Special Education Overview (Chester)

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Special Education Overview (Chester)

  1. 1. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Special Education: A Practical Overview for Families www.mcandrewslaw.com
  2. 2. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 FAPE Free Appropriate Public Education A program which is reasonably calculated to afford meaningful educational progress in all domains (academic, social, emotional, behavioral, physical) through a proper Individualized Education Program (IEP). www.mcandrewslaw.com
  3. 3. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 FAPE • Purpose of special education is to move the child to a reasonable level of independence and self-sufficiency consistent with potential. • Specially Designed Instruction must be based on peer-reviewed research. www.mcandrewslaw.com
  4. 4. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 FAPE • Accommodations and supports must be provided as necessary to make meaningful educational progress, to allow maximum integration with nondisabled peers, and to participate in extracurricular/ nonacademic activities. www.mcandrewslaw.com
  5. 5. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 FAPE • Transition services from at least age 16 must be based upon appropriate transition assessments which are specifically designed to improve the child’s academic and functional achievement. Services must be designed to facilitate the child’s movement to post-school activities. www.mcandrewslaw.com
  6. 6. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 FAPE • Students must be placed in the Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) consistent with their needs. • Extended School Year (ESY) - eligible when regression occurs over the Summer with limited recoupment ability, or where the child is not making meaningful progress to fulfill IEP goals. www.mcandrewslaw.com
  7. 7. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Eligibility – IDEA 2004 • • • • • Autism Deaf-blindness Deafness Emotional disturbance Hearing impairment • Mental retardation/Intellectual Disability • Multiple disabilities • Orthopedic impairment • Other health impairment www.mcandrewslaw.com
  8. 8. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Eligibility – IDEA 2004 • Specific learning disability • Speech or language impairment • Traumatic brain injury • Visual impairment • Developmental Delay www.mcandrewslaw.com
  9. 9. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Eligibility - 504 • Section 504 provides a broader definition of an “individual with a disability”: [A]ny person who (i) has a physical or mental impairment which substantially limits one or more of such person’s major life activities; (ii) has a record of such an impairment; or (iii) is regarded as having such an impairment. • Learning is a major life activity www.mcandrewslaw.com
  10. 10. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Child Find • The State must have in effect policies and procedures to ensure that all children with disabilities residing in the State, including children with disabilities who are homeless children or children with disabilities attending private schools, regardless of the severity of their disability, and who are in need of special education and related services, are identified, located, and evaluated. www.mcandrewslaw.com
  11. 11. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Child Find • Child find also must include – Children who are suspected of being a child with a disability and in need of special education, even though they are advancing from grade to grade; and – Highly mobile children, including migrant children. www.mcandrewslaw.com
  12. 12. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Evaluations • Initial evaluation is required when there is reason to suspect that the child has a disability and needs special education. www.mcandrewslaw.com
  13. 13. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Evaluations • Scope of evaluation and reevaluation: – In evaluating each child with a disability, the evaluation must be sufficiently comprehensive to identify all of the child’s special education and related services needs, whether or not commonly linked to the disability category in which the child has been classified. www.mcandrewslaw.com
  14. 14. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Evaluations • A new evaluation procedure is being strongly encouraged for students suspected of having a Specific Learning Disability -- A “Response to Intervention Model” is now preferred to the former “Ability-Achievement Model” which relied upon a severe discrepancy between ability and achievement and was a “wait-to-fail” process which cheated needy children. www.mcandrewslaw.com
  15. 15. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Evaluations • Parents have a right to obtain an Independent Educational Evaluation, often at public expense. www.mcandrewslaw.com
  16. 16. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 IEP: Individualized Education Plan • Defined: Individualized Education Program or IEP means a written statement for each child with a disability that is developed, reviewed, and revised in a meeting with parents and relevant professionals. www.mcandrewslaw.com
  17. 17. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 IEP Components • A statement of the child’s present levels of academic achievement and functional performance • A statement of measurable annual goals, including academic and functional goals www.mcandrewslaw.com
  18. 18. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 IEP Components • A description of— – How the child’s progress toward meeting the annual goals will be measured; and – When periodic reports will be provided www.mcandrewslaw.com
  19. 19. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 IEP Components • A statement of the special education and related services and supplementary aids and services, based on peer-reviewed research to the extent practicable, and a statement of the program modifications and supports for school personnel www.mcandrewslaw.com
  20. 20. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 IEP Components • An explanation of the extent, if any, to which the child will not participate with nondisabled children in the regular class and in other school activities www.mcandrewslaw.com
  21. 21. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 IEP Components • A statement of any individual appropriate accommodations that are necessary to measure the academic achievement and functional performance of the child on State and districtwide assessments. www.mcandrewslaw.com
  22. 22. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 “Service Plan” • Section 504 and Pennsylvania’s Chapter 15 require a “Service Plan” with special education services and related services www.mcandrewslaw.com
  23. 23. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Related Services • Audiology • Counseling services • Early identification and assessment • Interpreting services • Diagnostic Medical services • Occupational therapy • Orientation and mobility services • Parent counseling and training • Physical therapy www.mcandrewslaw.com
  24. 24. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Related Services • Psychological services • Recreation • Rehabilitation counseling services • Social work services • School health services and school nurse services • Speech-language pathology • Transportation www.mcandrewslaw.com
  25. 25. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 LRE: Least Restrictive Environment • Each public agency must ensure that-– To the maximum extent appropriate, children with disabilities, including children in public or private institutions or other care facilities, are educated with children who are nondisabled; and www.mcandrewslaw.com
  26. 26. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 LRE – Special classes, separate schooling, or other removal of children with disabilities from the regular educational environment occurs only if the nature or severity of the disability is such that education in regular classes with the use of supplementary aids and services cannot be achieved satisfactorily. www.mcandrewslaw.com
  27. 27. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 LRE • The child's placement-– Is determined at least annually; – Is based on the child’s IEP; and – Is as close as possible to the child’s home; www.mcandrewslaw.com
  28. 28. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 LRE • Unless the IEP of a child with a disability requires some other arrangement, the child should be educated in the school that he or she would attend if nondisabled; www.mcandrewslaw.com
  29. 29. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 LRE • A continuum of placements must be maintained and be available to meet the needs of children with disabilities. The continuum must include instruction in regular classes, special classes, special schools, home instruction, and instruction in hospitals and institutions www.mcandrewslaw.com
  30. 30. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 LRE • Residential placements for educational purposes: – If placement in a public or private residential program is necessary to provide special education and related services to a child with a disability, the program, including non-medical care and room and board, must be at no cost to the parents of the child www.mcandrewslaw.com
  31. 31. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 LRE • “Instruction in the home” (a special education placement) versus “homebound instruction” (based upon a medical reason to provide instruction at home) versus “home schooling” (a parental choice to provide instruction by family members and outside providers rather than by/at the public schools) www.mcandrewslaw.com
  32. 32. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 The New Chapter 14 Regulations
  33. 33. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Parent Requested Evaluations • Parent should request an evaluation in writing • School has 10 calendar days to issue a PTE • If requested orally a PTE should still be issued within 10 calendar days • 60 calendar days to perform evaluation www.mcandrewslaw.com
  34. 34. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Evaluation and Reevaluation Timelines • 60 calendar days versus 60 school days • Clock begins upon receipt of a signed permission to evaluate www.mcandrewslaw.com
  35. 35. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 IEP’s • Includes a standard for LRE from court cases • Supports and services may be delivered in the regular education classroom and other settings as determined by the IEP team. • The IEP team must consider the regular education class with the provision of supplementary aids and services before considering the provision of services in other settings. www.mcandrewslaw.com
  36. 36. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Least Restrictive Environment • To maximum extent possible must be educated w/ non-disabled peers • Removal from regular education can occur only when the severity of disability is such in regular education cannot be achieved even with supplementary services www.mcandrewslaw.com
  37. 37. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 More LRE • May not be determined to need a separate class b/c he cannot achieve to the same level as peers • Student can make meaningful progress in the goals of the IEP www.mcandrewslaw.com
  38. 38. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 LRE • Administrative convenience or cost cannot be the sole reason for a separate education • Must have full continuum of placement options www.mcandrewslaw.com
  39. 39. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Behavior Plans • Should include “researched based practices” • Support programs should be based on an FBA • If behavior interferes with learning must have an FBA part of IEP • “Aggressive Behavior = an IEP meeting within 10 school days www.mcandrewslaw.com
  40. 40. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Positive Behaviors and Use of Restraints • Positive behavior techniques should be used • Restraints are last resort • If restraints are used, the District must notify the parents and convene an IEP meeting within 10 school days • Parents may waive this meeting in writing • At IEP meeting, the team will consider the need for an FBA, an RR, a new positive behavior plan, or a change in placement www.mcandrewslaw.com
  41. 41. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Use of Restraints • If included in IEP, the IEP must also include positive behavior supports (PBS) • Used in conjunction with teaching of socially acceptable alternative skills • Should be used by authorized and trained staff • Must be a plan in place to eliminate the use of restraints www.mcandrewslaw.com
  42. 42. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Restraints cont… • Prone restraints are prohibited • District must maintain and report to the Secretary data on restraints used • After a student with a PBS plan is referred to law enforcement, an updated FBA and PBS plan is required www.mcandrewslaw.com
  43. 43. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Paraprofessionals • All instructional paraprofessionals must have 20 hours of staff development • By July 1, 2010, all para-pros must possess an associate’s degree or two years of “post secondary study” www.mcandrewslaw.com
  44. 44. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 How Many is Too Many? • Eliminates the terms “resource” and “part-time” as the amount of service • Replaced with “Supplemental” services www.mcandrewslaw.com
  45. 45. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Types of Services • Itinerant Services (20% or less) • Supplemental (less than 80% but more than 20%) • Full-Time (80% or more) www.mcandrewslaw.com
  46. 46. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Who Are the Special Education Personnel? • Special Education Teachers • Speech and Language Therapists • Occupational Therapists www.mcandrewslaw.com
  47. 47. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Time Matters • The amount of time = percentage of time with special education personnel in or outside of the classroom • Amount of time with paraprofessional does not count in the amount of services/time www.mcandrewslaw.com
  48. 48. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Extended School Year • Eligibility school-aged children w/ severe impairments by 2/28 and NOREP by 3/31 • Other students = a timely matter • Pre-school children can be eligible www.mcandrewslaw.com
  49. 49. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Transition Services • Transition planning will begin at 14 versus 16 • Need measurable post-secondary goals www.mcandrewslaw.com
  50. 50. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Access to Classrooms • “Reasonable Access” to their child’s classroom • Can not “shop” for a classroom www.mcandrewslaw.com
  51. 51. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Disciplinary Placements • Cumulative suspensions more than 15 days in one year = change of placement • MR students can be suspended for 1 day www.mcandrewslaw.com
  52. 52. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Procedural Safeguards • Incorporates new federal rules on special education hearings • Parent’s can bring “advocate” to resolution session • Pendency applies when a parent requests mediation www.mcandrewslaw.com
  53. 53. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Due Process Hearing • Eliminates the appeals panel • All appeals will proceed within 90 days to federal court or PA Commonwealth Court • Pre-hearing conference v. Resolution sessions www.mcandrewslaw.com
  54. 54. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 DISCIPLINE 101 www.mcandrewslaw.com
  55. 55. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Chapter 12 of PA Code  Governs suspensions & expulsions of ALL students  Informal meeting for suspensions of 1-3 days  There are no time limits for ISS –exclusion from class NOT school www.mcandrewslaw.com
  56. 56. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Chapter 12 Continued…  Additional requirements for suspensions of 4-10 days  Informal hearings held within first 5 days  Written notification of reasons for suspension  Sufficient advance notice of time and place of hearing  Question any witnesses present at the hearing www.mcandrewslaw.com
  57. 57. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 What is an Expulsion? “Exclusion from school by the board of education for a period exceeding ten (10) school days and may be permanent expulsion from the school rolls.” www.mcandrewslaw.com
  58. 58. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Obligations & Rights of an Expelled Student  If the child is under 17, the child must attend a school  Another school could include another public school, charter school, private school, or homeschooling  If these can not be arranged by parent, the parent must confirm in writing within 30 days  The District must then “make provision for the student’s education” www.mcandrewslaw.com
  59. 59. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Additional Protections  Students eligible under the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)  Students protected by Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act  Students “thought-to-be eligible” under either act www.mcandrewslaw.com
  60. 60. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Section 504 Protections v. IDEA Protections  Under both Acts, a district cannot exclude a student from schooling for more than 10 consecutive days if the behavior is a manifestation of the student’s disability  No manifestation determination procedure under Section 504  Explicit “stay put” provision during due process proceedings under IDEA but not under Section 504  Students remain entitled to FAPE after expulsion under both Acts; however, not the LRE www.mcandrewslaw.com
  61. 61. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Students with Disabilities and Suspensions  22 Pa Code Section 14.133(e) precludes punishment for conduct which is a manifestation of a disability www.mcandrewslaw.com
  62. 62. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Students with Mental Retardation/Intellectual Disabilities  Any removal of a student with Mental Retardation/Intellectual Disabilities is a change of placement  45-day Interim Alternative Educational Setting (IAES) for a drug/weapon offense www.mcandrewslaw.com
  63. 63. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Cumulative Days = Change of Placement?  In PA, the days of suspension can not exceed 15  A pattern of serial suspensions will constitute a change in educational placement when the suspension exceeds 10 days in any school year and the pattern looks like a change in placement in light of:  The length of each suspension;  The proximity of time between suspensions; and  The total time out of school www.mcandrewslaw.com
  64. 64. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Exceptions to the Number of Days  School officials can place students in an IAES for up to 45 days if the student;  Carries a dangerous weapon (18 U.S.C. §930(g)(2);  Knowingly uses or possesses illegal drugs or buys/sells a controlled substance;  Causes “Serious Bodily Injury”; or  Presents a danger to himself or others as determined by a hearing officer www.mcandrewslaw.com
  65. 65. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 When is a Manifestation Determination Required? A formal hearing is required when there is a removal from school for more than 10 days www.mcandrewslaw.com
  66. 66. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Manifestation Determination  Was the conduct in question caused by, or had a direct & substantial relationship to the child’s disability?  Was the conduct in question a direct result of the LEA’s failure to implement a proper IEP? www.mcandrewslaw.com
  67. 67. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Yes or No to the Determination If the answer is “no” to both questions, then the District may proceed with the suspension/expulsion hearing If the answer is “yes” to either question, then the District may not proceed with suspension/expulsion www.mcandrewslaw.com
  68. 68. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Timelines  A manifestation determination must be made immediately, but no later than 10 days after a decision to pursue a disciplinary exclusion www.mcandrewslaw.com
  69. 69. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Not a Manifestation?  If the behavior was not a manifestation, and the District seeks to change the student’s placement, parents must be provided with written prior notice of its decision  Parents are given the opportunity to disagree and to initiate due process proceedings  District must follow Chapter 12 requirements www.mcandrewslaw.com
  70. 70. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Functional Behavioral Assessments (FBA) Is an evaluative process for addressing problem behavior. It relies on a variety of measures to identify the purposes (or the function) of specific behavior and to aide the Individualized Education Plan (“IEP”) team in developing interventions to directly address the problem behavior www.mcandrewslaw.com
  71. 71. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 More FBA… FBAs are required by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (“IDEA”) if the school is going to change the student’s educational placement in order to address the behavior that led to the violation of student conduct so that it does not reoccur. This requirement is irrespective of whether the behavior is a manifestation of a student’s disability. www.mcandrewslaw.com
  72. 72. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Before an FBA is conducted, the following steps must be taken:  Identify the behavior that is causing learning or discipline problems;  Define that behavior in specific terms that are easy to communicate and simple to measure and record. www.mcandrewslaw.com
  73. 73. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 For Example… Adam is not completing his class work because he refuses to do it. The behavior can be identified as, “Adam refuses to complete class work.” www.mcandrewslaw.com
  74. 74. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Once the Behavior is Identified  Observe the student's behavior in a variety of different settings and during different types of activities  Conduct interviews with school staff and parents, in order to pinpoint particular patterns of the behavior. www.mcandrewslaw.com
  75. 75. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Another Example… An observation of Adam throughout the day may reveal that he does not complete his class work in English or Social Studies, but readily completes it in Math and Science. It may also reveal that Adam is experiencing disciplinary issues in English and Social Studies classes, but is a model student the remainder of the school day. www.mcandrewslaw.com
  76. 76. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Data Must Be Analyzed  This analysis determines the patterns associated with the behavior. Adam refuses to complete class work whenever it requires reading. www.mcandrewslaw.com
  77. 77. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Revise the FBA? If patterns cannot be determined, the team should revise the functional behavioral assessment to identify other methods for assessing behavior. www.mcandrewslaw.com
  78. 78. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Develop a Behavior Management Plan  Once the problem behavior has been evaluated, the IEP team can begin to devise a Behavior Management Plan to address the problem behaviors. www.mcandrewslaw.com
  79. 79. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Behavior Management Plans (BMPs) The Pennsylvania Department of Education has outlined a Five-Step Process for the development and implementation of BMPs. (Guidelines on Effective Behavioral Support, 1995): www.mcandrewslaw.com
  80. 80. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Step 1: Functional Behavior Assessment  An FBA involves: 1) identifying the areas of behavior that are impeding the child’s ability to learn or the learning of others; and 2) the collection of data regarding the identified inappropriate behavior, through observational data and/or informant data, in a variety of settings. www.mcandrewslaw.com
  81. 81. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Step 2: Hypothesis Statements  The Hypothesis Statements summarize the data collected from the FBA about the function or purpose of the identified inappropriate behaviors. www.mcandrewslaw.com
  82. 82. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Step 3: Behavior Management Plan Development  A BMP is a written document that provides the specifics regarding: 1) the identified inappropriate behavior(s); 2) the function or purpose of the behavior; 3) the strategies to prevent the behavior; 4) the replacement skills that should be taught; and 5) how those implementing the plan should react to inappropriate behaviors.  A BMP should be individualized to the student and incorporated as part of their IEP. www.mcandrewslaw.com the
  83. 83. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Step 4: Plan Evaluation  Data should be continually collected regarding the increase/decrease of the identified inappropriate behaviors as well as the demonstration of replacement skills. www.mcandrewslaw.com
  84. 84. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Step 5: Modification of the BMP  Based upon the success or failure of the BMP, the IEP team should modify the plan to address the child’s needs. www.mcandrewslaw.com
  85. 85. M cAndrews L Offices, P aw .C. Berwyn, PA 610-648-9300 Wyomissing, PA 610-374-9900 Central PA 717-221-1422 Northeastern PA 570-969-1817 Need more information? • Visit our website at www.mcandrewslaw.com • Call our office at 610648-9300 www.mcandrewslaw.com

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