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Understanding the irrigation governance and mechanisms of water resource management for improved adaptive capacity


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Understanding the irrigation governance and mechanisms of water resource management for improved adaptive capacity

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Understanding the irrigation governance and mechanisms of water resource management for improved adaptive capacity

  1. 1. Understanding The Irrigation Governance And Mechanisms Of Water Resource Management For Improved Adaptive Capacity Krity Shrestha1; Bimal Raj Regmi and Anjal Prakash2 HIAWARE (Practical Action1 and ICIMOD2) Farmer Managed Irrigation Systems At The Crossroads 11th April 2017
  2. 2. Research Questions • What are the local attributions of climate change in Panchakanya FMIS? • How are the Water user’s Association and communities adapting to these changes? • How has the climate change manifestations and scenarios been affecting the landless female agricultural labourers within the system? Institutional Analysis and Development Framework, Bisaro and Henkel 2016
  3. 3. Panchakanya FMIS at a glance • small (600 ha) gravity surface irrigation system fed by a spring or a confluence of 5 springs (panchanadi), which lie in private land • Command area: Ward Nos.1,4,5,6,7,8 and 9 of the Ratnanagar Municipality (17 settlements) with 8 branches and 10 outlets (branch 8 exited from the system) • Farmers and landless agricultural labourers dependent • Functioning as a registered FMIS since 1994 • Various irrigation programs such as CIDP (1997,1982), IMTP (1995) and SHAGUN project
  4. 4. Changing climate scenario • Increasing temperature trend , • extreme variability in rainfall (timing, intensity), • increased climate extreme events (e.g. Drought) and associated disasters (pest and disease)
  5. 5. Impacts • Decreasing water availability in the system and shrinking command area since past 20 years • Increasing use of personal /communal shallow tube wells and boring within and around the system area (more than 40%) • Management and issues within the FMIS committee- Governance challenges, mistrust between users and user groups • Increased agricultural costs for the farmers and drudgery for the agricultural laborers (land less) • Shift to other livelihood options such as employment in mills/factories for small holder farmers (esp men) • Unemployment challenges for landless Agricultural Female laborers
  6. 6. FMIS responses FMIS executive committee limited to • Turnwise distribution of water (in more accessible areas) • collection of “paanipot” with difficulty • Communication with municipality for additional resources but limited to cleanliness and maintenance only • Excavation near the ponds to limit sedimentation in the source
  7. 7. • access and benefit sharing: particularly access of water to tail users; • participation and inclusion: Tokenistic and male dominated; • institutional governance: weak lack of accountability and transparency mechanisms- lack of AGM for many years, miscommunication and mistrust with the users • Difficulty in resource management • Lack of proper technical knowledge on climate change adaptation Existing drivers of vulnerability
  8. 8. “Gender dimensions” within the system • Women participation: mandated by the government rules only; • most women have no clue on what the FMIS does • Lack of incentive, capacity and encouragement for women leadership • The situation is difficult for landless female agricultural laborers- due to increasing unemployment and lack of other livelihood skills
  9. 9. Way ahead • Adaptive governance and need for transformation change within the FMIS; • Policy in favor of both conserving the depleted water sources (land issues) and strengthening the internal governance of water users group; • New strategy and vision for tackling climate change including climate adaptive technologies and techniques
  10. 10. Thankyou 