to apply in real time </li></ul>Introduction > Anaesthesia > RFID > Monitoring > Implementation > Conclusion HINZ 2008 Monitoring Anaesthetic Activity with RFID
  34. 34. Telling Activities Apart <ul><li>Considering three approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn RFID read sequences from observation data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Characterise activity from observation data, and apply to RFID data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mine RFID data for common sequences, and compare to observation data </li></ul></ul>Introduction > Anaesthesia > RFID > Monitoring > Implementation > Conclusion HINZ 2008 Monitoring Anaesthetic Activity with RFID
  35. 35. Future Work <ul><li>Refine activity characterisation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type 2 fuzzy sets (Hagras, 2008) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More RFID data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cleaning - SMURF (Jeffery, Franklin & Garofalakis, 2008) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test fuzzy set functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hand position, movement ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distance from reader ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mining – PERUSE (Minnen et al, 2007) </li></ul></ul>Introduction > Anaesthesia > RFID > Monitoring > Implementation > Conclusion HINZ 2008 Monitoring Anaesthetic Activity with RFID
  36. 36. Future Work <ul><li>Activity monitoring in real time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Siemens RFID middleware (Wang & Liu, 2005) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CQL, PEEX (Khoussainova et al, 2007) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>User-based approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mercy-Ascot Simulation Centre </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reader on arm, around neck </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tag syringes, injection ports, etc </li></ul></ul>Introduction > Anaesthesia > RFID > Monitoring > Implementation > Conclusion HINZ 2008 Monitoring Anaesthetic Activity with RFID
  37. 37. Conclusion <ul><li>There is RFID technology suitable for automated anaesthesia monitoring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless, Long battery life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negligible risk of interference, distraction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comfortable tagging </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But identifying activities from RFID data will be challenging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Noisy and incomplete data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telling activities apart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Real time </li></ul></ul>Introduction > Anaesthesia > RFID > Monitoring > Implementation > Conclusion HINZ 2008 Monitoring Anaesthetic Activity with RFID
  38. 38. References <ul><li>Collins, J. (2004). RFID Remedy for Medical Errors. Retrieved June 1, 2004, from www.rfidjournal.com </li></ul><ul><li>Fishkin, K. P., Consolvo, S., Rode, J., Ross, B., Smith, I., & Souter, K. (2004). Ubiquitous Computing Support for Skills Assessment in Medical School. Paper presented at Third International Workshop on Ubiquitous Computing for Pervasive Healthcare Applications, Nottingham, England </li></ul><ul><li>Hagras, H. (2008). Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Controllers: A Way Forward for Fuzzy Systems in Real World Environments. Paper presented at the IEEE World Congress on Computational Intelligence, Hong Kong, June 1-6. </li></ul><ul><li>Houliston, B. (2005). Integrating RFID Technology into a Drug Administration System. Paper presented at the Health Informatics NZ Conference, Auckland, New Zealand. </li></ul><ul><li>Jeffery, S. R., Franklin, M. J., & Garofalakis, M. (2008). An adaptive RFID middleware for supporting metaphysical data independence. The VLDB Journal, 17, 265-289. </li></ul>Introduction > Anaesthesia > RFID > Monitoring > Implementation > Conclusion HINZ 2008 Monitoring Anaesthetic Activity with RFID
  39. 39. References <ul><li>Kautz, H. (2005). Recognizing Human Activity From Sensor Data. Paper presented at the Conference on Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance, Kailuna-Kona, Hawaii. </li></ul><ul><li>Khoussainova, N., Balazinska, M., & Suciu, D. (2007). Probabilistic RFID Data Management: University of Washington, Seattle. </li></ul><ul><li>Minnen, D., Starner, T., Essa, I., & Isbell, C. (2007). Discovering Characteristic Actions from On-Body Sensor Data: Georgia Institute of Technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Parry, D., Symonds, J., & Briggs, J. (2007). An RFID-based system for assisted living: challenges and solutions. Paper presented at the International Council on Medical & Care Compunetics Conference, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. </li></ul><ul><li>Patterson, D. J., Fox, D., Kautz, H., & Philipose, M. (2005). Fine-Grained Activity Recognition by Aggregating Abstract Object Usage. Paper presented at the Ninth International Symposium on Wearable Computers, Osaka, Japan. </li></ul>Introduction > Anaesthesia > RFID > Monitoring > Implementation > Conclusion HINZ 2008 Monitoring Anaesthetic Activity with RFID
  40. 40. References Introduction > Anaesthesia > RFID > Monitoring > Implementation > Conclusion Philipose, M., Fishkin, K. P., Perkowitz, M., Patterson, D. J., Fox, D., Kautz, H., et al. (2004). Inferring Activities from Interactions with Objects. IEEE Pervasive Computing, 3(4), 50-57. van der Togt, R., van Lieshout, E. J., Hensbroek, R., Beinat, E., Binnekade, J. M., & Bakker, P. J. M. (2008). Electromagnetic Interference From Radio Frequency Identification Inducing Potentially Hazardous Incidents in Critical Care Medical Equipment. Journal of the American Medical Association, 299(24), 2884-2890. Wang, F., & Liu, P. (2005). Temporal Management of RFID Data. Paper presented at the 31st International Conference on Very Large DataBases. Webster, C., Merry, A., Larsson, L., McGraths, K. A., & Weller, J. (2001). The Frequency and Nature of Drug Administration Error During Anaesthesia. Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, 29(5), 494-500. Weinger, M. B., Herndon, O. W., Zornow, M. H., Paulus, M. P., Gaba, D. M., & Dallen, L. T. (1994). An Objective Methodology for Task Analysis and Workload Assessment in Anaesthesia Providers. Anesthesiology, 80(1), 77-92. HINZ 2008 Monitoring Anaesthetic Activity with RFID
  41. 41. Acknowledgements <ul><li>Tracient Technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For providing RFID readers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anaesthetists at ACH </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For their professionalism and forbearance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dave Parry, Alan Merry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For their guidance and supervision </li></ul></ul>Introduction > Anaesthesia > RFID > Monitoring > Implementation > Conclusion Aura Laboratory
  42. 42. Questions? Introduction > Anaesthesia > RFID > Monitoring > Implementation > Conclusion Aura Laboratory

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