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Achieving gender water equity in the face of changing climate context


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Lessons from local water planning practices in Nepal

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Achieving gender water equity in the face of changing climate context

  1. 1. International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development Kathmandu, Nepal Achieving gender water equity in the face of changing climate context: Lessons from local water planning practices in Nepal
  2. 2. Outline • Introduction • Challenges in managing farm water in changing climatic and socioeconomic context • Significance of gender inclusive planning for equity in irrigation sector development • Lessons of Water Use Master Plan preparation and implementation in Nepal • Conclusion
  3. 3. Introduction Gatlang, Golgung, Chilme Chilime Manakamana, Chhargare, Bidur, Khanigau KhanigauMeghauli, Tadi, Kathar,Patyani, PatyaniRatnagar Piparasi, Rakhai, Chharke,Jangiyadavpur, Khap 12 WUMPs – content analysis 5 WUMPs- process and result 12 WUMPs- ongoing process
  4. 4. Introduction 60.4 percent of economically active population in Nepal are engaged in farming 89.9 percent are subsistence farmers. Female engagement in agriculture is 73.6 percent compare to 50.5 percent of male (Regmi and Gautam, 2014) There is increasing trend of keeping land fallow, which is rather triggered by variability in rainfall. – Rasuwa, high altitude farming: • 50% of land in Golgung VDC is fallow through out the year. – More than 80 % of rain fed land is fallow in winter in Nuwakot – Water from Labdu Dikure irrigation system, could not reach two tail end branches out of ten due to water scarcity at the source in winter. Women’s engagement is increasing in overall farm activities including water Farming today face multiple challenges due to climatic and socioeconomic changes, so is the people engaged with it.
  5. 5. Challenges in managing farm water High altitude farming: snow depletion – Farmers in Gatlang VDC are troubled with drying of crop as the moisture retain by snow fall in winter is declining Farming in mid hills: drying of springs, threat of flood in command area as the drainage is channeled in farm land through irrigation canal, failure of winter crop in rainfed farming Terai – scarcity of water at the source, need for more irrigation facilities due to erratic rainfall, use of ground water as alternatives. Water is becoming scarce resource Overall women’s farm work burden has increased with climatic and socioeconomic changes Warming in Nepal- 0.6 degrees Celsius per decade, compared with a global average of 0.74 degrees Celsius over the last 100 years (Eriksson et al, 2009). Increase rate of male migration for alternative income for livelihoods Farm responsibility in hand of women and elderly.
  6. 6. Significance of gender inclusive planning for equity in irrigation sector development Question of public investment on irrigation- selection criteria Vision and objective of irrigation sector development Irrigation policy, 2013 GESI guideline of MOI, 2015 Village level water assessment, water budgeting and planning through gender and social inclusive process, and accountability mechanism and its significance for gender water governance
  7. 7. Lessons of Water Use Master Plan preparation and implementation in Nepal • WUMP is a VDC level water plan • Follows 17 steps process that has a mandate to promote women’s participation in every steps. • It is owned by VDC. The current WUMP guideline 2016 has institutionalized WUMP formulation process at national level.
  8. 8. GESI integration in WUMP process and outcome
  9. 9. GESI and WUMP study Cluster WUMP Guideline preparation period No. of WUMP per cluster No. of WUMPs for content analysis No. of WUMPs For field study Cluster 1 1999 -2006 (7 years) No guideline (1999 – 2000) 26 2 1New guideline prepared in 2001 Cluster 2 2007-2010 (4 years) Revised guideline in 2007 56 4 2 Cluster 3 2011-2014 (4 years) Revised guideline in 2012 32 6 2 Total 114 12 5 Expected GESI related outcomes of WUMP Disadvantaged groups participate on equal terms in the planning, negotiation and decision making of water resources of a community. The basic needs of all members of a community, including the poor and disadvantaged groups are considered Women’s role as “water managers” is properly taken into account, since in many cases women take traditionally care of water issues and carry corresponding responsibilities. As the WUMP process encourages and enables women to participate in meetings/workshop and be represented in committees where they take actively part in decisions, it empowers them and contributes to improving their position within the community.
  10. 10. GESI in guidelines • “….social mapping process to be started when all women and men of the settlements are present…” • provision of seasonal calendars was made to gain an insight on community people's work engagement schedule for the year • representation of each household during formation of ward and VDC level committees and is to ensure the participation is responsibility of Support Organisation and Community Facilitator. • …..
  11. 11. Result Status of increased service level in Koiralakot and Chhapali VDC between 2008 and 2014 we don’t have to spend hours for fetching water Inclusive representation in committees and addressing gender need Improvement in women’s status Addressing gender based discrimination Change in gender role Control of political influence in water planning – 80% WUMP studied
  12. 12. GESI in WUMP conceptualization : a way forward Conceptualizing GESI as context and vision of WUMP rather than support activities could help in achieving gender water equity through planning and implementation of the planned activities.
  13. 13. Conclusion • WUMP practice has been recognized by Ministry of Water Supply and Local Development. Recognition from irrigation sector is limited. • Implementation of irrigation projects based on priorities in WUMP document can be an effective modality to achieve gender responsive irrigation investment, considering WUMP has been formulated following gender responsive process.
  14. 14. Thank you Credit to : Koshi Basin Program, ICIMOD GESI and WUMP study Neeta Neupane Shrestha Min B Gurung HELVETAS HI-AWARE Program, ICIMOD Gandaki Basin Study Prajjwal Bhandari Sangita Dandekhya Arun Regmi Photo Sangita Dandekhya Arun Regmi Pranita B Udas