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Water Access in the Kathmandu Valley

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What are some challenges that households face when accsesing water in the Kathmandy valley?

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Water Access in the Kathmandu Valley

  1. 1. Urban water issues in the HKH Case of Kathmandu Valley
  2. 2. Making Headlines Demand – 350 MLD > Supply – 90 MLD (dry) 150 MLD (wet) WATER TANKER Poor water quality of water sources
  3. 3. Research Questions How does socioeconomic status determine people’s access to drinking and domestic water sources? What role does groundwater play in water needs? How do people cope with poor water quantity and quality? How do people cope with poor water quantity and quality?
  4. 4. Survey Area Lalitpur 9 VDCs Sample size 351 120 in VDCs 231 in urban Lalitpur 63% respondents
  5. 5. Major Findings
  6. 6. Drinking Water Situation 1/3rd of households do not meet water needs regularly Believe that the crisis has deepened in the past 5 years Sources 88% have access to pipeline water 1 of 2 HHs have access to private + community dugwells 1/3 HHs buy bottled water for drinking 40% of Urban households in Lalitpur face the same 3/4 Of the respondents perceive acute to very acute water crisis in their locality 63% Majority of 20% of respondents use springs; from poor income HHs
  7. 7. Dugwel ls Rs. 33,000 on average 75% 25% Individually owned Community owned Tubewells were only found in urban areas Rise of tankers 30% buy water from tankers Irregular supply areas have higher dependence WATER Rs. 1580/month for 5000 liters Total annual transactions- USD 14.5 million
  8. 8. Rainwater Harvesting 50% of HHs capture rainwater using simple systems 97% use simple buckets and drums Total investment cost: Simple – Rs.1433 Proper – Rs. 41, 250 Harvested rainwater is used for washing clothes, toilet and bath and washing cars/bikes How respondents feel about technology constraint… 51% NO 49% YES
  9. 9. Perception of water scarcity 50% of households with access to groundwater have low water scarcity perception 1/3 that are without wells perceive high scarcity 3/4th of HHs with highest level of income has low water scarcity perception 34.5 47.5 77.8 33.6 29.6 11.1 31.8 22.9 11.1 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 Low income (less than Rs. 10,000/month) Middle income (Rs. 10,001-50,000/month) High income (More than Rs. 50,000/month) Low scarcity perception Medium scarcity perception High scarcity perception
  10. 10. Water Storage 80% of HHs have storage Majority of lower income households don’t have storage tanks Coping StrategiesBuying Water Dependent on multiple sources Store Water 63% 31% 4% 2% Decreased No Change Don’t Know Increased Perceptions on water availability
  11. 11. Overall water crisis perception 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Overall Sub-metropolitan VDCs No Yes 80% of households think that their locality has a water crisis What do people think?14.2% - better management and distribution of water supply 9.97% - planned expansion of cities and dwellings 5.41% - bring Melamchi water project to success
  12. 12. Looking Ahead A number of policy measures like groundwater abstraction licensing, demand management and compulsory rainwater harvesting need to be implemented. Water for Melamchi is also a preferred solution of majority of respondents in the survery. While private coping mechanisms such as tankers have been preferred in the valley, KUKL has almost completed the work of water transfer through pipelines from the Melamchi valley.

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